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from __future__ import print_function, division
import numpy as np
import math
from sklearn import datasets
from mlfromscratch.utils import train_test_split, to_categorical, normalize, accuracy_score, Plot
from mlfromscratch.deep_learning.activation_functions import Sigmoid, Softmax
from mlfromscratch.deep_learning.loss_functions import CrossEntropy
class MultilayerPerceptron():
"""Multilayer Perceptron classifier. A fully-connected neural network with one hidden layer.
Unrolled to display the whole forward and backward pass.
Parameters:
-----------
n_hidden: int:
The number of processing nodes (neurons) in the hidden layer.
n_iterations: float
The number of training iterations the algorithm will tune the weights for.
learning_rate: float
The step length that will be used when updating the weights.
"""
def __init__(self, n_hidden, n_iterations=3000, learning_rate=0.01):
self.n_hidden = n_hidden
self.n_iterations = n_iterations
self.learning_rate = learning_rate
self.hidden_activation = Sigmoid()
self.output_activation = Softmax()
self.loss = CrossEntropy()
def _initialize_weights(self, X, y):
n_samples, n_features = X.shape
_, n_outputs = y.shape
# Hidden layer
limit = 1 / math.sqrt(n_features)
self.W = np.random.uniform(-limit, limit, (n_features, self.n_hidden))
self.w0 = np.zeros((1, self.n_hidden))
# Output layer
limit = 1 / math.sqrt(self.n_hidden)
self.V = np.random.uniform(-limit, limit, (self.n_hidden, n_outputs))
self.v0 = np.zeros((1, n_outputs))
def fit(self, X, y):
self._initialize_weights(X, y)
for i in range(self.n_iterations):
# ..............
# Forward Pass
# ..............
# HIDDEN LAYER
hidden_input = X.dot(self.W) + self.w0
hidden_output = self.hidden_activation(hidden_input)
# OUTPUT LAYER
output_layer_input = hidden_output.dot(self.V) + self.v0
y_pred = self.output_activation(output_layer_input)
# ...............
# Backward Pass
# ...............
# OUTPUT LAYER
# Grad. w.r.t input of output layer
grad_wrt_out_l_input = self.loss.gradient(y, y_pred) * self.output_activation.gradient(output_layer_input)
grad_v = hidden_output.T.dot(grad_wrt_out_l_input)
grad_v0 = np.sum(grad_wrt_out_l_input, axis=0, keepdims=True)
# HIDDEN LAYER
# Grad. w.r.t input of hidden layer
grad_wrt_hidden_l_input = grad_wrt_out_l_input.dot(self.V.T) * self.hidden_activation.gradient(hidden_input)
grad_w = X.T.dot(grad_wrt_hidden_l_input)
grad_w0 = np.sum(grad_wrt_hidden_l_input, axis=0, keepdims=True)
# Update weights (by gradient descent)
# Move against the gradient to minimize loss
self.V -= self.learning_rate * grad_v
self.v0 -= self.learning_rate * grad_v0
self.W -= self.learning_rate * grad_w
self.w0 -= self.learning_rate * grad_w0
# Use the trained model to predict labels of X
def predict(self, X):
# Forward pass:
hidden_input = X.dot(self.W) + self.w0
hidden_output = self.hidden_activation(hidden_input)
output_layer_input = hidden_output.dot(self.V) + self.v0
y_pred = self.output_activation(output_layer_input)
return y_pred
def main():
data = datasets.load_digits()
X = normalize(data.data)
y = data.target
# Convert the nominal y values to binary
y = to_categorical(y)
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.4, seed=1)
# MLP
clf = MultilayerPerceptron(n_hidden=16,
n_iterations=1000,
learning_rate=0.01)
clf.fit(X_train, y_train)
y_pred = np.argmax(clf.predict(X_test), axis=1)
y_test = np.argmax(y_test, axis=1)
accuracy = accuracy_score(y_test, y_pred)
print ("Accuracy:", accuracy)
# Reduce dimension to two using PCA and plot the results
Plot().plot_in_2d(X_test, y_pred, title="Multilayer Perceptron", accuracy=accuracy, legend_labels=np.unique(y))
if __name__ == "__main__":
main()
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