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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="latin1" ?>
<!DOCTYPE erlref SYSTEM "erlref.dtd">
<erlref>
<header>
<copyright>
<year>2011</year><year>2012</year>
<holder>Ericsson AB. All Rights Reserved.</holder>
</copyright>
<legalnotice>
The contents of this file are subject to the Erlang Public License,
Version 1.1, (the "License"); you may not use this file except in
compliance with the License. You should have received a copy of the
Erlang Public License along with this software. If not, it can be
retrieved online at http://www.erlang.org/.
Software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS"
basis, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See
the License for the specific language governing rights and limitations
under the License.
</legalnotice>
<title>diameter_app(3)</title>
<prepared>Anders Svensson</prepared>
<responsible></responsible>
<docno></docno>
<approved></approved>
<checked></checked>
<date></date>
<rev>%REV%</rev>
<file>diameter_app.xml</file>
</header>
<module>diameter_app</module>
<modulesummary>
Callback module of a Diameter application.</modulesummary>
<description>
<p>
A diameter service as started by <seealso
marker="diameter#start_service">diameter:start_service/2</seealso>
configures one of more Diameter applications, each of whose
configuration specifies a callback that handles messages specific to
the application.
The messages and AVPs of the application are defined in a
dictionary file whose format is documented in
<seealso marker="diameter_dict">diameter_dict(4)</seealso>
while the callback module is documented here.
The callback module implements the Diameter application-specific
functionality of a service.</p>
<p>
A callback module must export all of the functions documented below.
The functions themselves are of three distinct flavours:</p>
<list>
<item>
<p>
<seealso marker="#peer_up">peer_up/3</seealso> and
<seealso marker="#peer_down">peer_down/3</seealso> signal the
attainment or loss of connectivity with a Diameter peer.</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>
<seealso marker="#pick_peer">pick_peer/4</seealso>,
<seealso marker="#prepare_request">prepare_request/3</seealso>,
<seealso marker="#prepare_retransmit">prepare_retransmit/3</seealso>,
<seealso marker="#handle_answer">handle_answer/4</seealso>
and <seealso marker="#handle_error">handle_error/4</seealso> are (or may
be) called as a consequence of a call to <seealso
marker="diameter#call">diameter:call/4</seealso> to send an outgoing
Diameter request message.</p>
</item>
<item>
<p>
<seealso marker="#handle_request">handle_request/3</seealso>
is called in response to an incoming Diameter request message.</p>
</item>
</list>
</description>
<note>
<p>
The arities given for the the callback functions here assume no extra
arguments.
All functions will also be passed any extra arguments configured with
the callback module itself when calling <seealso
marker="diameter#start_service">diameter:start_service/2</seealso>
and, for the call-specific callbacks, any extra arguments passed to
<seealso marker="diameter#call">diameter:call/4</seealso>.</p>
</note>
<!-- ===================================================================== -->
<!-- ===================================================================== -->
<section>
<title>DATA TYPES</title>
<taglist>
<marker id="capabilities"/>
<tag><c>capabilities() = #diameter_caps{}</c></tag>
<item>
<p>
A record containing the identities of
the local Diameter node and the remote Diameter peer having an established transport
connection, as well as the capabilities as
determined by capabilities exchange.
Each field of the record is a 2-tuple consisting of
values for the (local) host and (remote) peer.
Optional or possibly multiple values are encoded as lists of values,
mandatory values as the bare value.</p>
</item>
<marker id="message"/>
<tag><c>message() = record() | list()</c></tag>
<item>
<p>
The representation of a Diameter message as passed to
<seealso marker="diameter#call">diameter:call/4</seealso>.
The record representation is as outlined in
<seealso
marker="diameter_dict#MESSAGE_RECORDS">diameter_dict(4)</seealso>:
a message as defined in a dictionary file is encoded as a record with
one field for each component AVP.
Equivalently, a message can also be encoded as a list whose head is
the atom-valued message name (the record name minus any
prefix specified in the relevant dictionary file) and whose tail is a
list of <c>{FieldName, FieldValue}</c> pairs.</p>
<p>
A third representation allows a message to be specified as a list
whose head is a <c>#diameter_header{}</c> record and whose tail is a list
of <c>#diameter_avp{}</c> records.
This representation is used by diameter itself when relaying requests
as directed by the return value of a
<seealso marker="#handle_request">handle_request/3</seealso>
callback.
It differs from the other other two in that it bypasses the checks for
messages that do not agree with their definitions in the dictionary in
question (since relays agents must handle arbitrary request): messages
are sent exactly as specified.</p>
</item>
<marker id="packet"/>
<tag><c>packet() = #diameter_packet{}</c></tag>
<item>
<p>
A container for incoming and outgoing Diameter messages that's passed
through encode/decode and transport.
Fields should not be set in return values except as documented.</p>
</item>
<marker id="peer_ref"/>
<tag><c>peer_ref() = term()</c></tag>
<item>
<p>
A term identifying a transport connection with a Diameter peer.
Should be treated opaquely.</p>
</item>
<marker id="peer"/>
<tag><c>peer() = {<seealso marker="#peer_ref">peer_ref()</seealso>, <seealso marker="#capabilities">capabilities()</seealso>}</c></tag>
<item>
<p>
A tuple representing a Diameter peer connection.</p>
</item>
<marker id="state"/>
<tag><c>state() = term()</c></tag>
<item>
<p>
The state maintained by the application callback functions
<seealso marker="#peer_up">peer_up/3</seealso>,
<seealso marker="#peer_down">peer_down/3</seealso> and (optionally)
<seealso marker="#pick_peer">pick_peer/4</seealso>.
The initial state is configured in the call to
<seealso
marker="diameter#start_service">diameter:start_service/2</seealso>
that configures the application on a service.
Callback functions returning a state are evaluated in a common
service-specific process while
those not returning state are evaluated in a request-specific
process.</p>
</item>
</taglist>
<marker id="peer_up"/>
</section>
<!-- ===================================================================== -->
<!-- ===================================================================== -->
<funcs>
<func>
<name>Mod:peer_up(SvcName, Peer, State) -> NewState</name>
<fsummary>Invoked when a transport connection has been established</fsummary>
<type>
<v>SvcName = <seealso marker="diameter#service_name">diameter:service_name()</seealso></v>
<v>Peer = <seealso marker="#peer">peer()</seealso></v>
<v>State = NewState = <seealso marker="#state">state()</seealso></v>
</type>
<desc>
<p>
Invoked when a transport connection has been established
and a successful capabilities exchange has indicated that the peer
supports the Diameter application of the application on which
the callback module in question has been configured.</p>
<marker id="peer_down"/>
</desc>
</func>
<func>
<name>Mod:peer_down(SvcName, Peer, State) -> NewState</name>
<fsummary>Invoked when a transport connection has been lost.</fsummary>
<type>
<v>SvcName = <seealso marker="diameter#service_name">diameter:service_name()</seealso></v>
<v>Peer = <seealso marker="#peer">peer()</seealso></v>
<v>State = NewState = <seealso marker="#state">state()</seealso></v>
</type>
<desc>
<p>
Invoked when a transport connection has been lost following a previous
call to <seealso marker="#peer_up">peer_up/3</seealso>.</p>
<marker id="pick_peer"/>
</desc>
</func>
<func>
<name>Mod:pick_peer(Candidates, Reserved, SvcName, State)
-> {ok, Peer} | {Peer, NewState} | false</name>
<fsummary>Select a target peer for an outgoing request.</fsummary>
<type>
<v>Candidates = [<seealso marker="#peer">peer()</seealso>]</v>
<v>Peer = <seealso marker="#peer">peer()</seealso> | false</v>
<v>SvcName = <seealso marker="diameter#service_name">diameter:service_name()</seealso></v>
<v>State = NewState = <seealso marker="#state">state()</seealso></v>
</type>
<desc>
<p>
Invoked as a consequence of a call to <seealso
marker="diameter#call">diameter:call/4</seealso> to select a destination
peer for an outgoing request, the return value indicating the selected
peer.</p>
<p>
The candidate peers list will only include those
which are selected by any <c>filter</c> option specified in the call to
<seealso marker="diameter#call">diameter:call/4</seealso>, and only
those which have indicated support for the Diameter application in
question.
The order of the elements is unspecified except that any
peers whose Origin-Host and Origin-Realm matches that of the
outgoing request (in the sense of a <c>{filter, {all, [host, realm]}}</c>
option to <seealso marker="diameter#call">diameter:call/4</seealso>)
will be placed at the head of the list.</p>
<p>
The return values <c>false</c> and <c>{false, State}</c> are
equivalent when callback state is mutable, as are
<c>{ok, Peer}</c> and <c>{Peer, State}</c>.
Returning a peer as <c>false</c> causes <c>{error, no_connection}</c>
to be returned from <seealso marker="diameter#call">diameter:call/4</seealso>.
Returning a <seealso marker="#peer">peer()</seealso> from an initial
pick_peer/4 callback will result in a
<seealso marker="#prepare_request">prepare_request/3</seealso> callback
followed by either <seealso
marker="#handle_answer">handle_answer/4</seealso>
or <seealso marker="#handle_error">handle_error/4</seealso> depending
on whether or not an answer message is received from the peer.
If transport with the peer is lost before this then a new <seealso
marker="#pick_peer">pick_peer/4</seealso> callback takes place to
select an alternate peer.</p>
<p>
Note that there is no guarantee that a <seealso
marker="#pick_peer">pick_peer/4</seealso> callback to select
an alternate peer will be followed by any additional callbacks, only
that the initial <seealso
marker="#pick_peer">pick_peer/4</seealso> will be, since a
retransmission to an alternate peer is abandoned if an answer is
received from a previously selected peer.</p>
<note>
<p>
<c>{Peer, NewState}</c> and its equivalents can only be returned if
the Diameter application in question was
configured with the <seealso
marker="diameter#application_opt">diameter:application_opt()</seealso>
<c>{call_mutates_state, true}</c>.
Otherwise, the <c>State</c> argument is always
the intial value as configured on the application, not any subsequent
value returned by a <seealso marker="#peer_up">peer_up/3</seealso>
or <seealso marker="#peer_down">peer_down/3</seealso> callback.</p>
</note>
<marker id="prepare_request"/>
</desc>
</func>
<func>
<name>Mod:prepare_request(Packet, SvcName, Peer) -> Action</name>
<fsummary>Return a request for encoding and transport.</fsummary>
<type>
<v>Packet = <seealso marker="#packet">packet()</seealso></v>
<v>SvcName = <seealso marker="diameter#service_name">diameter:service_name()</seealso></v>
<v>Peer = <seealso marker="#peer">peer()</seealso></v>
<v>Action = {send, <seealso marker="#packet">packet()</seealso> | <seealso marker="#message">message()</seealso>} | {discard, Reason} | discard</v>
</type>
<desc>
<p>
Invoked to return a request for encoding and transport.
Allows the sender to access the selected peer's capabilities
in order to set (for example) <c>Destination-Host</c> and/or
<c>Destination-Realm</c> in the outgoing request, although the
callback need not be limited to this usage.
Many implementations may simply want to return <c>{send, Packet}</c></p>
<p>
A returned <seealso marker="#packet">packet()</seealso> should set the request to be encoded in its
<c>msg</c> field and can set the <c>transport_data</c> field in order
to pass information to the transport module.
Extra arguments passed to <seealso
marker="diameter#call">diameter:call/4</seealso> can be used to
communicate transport data to the callback.
A returned <seealso marker="#packet">packet()</seealso> can also set the <c>header</c> field to a
<c>#diameter_header{}</c> record in order to specify values that should
be preserved in the outgoing request, although this should typically
not be necessary and allows the callback to set header values
inappropriately.
A returned <c>length</c>, <c>cmd_code</c> or <c>application_id</c> is
ignored.</p>
<p>
Returning <c>{discard, Reason}</c> causes the request to be aborted
and the <seealso
marker="diameter#call">diameter:call/4</seealso> for which the
callback has taken place to return <c>{error, Reason}</c>.
Returning <c>discard</c> is equivalent to returning <c>{discard,
discarded}</c>.</p>
<marker id="prepare_retransmit"/>
</desc>
</func>
<func>
<name>Mod:prepare_retransmit(Packet, SvcName, Peer) -> Result</name>
<fsummary>Return a request for encoding and retransmission.</fsummary>
<type>
<v>Packet = <seealso marker="#packet">packet()</seealso></v>
<v>SvcName = <seealso marker="diameter#service_name">diameter:service_name()</seealso></v>
<v>Peer = <seealso marker="#peer">peer()</seealso></v>
<v>Result = {send, <seealso marker="#packet">packet()</seealso> | <seealso marker="#message">message()</seealso>} | {discard, Reason} | discard</v>
</type>
<desc>
<p>
Invoked to return a request for encoding and retransmission.
Has the same role as <seealso
marker="#prepare_request">prepare_request/3</seealso> in the case that
a peer connection is lost an an alternate peer selected but the
argument <seealso marker="#packet">packet()</seealso> is as returned by the initial
<c>prepare_request/3</c>.</p>
<p>
Returning <c>{discard, Reason}</c> causes the request to be aborted
and a <seealso
marker="#handle_error">handle_error/4</seealso> callback to
take place with <c>Reason</c> as initial argument.
Returning <c>discard</c> is equivalent to returning <c>{discard,
discarded}</c>.</p>
<marker id="handle_answer"/>
</desc>
</func>
<func>
<name>Mod:handle_answer(Packet, Request, SvcName, Peer) -> Result</name>
<fsummary>Receive an answer message from a peer.</fsummary>
<type>
<v>Packet = <seealso marker="#packet">packet()</seealso></v>
<v>Request = <seealso marker="#message">message()</seealso></v>
<v>SvcName = <seealso marker="diameter#service_name">diameter:service_name()</seealso></v>
<v>Peer = <seealso marker="#peer">peer()</seealso></v>
<v>Result = term()</v>
</type>
<desc>
<p>
Invoked when an answer message is received from a peer.
The return value is returned from the call to <seealso
marker="diameter#call">diameter:call/4</seealso> for which the
callback takes place unless the <c>detach</c> option was
specified.</p>
<p>
The decoded answer record is in the <c>msg</c> field of the argument
<seealso marker="#packet">packet()</seealso>,
the undecoded binary in the <c>packet</c> field.
<c>Request</c> is the outgoing request message as was returned from
<seealso marker="#prepare_request">prepare_request/3</seealso> or
<seealso marker="#prepare_retransmit">prepare_retransmit/3</seealso>
before the request was passed to the transport.</p>
<p>
For any given call to <seealso
marker="diameter#call">diameter:call/4</seealso> there is at most one
call to the handle_answer callback of the application in question: any
duplicate answer (due to retransmission or otherwise) is discarded.
Similarly, only one of <c>handle_answer/4</c> or <c>handle_error/4</c> is
called for any given request.</p>
<p>
By default, an incoming answer message that cannot be successfully
decoded causes the request process in question to fail, causing the
relevant call to <seealso
marker="diameter#call">diameter:call/4</seealso>
to return <c>{error, failure} (unless the <c>detach</c> option was
specified)</c>.
In particular, there is no <c>handle_error/4</c> callback in this
case.
Application configuration may change this behaviour as described for
<seealso
marker="diameter#start_service">diameter:start_service/2</seealso>.</p>
<marker id="handle_error"/>
</desc>
</func>
<func>
<name>Mod:handle_error(Reason, Request, SvcName, Peer) -> Result</name>
<fsummary>Return an error from a outgoing request.</fsummary>
<type>
<v>Reason = timeout | failover | term()</v>
<v>Request = <seealso marker="#message">message()</seealso></v>
<v>SvcName = <seealso marker="diameter#service_name">diameter:service_name()</seealso></v>
<v>Peer = <seealso marker="#peer">peer()</seealso></v>
<v>Result = term()</v>
</type>
<desc>
<p>
Invoked when an error occurs before an answer message is received from
a peer in response to an outgoing request.
The return value is returned from the call to <seealso
marker="diameter#call">diameter:call/4</seealso> for which the
callback takes place (unless the <c>detach</c> option was
specified).</p>
<p>
Reason <c>timeout</c> indicates that an answer message has not been
received within the required time.
Reason <c>failover</c> indicates
that the transport connection to the peer to which the request has
been sent has been lost but that not alternate node was available,
possibly because a <seealso marker="#pick_peer">pick_peer/4</seealso>
callback returned false.</p>
<marker id="handle_request"/>
</desc>
</func>
<func>
<name>Mod:handle_request(Packet, SvcName, Peer) -> Action</name>
<fsummary>Receive an incoming request.</fsummary>
<type>
<v>Packet = <seealso marker="#packet">packet()</seealso></v>
<v>SvcName = term()</v>
<v>Peer = <seealso marker="#peer">peer()</seealso></v>
<v>Action = Reply | {relay, [Opt]} | discard | {eval, Action, PostF}</v>
<v>Reply = {reply, <seealso marker="#message">message()</seealso>}
| {protocol_error, 3000..3999}</v>
<v>Opt = <seealso marker="diameter#call_opt">diameter:call_opt()</seealso></v>
<v>PostF = <seealso marker="diameter#evaluable">diameter:evaluable()</seealso></v>
</type>
<desc>
<p>
Invoked when a request message is received from a peer.
The application in which the callback takes place (that is, the
callback module as configured with <seealso
marker="diameter#start_service">diameter:start_service/2</seealso>)
is determined by the Application Identifier in the header of the
incoming request message, the selected module being the one
whose corresponding <seealso
marker="diameter_dict#MESSAGE_RECORDS">dictionary</seealso> declares
itself as defining either the application in question or the Relay
application.</p>
<p>
The argument <seealso marker="#packet">packet()</seealso> has the following signature.</p>
<code>
#diameter_packet{header = #diameter_header{},
avps = [#diameter_avp{}],
msg = record() | undefined,
errors = [<seealso marker="diameter_dict#DATA_TYPES">Unsigned32()</seealso> | {<seealso marker="diameter_dict#DATA_TYPES">Unsigned32()</seealso>, #diameter_avp{}}],
bin = binary(),
transport_data = term()}
</code>
<p>
The <c>msg</c> field will be <c>undefined</c> only in case the request has
been received in the relay application.
Otherwise it contains the record representing the request as outlined
in <seealso
marker="diameter_dict#MESSAGE_RECORDS">diameter_dict(4)</seealso>.</p>
<p>
The <c>errors</c> field specifies any Result-Code's identifying errors
that were encountered in decoding the request.
In this case diameter will set both Result-Code and
Failed-AVP AVP's in a returned
answer <seealso marker="#message">message()</seealso> before sending it to the peer:
the returned <seealso marker="#message">message()</seealso> need only set any other required AVP's.
Note that the errors detected by diameter are all of the 5xxx series
(Permanent Failures).
The <c>errors</c> list is empty if the request has been received in
the relay application.</p>
<p>
The <c>transport_data</c> field contains an arbitrary term passed into
diameter from the transport module in question, or the atom
<c>undefined</c> if the transport specified no data.
The term is preserved in the <seealso marker="#packet">packet()</seealso> containing any answer message
sent back to the transport process unless another value is explicitly
specified.</p>
<p>
The semantics of each of the possible return values are as follows.</p>
<taglist>
<tag><c>{reply, <seealso marker="#message">message()</seealso>}</c></tag>
<item>
<p>
Send the specified answer message to the peer.</p>
</item>
<tag><c>{protocol_error, 3000..3999}</c></tag>
<item>
<p>
Send an answer message to the peer containing the specified
protocol error.
Equivalent to</p>
<code>
{reply, ['answer-message' | Avps]
</code>
<p>
where <c>Avps</c> sets the Origin-Host, Origin-Realm, the specified
Result-Code and (if the request sent one) Session-Id AVP's.</p>
<p>
Note that RFC 3588 mandates that only answers with a 3xxx series
Result-Code (protocol errors) may set the E bit.
Returning a non-3xxx value in a <c>protocol_error</c> tuple
will cause the request process in question to fail.</p>
</item>
<tag><c>{relay, Opts}</c></tag>
<item>
<p>
Relay a request to another peer in the role of a Diameter relay agent.
If a routing loop is detected then the request is answered with
3005 (DIAMETER_LOOP_DETECTED).
Otherwise a Route-Record AVP (containing the sending peer's Origin-Host) is
added to the request and <seealso marker="#pick_peer">pick_peer/4</seealso>
and subsequent callbacks take place just as if <seealso
marker="diameter#call">diameter:call/4</seealso> had been called
explicitly.
The End-to-End Identifier of the incoming request is preserved in the
header of the relayed request.</p>
<p>
The returned <c>Opts</c> should not specify <c>detach</c>.
A subsequent <seealso marker="#handle_answer">handle_answer/4</seealso>
callback for the relayed request must return its first
argument, the <c>#diameter_packet{}</c> record containing the answer
message.
Note that the <c>extra</c> option can be specified to supply arguments
that can distinguish the relay case from others if so desired.
Any other return value (for example, from a
<seealso marker="#handle_error">handle_error/4</seealso> callback)
causes the request to be answered with 3002 (DIAMETER_UNABLE_TO_DELIVER).</p>
</item>
<tag><c>discard</c></tag>
<item>
<p>
Discard the request.</p>
</item>
<tag><c>{eval, Action, PostF}</c></tag>
<item>
<p>
Handle the request as if <c>Action</c> has been returned and then
evaluate <c>PostF</c> in the request process.</p>
</item>
</taglist>
<p>
Note that protocol errors detected by diameter will result in an
answer message without <c>handle_request/3</c> being invoked.</p>
</desc>
</func>
</funcs>
</erlref>
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