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#!/usr/bin/env python
import operator
from random import choice
from stream import repeatcall, apply, fold, takei, takewhile, drop, item
vectoradd = lambda u, v: zip(u, v) >> apply(operator.add) >> list
Origin = [0, 0]
Directions = [[1,0], [0,1], [-1,0], [0,-1]]
randwalk = lambda: repeatcall(choice, Directions) >> fold(vectoradd, initval=Origin)
def returned(n):
"""Generate a random walk and return True if the walker has returned to
the origin after taking `n` steps.
## `takei` yield lazily so we can short-circuit and avoid computing the rest of the walk
for pos in randwalk() >> drop(1) >> takei(xrange(n-1)):
if pos == Origin:
return True
return False
def first_return():
"""Generate a random walk and return its length upto the moment
that the walker first returns to the origin.
It is mathematically provable that the walker will eventually return,
meaning that the function call will halt, although it may take
a *very* long time and your computer may run out of memory!
Thus, try this interactively only.
walk = randwalk() >> drop(1) >> takewhile(lambda v: v != Origin) >> list
return len(walk)
if __name__ == '__main__':
r10k = sum(1 for _ in range(100) if returned(10000))
print "Out of 100 times the walker takes 10000 steps, " \
+ "%s times he has returned to the origin." % r10k