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Notes about prebuilt beam files under version control

This information applies mostly to developers, some parts only to developers of the main branch i.e. Ericsson and HiPE personel.

There are two types of derived code under version control, namely:

primary bootstrap - Resides in the $ERL_TOP/bootstrap/{lib,bin} directories. preloaded code - Resides in the $ERL_TOP/erts/preloaded directory.

Primary bootstrap

The two types of version controlled code are fundamentally different. The primary bootstrap is code compiled from source files in the lib/{kernel,stdlib,compiler} (and header files from lib/orber/include. They are checked in in the version control system to make it possible to build directly from the code base tree without the need for an earlier version of the compiler. When a new version of OTP is released, these files are updated manually (or rather, by using the $ERL_TOP/otp_build script) and checked in. The files can also be updated due to changes in the compiler during the development process. The primary bootstrap is always updated as a separate deliberate process, never during a normal development build.

If a prebuilt open source version of erlang is used, the directory bootstrap initially does not contain any beam files, the directory is instead populated by copying beam files from the $ERL_TOP/lib/{kernel,stdlib,compiler}/ebin directories. This construction is to save space in the distribution, but the result would be the same. Open source developers need not provide patches for the precompiled beam files in the primary bootstrap, the bootstrap update is always performed by the main developers.

Preloaded code

The directory $ERL_TOP/preloaded contains both src and ebin subdirectories. The preloaded code is compiled into the virtual machine and always present. When compiling the virtual machine, those beam files need to be present and they are considered a part of the virtual machine rather than a part of the kernel application. When preloaded files are to be updated, the source code is built using a special Makefile in the $ERL_TOP/preloaded/src directory, which creates beam files in the same directory. When they seem to compile successfully, they can be used in an emulator build by being copied to the ebin directory. otp_build update_preloaded can be used to ease the process (there are also similar targets in the $ERL_TOP/preloaded/src/Makefile).

In prebuilt open source distributions, these beam files are also present, but to update them one might need to change permission on the $ERL_TOP/preloaded/ebin directory, then build and then manually copy the beam files from the source directory to ../ebin. If patches are created that involve the source files used to build preloaded code, always note this specially as the preloaded/ebin directory needs updating, or provide the new derived files in the patch or as complete binaries.

/Patrik, OTP

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