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Table of Contents
Stories are powerful tools to describe reality and expose misdeeds and abuses. But to tell a compelling story, one has to connect the dots, and often what journalists, researchers and civil society activists have are only scattered pieces of data that can be difficult to make sense of.
A story is made of characters whose actions unfold over time in a specific setting. To tell a story, a journalist, researcher or activist needs to interpret the data they have gathered, identifying and connecting the involved characters, or Actors, with each other and with the events and places in which they act. Eventually, the story they create needs to be fact-checked, by verifying the reliability of the data on which the story is based and by ascertaining that all dots have been properly connected.
Corroborator is a tool that helps journalists and activists in this complicated task, making it easier to cope with modern large scale data. It is designed to help analysts create stories characterized by verifiable chronologies of events - Incidents - based on information submitted from a multitude of sources - Bulletins - often involving one or many people - Actors. The analyst assigns confidence/reliability scores to submitted Bulletins, whether a news report from the Internet or a video from a reporter. Corroborator will cluster these scores and present an overall confidence marker helping the analyst determine the validity of an Incident.
The Corroborator User Interface (CUI) is composed of 3 sections: Main, Reporting, and Administration.
- The Main CUI section features the primary interface for manual data entry and retrieval, including search and filtering, and is accessible to all users.
- The Reporting section is a collation of statistics and data visualizations.
- The Administration section is an interface to the system's back-end features, including the creation of entity data and user management. It can only be accessed by administrators and requires specific credentials.
The CUI is localized in English, Russian and Arabic. The language can be selected in the right-hand corner of the top bar, next to the links to access the different sections:
The Main section of the CUI is subdivided into 3 tabs for adding and editing Incidents, Bulletins and Actors, with an advanced Search and Filtering function for each of them.
Each tab displays all results (whether Incidents, Bulletins, or Actors) for the current search criteria. When the user first logs in, the tab shows the results for the entire datastore filtered by the user's name. This will reduce the returned results to those Incidents currently assigned to the given user. By clicking on the "X" icon in the facet with the user's name at the top of the right-hand Search bar, you can remove this filter and see all items contained in the system (See the section on the user facet below.
Each item in the lists of Incidents, Bulletins or Actors can be selected by clicking on the option button next to it. By hovering over the "Actions" menu in the right-hand side of the orange bar, a drop-down menu will appear where you can select all items or update, clear or delete the selected items.
Within each tab entity, specific search results are displayed along with a faceted filtering panel. Entities can be viewed, edited and interrelated. The search system allows users to locate clusters of entities based on certain search criteria as well as save searches for later perusal (see below).
An Incident is a short story related to a particular event or series of events.
An Incident is created from (but does not inherit the properties of) one or many Bulletins and has one or many Actors associated with it. The Corroborator User Interface is designed to help the data analyst efficiently traverse a large number of Bulletins and Actors, associating them with an Incident. Confidence scores assigned to associated Bulletins provide a weighted argument on the reliability and trustworthiness of a particular Incident.
Through the Incident tab, you can further filter the results to hone in on specific groups of entities, view existing Incidents, create new Incidents or edit existing Incidents.
Incident results are shown in their truncated format displaying their main information - currently, title description, number of related entities, date, locations, status and confidence score.
By default, only the top 1000 matching Incidents are returned. All searches are conducted across the entire datastore, but for efficiency the results are truncated.
Returned Incident search results can be sorted, ascending/descending, in terms of Title, Date, Confidence Score, Location and Status, by clicking on the corresponding term in the brown bar above the entities list.
- Title: the title of the Incident. This field is required
- Assigned to: a user in the system
- Reliability Score: an estimate of the Incident's reliability
- Crime: the offense(s) which the Incident is about. See Tags
- Description: comprehensive description of the Incident
- Related Actors: Actors who are connected to the Incident. Only existing Actors can be added. If there is an Actor that is related to the Incident but does not exist yet, it should be added and then it can be related to the Incident. The Role of the Actor in the Incident must be specified. See Related Incidents/Bulletins/Actors
- Related Bulletins: other Bulletins which are connected to the Incident. Only existing Bulletins can be added. If there is a Bulletin that is related to the Incident but does not exist yet, it should be added and then it can be related to the Incident. See Related Incidents/Bulletins/Actors
- Related Incidents: other Incidents which are connected to the specific Incident. Only existing Incidents can be added. If there is an Incident that is related to the relevant Incident but does not exist yet, it should be added and then it can be related to the specific Incident. See Related Incidents/Bulletins/Actors
- Labels: see Tags
- Events: See Add Time Event
- Locations: Location information of the incident. See Add Location
- Reason for update: a comment about the add/edit operation. This field is required
Every Incident, Bulletin or Actor can be associated to a particular location. Locations are broken down into hierarchical geographic categories including:
Events detail a particular action that has occurred as part of a Bulletin or an Incident. Each event requires a time span and a reliability score. The latter is determined by the data analyst. An average of combined reliability scores of events in a given entity is used to determine the overall reliability score of an Incident or Bulletin.
Each record of the three main entities in Corroborator is assigned a status. Status can be assigned automatically - on data import - or manually by a data analyst. Every record that has been manually created or edited must be assigned a status. Each Incident records and displays a history of assigned Status in the Revisions section. Possible statuses and their explanations include:
- Finalized: status given for complete and reviewed content
- Reviewed: The status when an authorized user reviews the content
- Updated: The status when the content is edited/updated
- Human Created: The status when a user adds the content
- Machine Created: Resulted from batch import
A new Incident can be added by clicking on the "New Incident" button above the search box and fill the form with the information in hand.
Some fields are required, such as the "Title" and the "Reason for Update". When adding an Incident for the first time, the Status will be automatically "Human Created". The "Save" Button will add the Incident to the database.
The full details for a given incident can be viewed in two forms: panel and expanded view. To view an Incident, simply click on the desired incident in the entities list and it will automatically open in a dual panel view on the right-hand side of the screen. While an Incident is opened in panel view, it is also possible to scroll, sort and select other Incidents from the results list. As shown below, the details of the Incident are presented in a vertical column format when in panel view.
By clicking on the "Expand" button, the Incident view will expand to fit the entire screen, allowing to see all details in a horizontal layout, showing different sections of the Incident side by side.
The process for editing a given Incident extends from viewing an Incident. First select an Incident to view from the returned results set. On either the view panel or the expanded view select "Edit". The view mode will change to the edit mode and it will be possible to update or enter details for the given Incident.
When editing or changing an Incident, a version comment is always required. If a user attempts to save an update to an Incident without having entered a "Reason for Update", the view will automatically scroll to the comment section and warn the user.
It is also possible to edit an Incident in expanded mode, just as Incidents view. The selected Incident will expand to fit the screen displaying the entities in a horizontal layout.
A Bulletin is a piece of information or evidence relating to a specific piece of evidence (Media). Media could be one or multiple audio, video, graphic or text documents. A Bulletin can also denominate one or more events and locations relevant to its primary content. A Bulletin can be associated with one or several Incidents. A Bulletin can also be associated (clustered) to another bulletin.
Bulletins are designed to contain all information and analysis. The Bulletin allows the users to add specific information such as locations, crimes, source details, chronological events or roles of associated Actors, and additionally allows tracking of modifications to Bulletins via the reversion system which snapshots entities.
As with the Incidents tab, the Bulletins tab displays all Bulletin results for the current search criteria. When the user first logs in, the Bulletins tab will show the results for the entire datastore filtered by the user's name. This will reduce the returned results to those Bulletins currently assigned to the given user (see below).
Bulletins are intended to represent and capture the unique properties of a piece of media or evidential data within the Corroborator system. Multiple Bulletins can be collected together within a single Incident, Bulletins can be interrelated with other Bulletins and Bulletins may be comprised of several Actor Roles.
The Bulletin equally supports two forms of view: panel and expanded. These behave in the same way as the Incident views.
Each Bulletin contains the following details:
- Title: the title of the Bulletin. This field is required
- Assigned to: a user in the system
- Score: reliability estimate of the Bulletin
- Sources: sources can be chosen from the drop-down menu. They can only be added through the Administration interface
- Related Media: link Media to the Bulletin. You can search the Media database for existing media or upload new Media
- Description: comprehensive description of the Bulletin
- Related Actors: Actors who are connected to the Bulletin. Only existing actors can be added. If there is a Actor that is related to the Bulletin but does not exist yet, it should be added and then it can be related to the Bulletin. The Role of the Actor in the Bulletin must be specified. See Related Incidents/Bulletins/Actors
- Related Bulletins: other Bulletins which are connected to the specific Bulletin. Only existing Bulletins can be added. If there is a Bulletin that is related to the Bulletin but does not exist yet, it should be added and then it can be related to the relevant Bulletin. See Related Incidents/Bulletins/Actors
- Events: See Add Time Event
- Locations: Location information of the bulletin. See Add Location
- Labels: see Tags
- Comment: a comment about the add/edit operation. This field is required
Describes the source of a Bulletin. In every instance a Bulletin's source is rated for its reliability, creating a global average. Sources can be selected from the drop-down menu and can only be added through the Administration interface.
Media refers to uploaded and associated files of news reports, documents, images or video. A media file can be uploaded and associated through an individual Actor or Bulletin. Audio/Video files can be played back through the interface, provided the format of the video is compatible with Flowplayer. Images, text and PDF documents can be pre-viewed in the browser, provided you have a PDF viewer installed. Office documents can be downloaded and viewed on the computer, provided the relevant software to open the documents is present in the local system.
A new Bulletin can be added by clicking on the "New Bulletin" Button and filling the form with the information about the Bulletin.
Some fields are required, such as the "Title" and the "Comment". When adding the Bulletin for the first time, the Status will be automatically "Human Created". The "Save" Button will add the Bulletin to the database.
The Bulletin view panel is as shown below and matches closely that of the Incident view.
Again, the Bulletin expanded view is similar to the Incident view - the key difference between Bulletins and Incidents is the ability to associate pieces of media with a given Bulletin. This is discussed further in the section on Related Media.
In the same way as with Incidents, the edit mode for Bulletins is entered by clicking the "Edit" button on either the panel or expanded view for a given Bulletin.
In the edit view for a given Bulletin, it is possible to associate, view and play associated media entities as well as to upload them.
Actors capture individuals or groups who play some part in the events under scrutiny, and can be associated with an Incident or Bulletin through role assignment. In addition, Actors can be clustered into groups as family members, elements of a structured institution - such as military or governmental bodies - or stakeholders.
The Actor entity is designed to represent an individual or institution within the Corroborator dataset. Actors contain details about the Individual or Institution as well as relationships to other entities, such as Bulletins and Incidents, and also to other Actors. In the case of Bulletins and Incidents, Actors are related by the role they played, for example as a victim, perpetrator or witness.
When related to other Actors, the relationship can be familial, military or institutional. For example, a group of Actors may be related to each other as members of the same family and then related to a Bulletin or set of Bulletin in the role of victims.
As with Incident and Bulletin entities, the Actor tab provides the ability to further filter Actors through facets, view actors in both panel and expanded mode, create new Actors or edit existing Actors.
An actor's profile contains the following information:
- Name: The first and last name of the Actor. This field is required
- Description: a short profile of the Actor
- Nickname: Any other name the actor is known for
- Condition: the Actor's condition can be selected from a drop-down menu. Conditions can be added through the Administration interface
- Assigned to: a user in the system
- Sex: Male or Female
- Age: Child or Adult
- Civilian or non-civilian
- Date of birth
- Place of birth: the Actor's place of birth can be selected from a drop-down menu. Locations can be added through the Administration interface: see Add Location
- Current Location: see Add Location
- Spoken dialects
- Related Actors: Actors who are connected to the Actor. Only existing Actors can be added. If there is an Actor who is related to the specific Actor but does not exist yet, it should be added and then it can be related to the relevant Actor. The relation between the related Actors must be specified. See Related Incidents/Bulletins/Actors
- Actor Image: add an image for the Actor. You can search for an image from the Media, or upload a new one
- Comment: a comment about the add/edit operation. This field is required
A role is used to associate an Actor to an Incident or a Bulletin. Current roles with which an Actor is associated to an Incident or a Bulletin include:
A relationship is used to relate an Actor to other Actors. Current relationships with which an Actor is related to other Actors are:
- Family member
- Superior officer
- Subordinate officer
A new Actor can be added by clicking on the "New Actor" button and filling the form with the Actor's details.
Some fields are required, such as the "Name" and the "Comment". When adding the Actor for the first time, the Status will be automatically "Human Created". The "Save" Button will add the Actor to the database.
Actor view is accessed in the same manner as for Bulletin and Incident by selecting an Actor from the results list on the Actor tab. This automatically opens in the panel view mode as shown below.
This can be switched to the expanded view mode by selecting the "Expand" button.
Within the Actor view, as is the case for the Incident and Bulletin entities, it is possible to switch to the Edit mode for a given Actor by clicking the "Edit" button.
This mode can also be changed to expanded view by clicking the "Expand" button. Within the edit mode the user is able to edit all attributes for a given Actor, as well as either upload or associate a piece of media which will represent the Actor's avatar image. This is the thumbnail image that will appear for the Actor in both the view and Actor results sections.
New locations can be added to an entity using the "Locations" auto-suggest menu, as shown below.
Selected locations will automatically be added to the associated map for a given field.
Multiple locations may be added for Bulletin and Incident entities, while for Actor location fields only one location may be added for the "Current Location" and "Place of birth" fields, respectively.
To remove a location, simply click the "X" symbol on the relevant facet for the location to be removed while in edit mode for the given entity. The changes will come into effect once the entity has been saved.
For Incident and Bulletin entities, it is possible to tag an instance of the given entity with specific crime, source and label information. This information can be used as part of the faceted filtering discussed in the section on Filters. Each of these labels can be selected from the associated auto-suggest boxes for a given field:
To remove an associated tag, simply click the "X" on the tag to be removed. Changes will come into effect once the entity is saved.
To add a specific chronological event for either an Incident or Bulletin entity, the "Add Event" section is available in edit mode for both of these entities.
An event consists of a description, a comment, a confidence score and two date-time fields. The date-time fields capture the window of time within which a given event took place.
Once the event details have been filled in, the event can be added to the currently edited Bulletin or Incident by clicking the "Save Event" button.
Events can be removed or edited by hovering over the event that you want to change and clicking either the "X" symbol to delete the event or the pencil icon to edit it.
All changes to events will come into effect once "Save" is clicked for the main Bulletin or Incident being edited.
Each edit to an Incident, Bulletin or Actor requires the user to enter a comment. This comment is used to annotate the new revision of a given entity. The comment consists of two parts: a status and the comment.
The user will be prevented from saving a given entity until the comment and status have been set.
Incidents, Bulletins and Actors can be related to other system entities via their respective edit panels.
In the case of Incidents and Bulletins, they can be related to themselves, to each other and to Actors via roles. Actor Roles represent the role - such as victim, perpetrator or witness - that an Actor plays in a given Incident or Bulletin.
For Actors, it is possible to capture relationships with other actors through a similar mechanism - showing familial, institutional or military relationships - thus building a network of interrelated Actor entities.
For Bulletin entities, it is possible to relate Media - images, videos, documents - to a given entity instance. The media can be filtered based on search criteria, selected and added to a Bulletin whilst in edit mode.
For Actor entities, media can also be related, but this is used to represent the Actor's avatar. In this circumstance, the media would be an image related to the Actor in question, a profile photograph or some other visual descriptor for the Actor.
As well as relating media from already stored media, new media may be uploaded while in edit mode for Bulletins or Actors. In this case, media is selected from the user's local storage.
To upload new media, you just need to set the File Label and select the piece of media to be uploaded from your computer. Once "Upload Media" is clicked, the piece of media is automatically uploaded to the remote server and, additionally, it is related to the currently edited entity.
The media will also be available for search and relation to other entities.
Corroborator's search system incorporates two types of search transparently: simple keyword search and complex boolean search.
By entering search terms into the search box in the left of the top bar in the Main and Reporting CUI sections, users can quickly search through all entities to return those that most closely match their search. The default behavior of the search is precise matching. This can be adjusted in a number of ways:
By prepending or appending an "*" to a search, the user can match characters before, after or both before and after a given word or phrase. For example:
would match words like:
This changes the behavior from exact to more broad.
By using the symbol "~" the system attempts to match the string of text you enter in the search box against all terms within a certain geometric distance. So for example a search for the following:
"inciden~", "incidnt~" or "incide~"
will return results for the similar terms such as:
"incident" or "incidents"
For terms that may be at more than a certain distance from a word, the symbol "*" can be appended after the individual words of a search term.
Users can further narrow their search results by employing a "Boolean search". This advanced search option allows users to directly enter boolean statements which allow more exact and precise matching, while still accounting for spelling variations or mistakes.
Searches can be grouped based on AND OR boolean functions as follows:
( (x) && (y) )
( ( (x) && (y) ) || (z) )
The rules of algebraic parentheses are respected.
Search is conducted on all fields for each entity tab. The search collects all fields into a single searchable text field. Exact searching can be performed via the filters in the right-hand box of the CUI.
To allow users to retain narrowed searches across multiple login sessions, Corroborator provides a saved search interface.
The Saved search option will automatically save the current search and facets applied. The user can give the saved search a descriptive title to allow differentiation between different working searches.
By selecting the "Share search with other users" option, the saved search can be made globally available to all other Corroborator users.
Each Incident, Bulletin and Actor results tab contains a faceted filtering panel allowing the user to further refine and hone their search.
A facet can be applied by clicking on it in the filtering panel.
Once a facet is applied, it is shown as active at the top of the filter panel.
To remove a facet, simply clicking the "X" next to a given facet will remove it from the search criteria. Facets are applied as an O-Ring, which means that results will be returned that match either or any of the facets applied.
The Incident faceted filter panel allows the users to further narrow their search results specifically with respect to the returned Incident entities.
- Selection filters: Incident Location, Status, Crimes, Assigned User, Incident Labels, Date of creation
The Bulletin faceted filter panel allows the users to further narrow their search results specifically with respect to the returned Bulletin entities.
- Selection filters: Bulletin Location, Sources, Status, Assigned User, Bulletin Labels, Date of creation
The Actor faceted filter panel allows the users to further narrow their search results specifically with respect to the returned Actor entities.
- Selection filters: Current Location, Place of Birth, Civilian/Non-Civilian, Religion, Sex, Age, Date of Birth
For each user, upon login a user facet is applied. This automatically loads the Incidents, Bulletins and Actors assigned to the user to their respective tabs. This is intended to allow users immediate access to their current assigned work.
To view all entities, the filter can be removed by clicking the "X" for the user facet.
Some functionalities of Corroborator, like adding Locations or Sources, can only be accessed through the Administration interface, which is restricted to Administrator users. Administrator users can access the Administration interface by clicking the "Administration" link in the top left hand corner of the Corroborator interface, next to "Main" and "Reporting":
The Administration interface allows administrators to add, remove or update users and other system entities such as locations, sources and crimes, as well as to view versions of saved entities and to retrieve or restore deleted entities.
To add a new location to the current system, select the "Locations" link in the "Corroborator_App" section, on the left-hand side of the Administration interface.
From the Locations screen it is possible to see all currently set up locations for a given Corroborator interface. To add a new location, simply click the "Add location" button in the top right corner of the Locations screen.
The Location edit screen will appear and the user can enter the details for the new location.
Important Note: Name, Latitude and Longitude are required for new locations. To save a new location or to continue adding new locations, click either the "Save" or "Save and add another" button as appropriate.
The process for adding labels, sources and crimes is the same as for adding a new location. However, the details and required fields differ. Begin by selecting the appropriate entity from the Corroborator_App section of the Administration home page.
Add a new entity by clicking the "Add" button corresponding to the relevant kind of entity.
Fill in the entity details as required, then click "Save" or "Save and add another" as appropriate.
New entities will be available in the Corroborator interface immediately.
All entities edited within the Corroborator system are tracked by version. All versions are available to review and a given entity can be reverted to a previous revision through the Administration interface.
To access the history for an entity, select the entity from the Administration panel and then click the link for the entity in question in the list of all entities.
From the entity view page, click the "History" button in the top right corner.
To revert to a previous version of an entity, click on that version and then press the "Save" button below to revert to this version of the object.
Entities deleted within the Corroborator system can be recovered by Administrator users via the entities list page in the Administration panel.
From the entities view page, simply click the "Recover deleted entities" button in the top right corner. A list of previously deleted entities will be displayed, allowing the user to recover the desired entity.
To add users and manage their permissions, go to the "Authentication and Authorization" section in the Administration interface, where you can create new users, manage existing ones and create groups with particular permissions to which you can assign your users.
To create a new user, go to the "Authentication and Authorization" section in the Administration interface and click the "Add" button next to "Users", or else click "Users" and then click the "Add user" button in the top right corner of the Users page.
To create a user, you only need a user name and a strong password. Fill in the form, then click "Save" or "Save and add another" as appropriate.
After you click "Save", the edit page for the new user opens: this is where you can change the user's password, add details on their profile or assign them permissions (see "Managing users" below).
To delete users, access the Users page by clicking on "Users" in the "Authentication and Authorization" section of the Administration interface.
To delete a user, check the option button next to the relevant user name, then select "Delete selected users" in the "Action" drop-down menu and click the "Go" button. A prompt will ask you for confirmation: click "Yes, I'm sure" to confirm that you want to delete that user.
To change a user's password or other details and to assign them permissions such as the possibility of editing particular items in the Corroborator Main Interface or accessing the Administration panel, click the relevant user in the Users page to go to its edit page.
To change the user's password, click the link in the "Password" section as illustrated in the picture below. In the "Change password" form that will open, enter a strong password twice and then click the "Change password" button.
The user's edit page is also where you can add information on the user's first and last name and on their email address.
In this page you can also manage the user's permissions.
You can choose between three pre-set options:
- Active: Designates whether this user should be treated as active. You can choose to unselect this instead of deleting an account.
- Staff status: Designates whether the user can access the Administration interface.
- Superuser status: Assigns all permissions to the selected user without having to explicitly grant them one by one.
In addition, you can include the user in one or more groups, giving them all the permissions granted to these groups (to learn more about groups, see below). In the "Groups" section of the User edit form, select the relevant group(s) in the "Available groups" window and click the right arrow to move the relevant group(s) to the "Chosen groups" window.
You can also select the user's permissions one by one in the "User permissions" form. As with groups, you can select the desired permissions in the "Available user permissions" window and move them to the "Chosen user permissions" box through the right arrow to assign them to the user.
When you're satisfied with your user's profile and permissions, click the "Save" button: your changes will come into effect immediately.
In the user edit form you can also see the "Important dates" for that user, including the last time the user logged in and the date when the user was created. In the left bottom corner, you will also find a "Delete" button, as another way of deleting a user.
Groups can be a useful feature in Corroborator if you are creating many users and need a predefined set of permissions you want to assign to them. By creating a group and granting it the permissions you need to assign to your batch of users, you can include your new users in that group and they will automatically get all the permissions of the group.
To create a new group, you can click the "Add" button next to "Groups" in the "Authentication and Authorization" section of your Administration panel, or you can click on "Groups" in the "Authentication and Authorization" section and then click on the "Add group" button in the top right corner of the Groups management page.
In the "Add group" window, enter the name of your new group and grant it the needed permissions by selecting them and moving them with the right arrow button from the "Available permissions" to the "Chosen permissions" box. Click the "Save" button and your new group will be created.
In the Groups administration window, you can click on one group to edit it and change its permissions. To delete a group, check the option button next to it, then select "Delete selected groups" from the "Action" drop-down menu and click the "Go" button.
A prompt will ask you for confirmation: click "Yes, I'm sure" and the group will be deleted.
Corroborator is a powerful tool not only to create stories, but also to visualize them: all data entered in Corroborator can be turned into graphs that can be then used to analyze the incidents and produce reports. This is what the "Reporting" section is for.
To produce graphs on the data you have gathered and interrelated in Corroborator, go to the "Reporting" section by clicking on "Reporting" on the right-hand side of the top bar.
The "Reporting" section graphically displays incidents, bulletins, actors and users according to parameters in a drop-down menu. When an item is selected, a graph will appear in the main window.
By hovering over each section of the graphs, more details will appear in a pop-up window.
As in the "Main" section, a filter can be applied to data visualization too. See "Filters" above.
Incidents can be viewed by Status, Labels, Crimes, Location, Incidents over time, and Confidence Score.
Bulletins can be viewed by Status, Labels, Sources, Type, Location, Bulletins over time, Confidence Score and Number of Sources.
Actors can be viewed by Age, Sex, Location, Actor Role, Civilian/Non-Civilian, Status and Actors over Time
Users can be viewed by Total login time by User, User Login time per day, Average updates per hour of login, User's Assigned items per Status, Total deleted items, Total created items, Total edited items, and Deleted items, created items, and edited items in time (daily).
In the Deleted items, created items, and edited items in time (daily) category, an additional drop-down menu will appear with specific user names included.