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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<rdf:RDF xmlns:skos="http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#"
xmlns:owl="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#"
xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"
xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"
xmlns:ecrm="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/"
xml:base="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/">
<owl:Ontology rdf:about="">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">Erlangen CRM / OWL</rdfs:label>
<owl:versionInfo rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">ECRM 160714 / CIDOC-CRM 6.2.1</owl:versionInfo>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Changelog: https://github.com/erlangen-crm/ecrm/commits/master</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Erlangen CRM / OWL - An OWL DL 1.0 implementation of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model, based on: Nick Crofts, Martin Doerr, Tony Gill, Stephen Stead, Matthew Stiff (eds.): Definition of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (http://cidoc-crm.org/).
This implementation has been originally created by Bernhard Schiemann, Martin Oischinger and Günther Görz at the Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Computer Science, Chair of Computer Science 8 (Artificial Intelligence) in cooperation with the Department of Museum Informatics of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum Nuremberg and the Department of Biodiversity Informatics of the Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig Bonn.
The Erlangen CRM / OWL implementation of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.</rdfs:comment>
</owl:Ontology>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E21_Person">
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E39_Actor"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E20_Biological_Object"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E21</skos:notation>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises real persons who live or are assumed to have lived.
Legendary figures that may have existed, such as Ulysses and King Arthur, fall into this class if the documentation refers to them as historical figures. In cases where doubt exists as to whether several persons are in fact identical, multiple instances can be created and linked to indicate their relationship. The CRM does not propose a specific form to support reasoning about possible identity.
Examples:
- Tut-Ankh-Amun
- Nelson Mandela
In First Order Logic:
E21(x) ⊃ E20(x)
E21(x) ⊃ E39(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E21 Person</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E18_Physical_Thing">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E18</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E18 Physical Thing</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E72_Legal_Object"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises all persistent physical items with a relatively stable form, man-made or natural.
Depending on the existence of natural boundaries of such things, the CRM distinguishes the instances of E19 Physical Object from instances of E26 Physical Feature, such as holes, rivers, pieces of land etc. Most instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy), whereas features are integral to the surrounding matter.
An instance of E18 Physical Thing occupies not only a particular geometric space, but in the course of its existence it also forms a trajectory through spacetime, which occupies a real, that is phenomenal, volume in spacetime. We include in the occupied space the space filled by the matter of the physical thing and all its inner spaces, such as the interior of a box. Physical things consisting of aggregations of physically unconnected objects, such as a set of chessmen, occupy a number of individually contiguous spacetime volumes equal to the number of unconnected objects that constitute the set.
We model E18 Physical Thing to be a subclass of E72 Legal Object and of E92 Spacetime volume. The latter is intended as a phenomenal spacetime volume as defined in CRMgeo (Doerr and Hiebel 2013). By virtue of this multiple inheritance we can discuss the physical extent of an E18 Physical Thing without representing each instance of it together with an instance of its associated spacetime volume. This model combines two quite different kinds of substance: an instance of E18 Physical Thing is matter while a spacetime volume is an aggregation of points in spacetime. However, the real spatiotemporal extent of an instance of E18 Physical Thing is regarded to be unique to it, due to all its details and fuzziness; its identity and existence depends uniquely on the identity of the instance of E18 Physical Thing. Therefore this multiple inheritance is unambiguous and effective and furthermore corresponds to the intuitions of natural language.
The CIDOC CRM is generally not concerned with amounts of matter in fluid or gaseous states.
Examples:
- the Cullinan Diamond (E19)
- the cave "Ideon Andron" in Crete (E26)
- the Mona Lisa (E22)
In First Order Logic:
E18(x) ⊃ E72(x)
E18(x) ⊃ E92(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E92_Spacetime_Volume"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E82_Actor_Appellation">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises any sort of name, number, code or symbol characteristically used to identify an E39 Actor.
An E39 Actor will typically have more than one E82 Actor Appellation, and instances of E82 Actor Appellation in turn may have alternative representations. The distinction between corporate and personal names, which is particularly important in library applications, should be made by explicitly linking the E82 Actor Appellation to an instance of either E21 Person or E74 Group/E40 Legal Body. If this is not possible, the distinction can be made through the use of the P2 has type mechanism.
Examples:
- "John Doe"
- "Doe, J"
- "the U.S. Social Security Number 246-14-2304"
- "the Artist Formerly Known as Prince"
- "the Master of the Flemish Madonna"
- "Raphael's Workshop"
- "the Brontë Sisters"
- "ICOM"
- "International Council of Museums"
In First Order Logic:
E82(x) ⊃ E41(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E82 Actor Appellation</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E82</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E41_Appellation"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E90_Symbolic_Object">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E90</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E90 Symbolic Object</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises identifiable symbols and any aggregation of symbols, such as characters, identifiers, traffic signs, emblems, texts, data sets, images, musical scores, multimedia objects, computer program code or mathematical formulae that have an objectively recognizable structure and that are documented as single units.
It includes sets of signs of any nature, which may serve to designate something, or to communicate some propositional content.
An instance of E90 Symbolic Object does not depend on a specific physical carrier, which can include human memory, and it can exist on one or more carriers simultaneously. An instance of E90 Symbolic Object may or may not have a specific meaning, for example an arbitrary character string.
In some cases, the content of an instance of E90 Symbolic Object may completely be represented by a serialized digital content model, such as a sequence of ASCII-encoded characters, an XML or HTML document, or a TIFF image. The property P3 has note allows for the description of this content model. In order to disambiguate which symbolic level is the carrier of the meaning, the property P3.1 has type can be used to specify the encoding (e.g. "bit", "Latin character", RGB pixel).
Examples:
- 'ecognizabl'
- The "no-smoking" sign (E36)
- "BM000038850.JPG" (E75)
- image BM000038850.JPG from the Clayton Herbarium in London (E38)
- The distribution of form, tone and colour found on Leonardo da Vinci's painting named "Mona Lisa" in daylight (E38)
- The Italian text of Dante's "Divina Commedia" as found in the authoritative critical edition La Commedia secondo l'antica vulgata a cura di Giorgio Petrocchi, Milano: Mondadori, 1966-67 (= Le Opere di Dante Alighieri, Edizione Nazionale a cura della Società Dantesca Italiana, VII, 1-4) (E33)
In First Order Logic:
E90(x) ⊃ E28(x)
E90(x) ⊃ E72(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E72_Legal_Object"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E28_Conceptual_Object"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E45_Address">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E45</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E45 Address</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises identifiers expressed in coding systems for places, such as postal addresses used for mailing.
An E45 Address can be considered both as the name of an E53 Place and as an E51 Contact Point for an E39 Actor. This dual aspect is reflected in the multiple inheritance. However, some forms of mailing addresses, such as a postal box, are only instances of E51 Contact Point, since they do not identify any particular Place. These should not be documented as instances of E45 Address.
Examples:
- "1-29-3 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 121, Japan"
- "Rue David Dufour 5, CH-1211, Genève"
In First Order Logic:
E45(x) ⊃ E44(x)
E45(x) ⊃ E51(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E51_Contact_Point"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E44_Place_Appellation"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E74_Group">
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E39_Actor"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E74</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E74 Group</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises any gatherings or organizations of E39 Actors that act collectively or in a similar way due to any form of unifying relationship. In the wider sense this class also comprises official positions which used to be regarded in certain contexts as one actor, independent of the current holder
of the office, such as the president of a country. In such cases, it may happen that the Group never had more than one member. A joint pseudonym (i.e., a name that seems indicative of an individual but that is actually used as a persona by two or more people) is a particular case of E74 Group..
A gathering of people becomes an E74 Group when it exhibits organizational characteristics usually typified by a set of ideas or beliefs held in common, or actions performed together. These might be communication, creating some common artifact, a common purpose such as study, worship, business, sports, etc. Nationality can be modelled as membership in an E74 Group (cf. HumanML markup). Married couples and other concepts of family are regarded as particular examples of E74 Group.
Examples:
- the impressionists
- the Navajo
- the Greeks
- the peace protestors in New York City on February 15 2003
- Exxon-Mobil
- King Solomon and his wives
- the President of the Swiss Confederation
- Nicolas Bourbaki
- Betty Crocker
- Ellery Queen
In First Order Logic:
E74(x) ⊃ E39(x)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E31_Document">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E31</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E73_Information_Object"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E31 Document</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises identifiable immaterial items that make propositions about reality.
These propositions may be expressed in text, graphics, images, audiograms, videograms or by other similar means. Documentation databases are regarded as a special case of E31 Document. This class should not be confused with the term "document" in Information Technology, which is compatible with E73 Information Object.
Examples:
- the Encyclopaedia Britannica (E32)
- The image content of the photo of the Allied Leaders at Yalta published by UPI, 1945 (E38)
- the Doomsday Book
In First Order Logic:
E31(x) ⊃ E73(x)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E47_Spatial_Coordinates">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E47 Spatial Coordinates</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E47</skos:notation>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises the textual or numeric information required to locate specific instances of E53 Place within schemes of spatial identification.
Coordinates are a specific form of E44 Place Appellation, that is, a means of referring to a particular E53 Place. Coordinates are not restricted to longitude, latitude and altitude. Any regular system of reference that maps onto an E19 Physical Object can be used to generate coordinates.
Examples:
- "6°5'29"N 45°12'13"W"
- "Black queen's bishop 4" [chess coordinate].
In First Order Logic:
E47(x) ⊃ E44(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E44_Place_Appellation"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E17_Type_Assignment">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E17</skos:notation>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises the actions of classifying items of whatever kind. Such items include objects, specimens, people, actions and concepts.
This class allows for the documentation of the context of classification acts in cases where the value of the classification depends on the personal opinion of the classifier, and the date that the classification was made. This class also encompasses the notion of "determination", i.e. the systematic and molecular identification of a specimen in biology.
Examples:
- the first classification of object GE34604 as Lament Cloth, October 2nd
- the determination of a cactus in Martin Doerr's garden as 'Cereus hildmannianus K.Schumann', July 2003
In First Order Logic:
E17(x) ⊃ E13(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E17 Type Assignment</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E13_Attribute_Assignment"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E92_Spacetime_Volume">
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E1_CRM_Entity"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:comment rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">Scope note:
This class comprises 4 dimensional point sets (volumes) in physical spacetime regardless its true geometric form. They may derive their identity from being the extent of a material phenomenon or from being the interpretation of an expression defining an extent in spacetime. Intersections of instances of E92 Spacetime Volume, Place and Timespan are also regarded as instances of E92 Spacetime Volume. An instance of E92 Spacetime Volume is either contiguous or composed of a finite number of contiguous subsets. Its boundaries may be fuzzy due to the properties of the phenomena it derives from or due to the limited precision up to which defining expression can be identified with a real extent in spacetime. The duration of existence of an instance of a spacetime volume is trivially its projection on time.
Examples:
- the spacetime Volume of the Event of Ceasars murder 
- the spacetime Volume where and when the carbon 14 dating of the "Schoeninger Speer II" in 1996  took place 
- the spatio‐temporal trajectory of the H.M.S. Victory from its building to its actual location
- the spacetime volume defined by a polygon approximating the Danube river flood in Austria between 6th and 9th of August 2002
In First Order Logic:
E92(x) ⊃ E1(x)</rdfs:comment>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E92</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E92 Spacetime Volume</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E5_Event">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises changes of states in cultural, social or physical systems, regardless of scale, brought about by a series or group of coherent physical, cultural, technological or legal phenomena. Such changes of state will affect instances of E77 Persistent Item or its subclasses.
The distinction between an E5 Event and an E4 Period is partly a question of the scale of observation. Viewed at a coarse level of detail, an E5 Event is an 'instantaneous' change of state. At a fine level, the E5 Event can be analysed into its component phenomena within a space and time frame, and as such can be seen as an E4 Period. The reverse is not necessarily the case: not all instances of E4 Period give rise to a noteworthy change of state.
Examples:
- the birth of Cleopatra (E67)
- the destruction of Herculaneum by volcanic eruption in 79 AD (E6)
- World War II (E7)
- the Battle of Stalingrad (E7)
- the Yalta Conference (E7)
- my birthday celebration 28-6-1995 (E7)
- the falling of a tile from my roof last Sunday
- the CIDOC Conference 2003 (E7)
In First Order Logic:
E5(x) ⊃ E4(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E5 Event</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E4_Period"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E5</skos:notation>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E70_Thing">
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E77_Persistent_Item"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E70</skos:notation>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This general class comprises discrete, identifiable, instances of E77 Persistent Item that are documented as single units, that either consist of matter or depend on being carried by matter and are characterized by relative stability.
They may be intellectual products or physical things. They may for instance have a solid physical form, an electronic encoding, or they may be a logical concept or structure.
Examples:
- my photograph collection (E78)
- the bottle of milk in my refrigerator (E22)
- the plan of the Strassburger Muenster (E29)
- the thing on the top of Otto Hahn's desk (E19)
- the form of the no-smoking sign (E36)
- the cave of Dirou, Mani, Greece (E27)
In First Order Logic:
E70(x) ⊃ E77(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E70 Thing</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E9_Move">
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E7_Activity"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E9</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E9 Move</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises changes of the physical location of the instances of E19 Physical Object.
Note, that the class E9 Move inherits the property P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place. This property should be used to describe the trajectory or a larger area within which a move takes place, whereas the properties P26 moved to (was destination of), P27 moved from (was origin of) describe the start and end points only. Moves may also be documented to consist of other moves (via P9 consists of (forms part of)), in order to describe intermediate stages on a trajectory. In that case, start and end points of the partial moves should match appropriately between each other and with the overall event.
Examples:
- the relocation of London Bridge from the UK to the USA
- the movement of the exhibition "Treasures of Tut-Ankh-Amun" 1976-1979
In First Order Logic:
E9(x) ⊃ E7(x)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E49_Time_Appellation">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E49 Time Appellation</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E49</skos:notation>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises all forms of names or codes, such as historical periods, and dates, which are characteristically used to refer to a specific E52 Time-Span.
The instances of E49 Time Appellation may vary in their degree of precision, and they may be relative to other time frames, "Before Christ" for example. Instances of E52 Time-Span are often defined by reference to a cultural period or an event e.g. 'the duration of the Ming Dynasty'.
Examples:
- "Meiji" [Japanese term for a specific time-span]
- "1st half of the XX century"
- "Quaternary"
- "1215 Hegira" [a date in the Islamic calendar]
- "Last century"
In First Order Logic:
E49(x) ⊃ E41(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E41_Appellation"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E4_Period">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E92_Spacetime_Volume"/>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E2_Temporal_Entity"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E4</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E4 Period</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations occurring in time and space.
It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an E4 Period and not the associated spatiotemporal extent. This extent is only the “ground” or space in an abstract physical sense that the actual process of growth, spread and retreat has covered. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area and time as a sedentary culture. This also means that overlapping land use rights, common among first nations, amounts to overlapping periods.
Often, this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the “Neolithic Period”, the “Ming Dynasty” or the “McCarthy Era”, but also geopolitical units and activities of settlements are regarded as special cases of E4 Period. However, there are no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical E67 Birth can be seen as both an atomic E5 Event and as an E4 Period that consists of multiple activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor.
As the actual extent of an E4 Period in spacetime we regard the trajectories of the participating physical things during their participation in an instance of E4 Period. This includes the open spaces via which these things have interacted and the spaces by which they had the potential to interact during that period or event in the way defined by the type of the respective period or event. Examples include the air in a meeting room transferring the voices of the participants. Since these phenomena are fuzzy, we assume the spatiotemporal extent to be contiguous, except for cases of phenomena spreading out over islands or other separated areas, including geopolitical units distributed over disconnected areas such as islands or colonies.
Whether the trajectories necessary for participants to travel between these areas are regarded as part of the spatiotemporal extent or not has to be decided in each case based on a concrete analysis, taking use of the sea for other purposes than travel, such as fishing, into consideration. One may also argue that the activities to govern disconnected areas imply travelling through spaces connecting them and that these areas hence are spatially connected in a way, but it appears counterintuitive to consider for instance travel routes in international waters as extensions of geopolitical units.
Consequently, an instance of E4 Period may occupy a number of disjoint spacetime volumes, however there must not be a discontinuity in the timespan covered by these spacetime volumes. This means that an instance of E4 Period must be contiguous in time. If it has ended in all areas, it has ended as a whole. However it may end in one area before another, such as in the Polynesian migration, and it continues as long as it is ongoing in at least one area.
We model E4 Period as a subclass of E2 Temporal Entity and of E92 Spacetime volume. The latter is intended as a phenomenal spacetime volume as defined in CRMgeo (Doerr and Hiebel 2013). By virtue of this multiple inheritance we can discuss the physical extent of an E4 Period without representing each instance of it together with an instance of its associated spacetime volume. This model combines two quite different kinds of substance: an instance of E4 Period is a phenomena while a spacetime volume is an aggregation of points in spacetime. However, the real spatiotemporal extent of an instance of E4 Period is regarded to be unique to it due to all its details and fuzziness; its identity and existence depends uniquely on the identity of the instance of E4 Period. Therefore this multiple inheritance is unambiguous and effective and furthermore corresponds to the intuitions of natural language.
There are two different conceptualisations of ‘artistic style’, defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an instance of E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type.
Another specific case of an E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena associated with a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh.
Examples:
Jurassic
European Bronze Age
Italian Renaissance
Thirty Years War
Sturm und Drang
Cubism
In First Order Logic:
E4(x) ⊃ E2(x)
E4(x) ⊃ E92(x)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E81_Transformation">
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E64_End_of_Existence"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E63_Beginning_of_Existence"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises the events that result in the simultaneous destruction of one or more than one E77 Persistent Item and the creation of one or more than one E77 Persistent Item that preserves recognizable substance from the first one(s) but has fundamentally different nature and identity.
Although the old and the new instances of E77 Persistent Item are treated as discrete entities having separate, unique identities, they are causally connected through the E81 Transformation; the destruction of the old E77 Persistent Item(s) directly causes the creation of the new one(s) using or preserving some relevant substance. Instances of E81 Transformation are therefore distinct from re-classifications (documented using E17 Type Assignment) or modifications (documented using E11 Modification) of objects that do not fundamentally change their nature or identity. Characteristic cases are reconstructions and repurposing of historical buildings or ruins, fires leaving buildings in ruins, taxidermy of specimen in natural history and the reorganization of a corporate body into a new one.
Examples:
- the death and mummification of Tut-Ankh-Amun (transformation of Tut-Ankh-Amun from a living person to a mummy) (E69,E81,E7)
In First Order Logic:
E81(x) ⊃ E63(x)
E81(x) ⊃ E64(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E81 Transformation</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E81</skos:notation>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E86_Leaving">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E86 Leaving</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E86</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E7_Activity"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises the activities that result in an instance of E39 Actor to be disassociated from an instance of E74 Group. This class does not imply initiative by either party. It may be the initiative of a third party.
Typical scenarios include the termination of membership in a social organisation, ending the employment at a company, divorce, and the end of tenure of somebody in an official position.
Examples:
- The end of Sir Isaac Newton's duty as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament in 1702
- George Washington's leaving office in 1797
- The implementation of the treaty regulating the termination of Greenland’s membership in EU between EU, Denmark and Greenland February 1. 1985
In First Order Logic:
E86(x) ⊃ E7(x)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E66_Formation">
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E7_Activity"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E63_Beginning_of_Existence"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E66</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E66 Formation</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises events that result in the formation of a formal or informal E74 Group of people,
such as a club, society, association, corporation or nation.
E66 Formation does not include the arbitrary aggregation of people who do not act as a collective.
The formation of an instance of E74 Group does not require that the group is populated with members
at the time of formation. In order to express the joining of members at the time of formation, the
respective activity should be simultaneously an instance of both E66 Formation and E85 Joining.
Examples:
 the formation of the CIDOC CRM Special Interest Group
 the formation of the Soviet Union
 the conspiring of the murderers of Caesar
In First Order Logic:
E66(x) ⊃ E7(x)
E66(x) ⊃ E63(x)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E25_Man-Made_Feature">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E25</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E26_Physical_Feature"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E24_Physical_Man-Made_Thing"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises physical features that are purposely created by human activity, such as scratches, artificial caves, artificial water channels, etc.
No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding a feature as man-made. For example, rock art or even "cup and ring" carvings on bedrock a regarded as types of E25 Man-Made Feature.
Examples:
- the Manchester Ship Canal
- Michael Jackson's nose following plastic surgery
In First Order Logic:
E25(x) ⊃ E26(x)
E25(x) ⊃ E24(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E25 Man-Made Feature</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E46_Section_Definition">
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E44_Place_Appellation"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises areas of objects referred to in terms specific to the general geometry or structure of its kind.
The 'prow' of the boat, the 'frame' of the picture, the 'front' of the building are all instances of E46 Section Definition. The class highlights the fact that parts of objects can be treated as locations. This holds in particular for features without natural boundaries, such as the "head" of a marble statue made out of one block (cf. E53 Place). In answer to the question 'where is the signature?' one might reply 'on the lower left corner'. (Section Definition is closely related to the term "segment" in Gerstl, P.&amp; Pribbenow, S, 1996 " A conceptual theory of part – whole relations and its applications", Data &amp; Knowledge Engineering 20 305-322, North Holland- Elsevier).
Examples:
- "the entrance lobby to the Ripley Center"
- "the poop deck of H.M.S Victory"
- "the Venus de Milo's left buttock"
- "left inner side of my box"
In First Order Logic:
E46(x) ⊃ E44(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E46 Section Definition</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E46</skos:notation>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E64_End_of_Existence">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E64</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E5_Event"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E64 End of Existence</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises events that end the existence of any E77 Persistent Item.
It may be used for temporal reasoning about things (physical items, groups of people, living beings) ceasing to exist; it serves as a hook for determination of a terminus postquem and antequem. In cases where substance from a Persistent Item continues to exist in a new form, the process would be documented by E81 Transformation.
Examples:
- the death of Snoopy, my dog
- the melting of the snowman
- the burning of the Temple of Artemis in Ephesos by Herostratos in 356BC
In First Order Logic:
E64(x) ⊃ E5(x)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E42_Identifier">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises strings or codes assigned to instances of E1 CRM Entity in order to identify them uniquely and permanently within the context of one or more organisations. Such codes are often known as inventory numbers, registration codes, etc. and are typically composed of alphanumeric sequences. The class E42 Identifier is not normally used for machine-generated identifiers used for automated processing unless these are also used by human agents.
Examples:
- "MM.GE.195"
- "13.45.1976"
- "OXCMS: 1997.4.1"
- ISSN "0041-5278"
- ISRC "FIFIN8900116"
- Shelf mark "Res 8 P 10"
- "Guillaume de Machaut (1300?-1377)" [a controlled personal name heading that follows
the French rules]
In First Order Logic:
E42(x) ⊃ E41(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E41_Appellation"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E42</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E42 Identifier</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E27_Site">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E27 Site</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E27</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E26_Physical_Feature"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises pieces of land or sea floor.
In contrast to the purely geometric notion of E53 Place, this class describes constellations of matter on the surface of the Earth or other celestial body, which can be represented by photographs, paintings and maps.
Instances of E27 Site are composed of relatively immobile material items and features in a particular configuration at a particular location.
Examples:
- the Amazon river basin
- Knossos
- the Apollo 11 landing site
- Heathrow Airport
- the submerged harbour of the Minoan settlement of Gournia, Crete
In First Order Logic:
E27(x)⊃ E26(x)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E12_Production">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E12 Production</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E12</skos:notation>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises activities that are designed to, and succeed in, creating one or more new items.
It specializes the notion of modification into production. The decision as to whether or not an object is regarded as new is context sensitive. Normally, items are considered "new" if there is no obvious overall similarity between them and the consumed items and material used in their production. In other cases, an item is considered "new" because it becomes relevant to documentation by a modification. For example, the scribbling of a name on a potsherd may make it a voting token. The original potsherd may not be worth documenting, in contrast to the inscribed one.
This entity can be collective: the printing of a thousand books, for example, would normally be considered a single event.
An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities and matter is preserved, but identity is not.
Examples:
- the construction of the SS Great Britain
- the first casting of the Little Mermaid from the harbour of Copenhagen
- Rembrandt's creating of the seventh state of his etching "Woman sitting half dressed beside a stove", 1658, identified by Bartsch Number 197 (E12,E65,E81)
In First Order Logic:
E12(x) ⊃ E11(x)
E12(x) ⊃ E63(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E63_Beginning_of_Existence"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E11_Modification"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E48_Place_Name">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E48</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E48 Place Name</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises particular and common forms of E44 Place Appellation.
Place Names may change their application over time: the name of an E53 Place may change, and a name may be reused for a different E53 Place. Instances of E48 Place Name are typically subject to place name gazetteers.
Examples:
- "Greece"
- "Athens"
- "Geneva"
- "Lac Léman"
In First Order Logic:
E48(x) ⊃ E44(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E44_Place_Appellation"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E89_Propositional_Object">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E89 Propositional Object</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises immaterial items, including but not limited to stories, plots, procedural prescriptions, algorithms, laws of physics or images that are, or represent in some sense, sets of propositions about real or imaginary things and that are documented as single units or serve as topic of discourse.
This class also comprises items that are "about" something in the sense of a subject. In the wider sense, this class includes expressions of psychological value such as non-figural art and musical themes. However, conceptual items such as types and classes are not instances of E89 Propositional Object. This should not be confused with the definition of a type, which is indeed an instance of E89 Propositional Object.
Examples:
- Maxwell's Equations
- The ideational contents of Aristotle's book entitled 'Metaphysics' as rendered in the Greek texts translated in … Oxford edition…
- The underlying prototype of any "no-smoking" sign (E36)
- The common ideas of the plots of the movie "The Seven Samurai" by Akira Kurosawa and the movie "The Magnificent Seven" by John Sturges
- The image content of the photo of the Allied Leaders at Yalta published by UPI, 1945 (E38)
In First Order Logic:
E89(x) ⊃ E28(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E28_Conceptual_Object"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E89</skos:notation>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E65_Creation">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E65 Creation</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E65</skos:notation>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises events that result in the creation of conceptual items or immaterial products, such as legends, poems, texts, music, images, movies, laws, types etc.
Examples:
- the framing of the U.S. Constitution
- the drafting of U.N. resolution 1441
In First Order Logic:
E65(x) ⊃ E7(x)
E65(x) ⊃ E63(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E7_Activity"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E63_Beginning_of_Existence"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E54_Dimension">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E54 Dimension</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises quantifiable properties that can be measured by some calibrated means and can be approximated by values, i.e. points or regions in a mathematical or conceptual space, such as natural or real numbers, RGB values etc.
An instance of E54 Dimension represents the true quantity, independent from its numerical approximation, e.g. in inches or in cm. The properties of the class E54 Dimension allow for expressing the numerical approximation of the values of an instance of E54 Dimension. If the true values belong to a non-discrete space, such as spatial distances, it is recommended to record them as approximations by intervals or regions of indeterminacy enclosing the assumed true values. For instance, a length of 5 cm may be recorded as 4.5-5.5 cm, according to the precision of the respective observation. Note, that interoperability of values described in different units depends critically on the representation as value regions.
Numerical approximations in archaic instances of E58 Measurement Unit used in historical records should be preserved. Equivalents corresponding to current knowledge should be recorded as additional instances of E54 Dimension as appropriate.
Examples:
- currency: £26.00
- length: 3.9-4.1 cm
- diameter: 26 mm
- weight: 150 lbs
- density: 0.85 gm/cc
- luminescence: 56 ISO lumens
- tin content: 0.46 %
- taille au garot: 5 hands
- calibrated C14 date: 2460-2720 years, etc
In First Order Logic:
E54(x) ⊃ E1(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E1_CRM_Entity"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E54</skos:notation>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E63_Beginning_of_Existence">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E63</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E63 Beginning of Existence</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises events that bring into existence any E77 Persistent Item.
It may be used for temporal reasoning about things (intellectual products, physical items, groups of people, living beings) beginning to exist; it serves as a hook for determination of a terminus post quem and ante quem.
Examples:
- the birth of my child
- the birth of Snoopy, my dog
- the calving of the iceberg that sank the Titanic
- the construction of the Eiffel Tower
In First Order Logic:
E63(x) ⊃ E5(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E5_Event"/>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E1_CRM_Entity">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#Thing"/>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises all things in the universe of discourse of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model.
It is an abstract concept providing for three general properties:
1.Identification by name or appellation, and in particular by a preferred identifier
2.Classification by type, allowing further refinement of the specific subclass an instance belongs to
3.Attachment of free text for the expression of anything not captured by formal properties
With the exception of E59 Primitive Value, all other classes within the CRM are directly or indirectly specialisations of E1 CRM Entity.
Examples:
the earthquake in Lisbon 1755 (E5)
In First Order Logic:
E1(x)</rdfs:comment>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E1</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E1 CRM Entity</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E39_Actor">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises people, either individually or in groups, who have the potential to perform intentional actions of kinds for which someone may be held responsible.
The CRM does not attempt to model the inadvertent actions of such actors. Individual people should be documented as instances of E21 Person, whereas groups should be documented as instances of either E74 Group or its subclass E40 Legal Body.
Examples:
- London and Continental Railways (E40)
- the Governor of the Bank of England in 1975 (E21)
- Sir Ian McKellan (E21)
In First Order Logic:
E39(x) ⊃ E77(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E39 Actor</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E39</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E77_Persistent_Item"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E71_Man-Made_Thing">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises discrete, identifiable man-made items that are documented as single units.
These items are either intellectual products or man-made physical things, and are characterized by relative stability. They may for instance have a solid physical form, an electronic encoding, or they may be logical concepts or structures.
Examples:
- Beethoven's 5th Symphony (E73)
- Michelangelo's David
- Einstein's Theory of General Relativity (E73)
- the taxon 'Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus, 1758' (E55)
In First Order Logic:
E71(x) ⊃ E70(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E71 Man-Made Thing</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E71</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E70_Thing"/>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E68_Dissolution">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E68 Dissolution</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E68</skos:notation>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises the events that result in the formal or informal termination of an E74 Group of people.
If the dissolution was deliberate, the Dissolution event should also be instantiated as an E7 Activity.
Examples:
- the fall of the Roman Empire
- the liquidation of Enron Corporation
In First Order Logic:
E68(x) ⊃ E64(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E64_End_of_Existence"/>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E8_Acquisition">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E8</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E8 Acquisition</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E7_Activity"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises transfers of legal ownership from one or more instances of E39 Actor to one or more other instances of E39 Actor.
The class also applies to the establishment or loss of ownership of instances of E18 Physical Thing. It does not, however, imply changes of any other kinds of right. The recording of the donor and/or recipient is optional. It is possible that in an instance of E8 Acquisition there is either no donor or no recipient. Depending on the circumstances, it may describe:
1. the beginning of ownership
2. the end of ownership
3. the transfer of ownership
4. the acquisition from an unknown source
5. the loss of title due to destruction of the item
It may also describe events where a collector appropriates legal title, for example by annexation or field collection. The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CRM therefore models legal ownership (E8 Acquisition) and physical custody (E10 Transfer of Custody) separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these.
Examples:
- the collection of a hammer-head shark of the genus Sphyrna (Carchariniformes) XXXtbc by John Steinbeck and Edward Ricketts at Puerto Escondido in the Gulf of Mexico on March 25th, 1940
- the acquisition of El Greco's "The Apostles Peter and Paul" by the State Hermitage in Saint Petersburg
- the loss of my stuffed chaffinch 'Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus, 1758' due to insect damage last year
In First Order Logic:
E8(x) ⊃ E7(x)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E77_Persistent_Item">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises items that have a persistent identity, sometimes known as "endurants" in philosophy.
They can be repeatedly recognized within the duration of their existence by identity criteria rather than by continuity or observation. Persistent Items can be either physical entities, such as people, animals or things, or conceptual entities such as ideas, concepts, products of the imagination or common names.
The criteria that determine the identity of an item are often difficult to establish -; the decision depends largely on the judgement of the observer. For example, a building is regarded as no longer existing if it is dismantled and the materials reused in a different configuration. On the other hand, human beings go through radical and profound changes during their life-span, affecting both material composition and form, yet preserve their identity by other criteria. Similarly, inanimate objects may be subject to exchange of parts and matter. The class E77 Persistent Item does not take any position about the nature of the applicable identity criteria and if actual knowledge about identity of an instance of this class exists. There may be cases, where the identity of an E77 Persistent Item is not decidable by a certain state of knowledge.
The main classes of objects that fall outside the scope the E77 Persistent Item class are temporal objects such as periods, events and acts, and descriptive properties.
Examples:
- Leonardo da Vinci
- Stonehenge
- the hole in the ozone layer
- the First Law of Thermodynamics
- the Bermuda Triangle
In First Order Logic:
E77(x) ⊃ E1(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E77 Persistent Item</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E1_CRM_Entity"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E77</skos:notation>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E75_Conceptual_Object_Appellation">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E75 Conceptual Object Appellation</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E75</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E41_Appellation"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises all appellations specific to intellectual products or standardized patterns.
This class comprises appellations that are by their form or syntax specific to identifying instances of
E28 Conceptual Object, such as intellectual products, standardized patterns etc.
Examples:
- "ISBN 3-7913-1418-1"
- "ISO 2788-1986 (F)"
- "DOI=10.1109/MIS.2007.103"
In First Order Logic:
E75(x) ⊃ E41(x)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E19_Physical_Object">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E19 Physical Object</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E19</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E18_Physical_Thing"/>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises items of a material nature that are units for documentation and have physical boundaries that separate them completely in an objective way from other objects.
The class also includes all aggregates of objects made for functional purposes of whatever kind, independent of physical coherence, such as a set of chessmen. Typically, instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy).
In some contexts, such objects, except for aggregates, are also called "bona fide objects" (Smith &amp; Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420), i.e. naturally defined objects.
The decision as to what is documented as a complete item, rather than by its parts or components, may be a purely administrative decision or may be a result of the order in which the item was acquired.
Examples:
- John Smith
- Aphrodite of Milos
- the Palace of Knossos
- the Cullinan diamond
- Apollo 13 at the time of launch
In First Order Logic:
E19(x) ⊃ E18(x)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E13_Attribute_Assignment">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E13</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E13 Attribute Assignment</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises the actions of making assertions about properties of an object or any relation between two items or concepts.
This class allows the documentation of how the respective assignment came about, and whose opinion it was. All the attributes or properties assigned in such an action can also be seen as directly attached to the respective item or concept, possibly as a collection of contradictory values. All cases of properties in this model that are also described indirectly through an action are characterised as "short cuts" of this action. This redundant modelling of two alternative views is preferred because many implementations may have good reasons to model either the action or the short cut, and the relation between both alternatives can be captured by simple rules.
In particular, the class describes the actions of people making propositions and statements during certain museum procedures, e.g. the person and date when a condition statement was made, an identifier was assigned, the museum object was measured, etc. Which kinds of such assignments and statements need to be documented explicitly in structures of a schema rather than free text, depends on if this information should be accessible by structured queries.
Examples:
- the assessment of the current ownership of Martin Doerr's silver cup in February 1997
In First Order Logic:
E13(x) ⊃ E7(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E7_Activity"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E10_Transfer_of_Custody">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E10</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E10 Transfer of Custody</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises transfers of physical custody of objects between instances of E39 Actor.
The recording of the donor and/or recipient is optional. It is possible that in an instance of E10 Transfer of Custody there is either no donor or no recipient. Depending on the circumstances it may describe:
1. the beginning of custody
2. the end of custody
3. the transfer of custody
4. the receipt of custody from an unknown source
5. the declared loss of an object
The distinction between the legal responsibility for custody and the actual physical possession of the object should be expressed using the property P2 has type (is type of). A specific case of transfer of custody is theft. The sense of physical possession requires that the object of custody is in the hands of the keeper at least with a part representative for the whole. The way, in which a representative part is defined, should ensure that it is unambiguous who keeps a part and who the whole and should be consistent with the identity criteria of the kept instance of E18 Physical Thing. For instance, in the case of a set of cutlery we may require the majority of pieces having been in the hands of the actor regardless which individual pieces are kept over time.
The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CRM therefore models legal ownership and physical custody separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these.
Examples:
- the delivery of the paintings by Secure Deliveries Inc. to the National Gallery
- the return of Picasso's "Guernica" to Madrid's Prado in 1981
In First Order Logic:
E10(x) ⊃ E7(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E7_Activity"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E52_Time-Span">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises abstract temporal extents, in the sense of Galilean physics, having a beginning, an end and a duration.
Time Span has no other semantic connotations. Time-Spans are used to define the temporal extent of instances of E4 Period, E5 Event and any other phenomena valid for a certain time. An E52 Time-Span may be identified by one or more instances of E49 Time Appellation.
Since our knowledge of history is imperfect, instances of E52 Time-Span can best be considered as approximations of the actual Time-Spans of temporal entities. The properties of E52 Time-Span are intended to allow these approximations to be expressed precisely. An extreme case of approximation, might, for example, define an E52 Time-Span having unknown beginning, end and duration. Used as a common E52 Time-Span for two events, it would nevertheless define them as being simultaneous, even if nothing else was known.
Automatic processing and querying of instances of E52 Time-Span is facilitated if data can be parsed into an E61 Time Primitive.
Examples:
- 1961
- from 12-17-1993 to 12-8-1996
- 14h30 - 16h22 4th July 1945
- 9.30 am 1.1.1999 to 2.00 pm 1.1.1999
- duration of the Ming Dynasty
In First Order Logic:
E52(x) ⊃ E1(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E52 Time-Span</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E1_CRM_Entity"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E52</skos:notation>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E34_Inscription">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises recognisable, short texts attached to instances of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.
The transcription of the text can be documented in a note by P3 has note: E62 String. The alphabet used can be documented by P2 has type: E55 Type. This class does not intend to describe the idiosyncratic characteristics of an individual physical embodiment of an inscription, but the underlying prototype. The physical embodiment is modelled in the CRM as E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.
The relationship of a physical copy of a book to the text it contains is modelled using E84 Information Carrier. P128 carries (is carried by): E33 Linguistic Object.
Examples:
- "keep off the grass" on a sign stuck in the lawn of the quad of Balliol College
- The text published in Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum V 895
- Kilroy was here
In First Order Logic:
E34(x) ⊃ E33(x)
E34(x) ⊃ E37(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E34 Inscription</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E34</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E37_Mark"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E33_Linguistic_Object"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E37_Mark">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises symbols, signs, signatures or short texts applied to instances of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing by arbitrary techniques in order to indicate the creator, owner, dedications, purpose, etc.
This class specifically excludes features that have no semantic significance, such as scratches or tool marks. These should be documented as instances of E25 Man-Made Feature.
Examples:
 Minoan double axe mark
 ©
 
In First Order Logic:
E37(x) ⊃ E36(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E37 Mark</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E36_Visual_Item"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E37</skos:notation>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E7_Activity">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E7 Activity</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E7</skos:notation>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises actions intentionally carried out by instances of E39 Actor that result in changes of state in the cultural, social, or physical systems documented.
This notion includes complex, composite and long-lasting actions such as the building of a settlement or a war, as well as simple, short-lived actions such as the opening of a door.
Examples:
- the Battle of Stalingrad
- the Yalta Conference
- my birthday celebration 28-6-1995
- the writing of "Faust" by Goethe (E65)
- the formation of the Bauhaus 1919 (E66)
- calling the place identified by TGN '7017998' 'Quyunjig' by the people of Iraq
- Kira Weber working in glass art from 1984 to 1993
- Kira Weber working in oil and pastel painting from 1993
In First Order Logic:
E7(x) ⊃ E5(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E5_Event"/>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E69_Death">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E69</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E64_End_of_Existence"/>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises the deaths of human beings.
If a person is killed, their death should be instantiated as E69 Death and as E7 Activity. The death or perishing of other living beings should be documented using E64 End of Existence.
Examples:
- the murder of Julius Caesar (E69,E7)
- the death of Senator Paul Wellstone
In First Order Logic:
E69(x) ⊃ E64(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E69 Death</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E26_Physical_Feature">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises identifiable features that are physically attached in an integral way to particular physical objects.
Instances of E26 Physical Feature share many of the attributes of instances of E19 Physical Object. They may have a one-, two- or three-dimensional geometric extent, but there are no natural borders that separate them completely in an objective way from the carrier objects. For example, a doorway is a feature but the door itself, being attached by hinges, is not.
Instances of E26 Physical Feature can be features in a narrower sense, such as scratches, holes, reliefs, surface colours, reflection zones in an opal crystal or a density change in a piece of wood. In the wider sense, they are portions of particular objects with partially imaginary borders, such as the core of the Earth, an area of property on the surface of the Earth, a landscape or the head of a contiguous marble statue. They can be measured and dated, and it is sometimes possible to state who or what is or was responsible for them. They cannot be separated from the carrier object, but a segment of the carrier object may be identified (or sometimes removed) carrying the complete feature.
This definition coincides with the definition of "fiat objects" (Smith &amp; Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420), with the exception of aggregates of "bona fide objects".
Examples:
- the temple in Abu Simbel before its removal, which was carved out of solid rock
- Albrecht Duerer's signature on his painting of Charles the Great
- the damage to the nose of the Great Sphinx in Giza
- Michael Jackson's nose prior to plastic surgery
In First Order Logic:
E26(x) ⊃ E18(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E26 Physical Feature</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E26</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E18_Physical_Thing"/>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E72_Legal_Object">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E70_Thing"/>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises those material or immaterial items to which instances of E30 Right, such as the right of ownership or use, can be applied.
This is true for all E18 Physical Thing. In the case of instances of E28 Conceptual Object, however, the identity of the E28 Conceptual Object or the method of its use may be too ambiguous to reliably establish instances of E30 Right, as in the case of taxa and inspirations. Ownership of corporations is currently regarded as out of scope of the CRM.
Examples:
- the Cullinan diamond (E19)
- definition of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model Version 2.1 (E73)
In First Order Logic:
E72(x) ⊃ E70(x)</rdfs:comment>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E72</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E72 Legal Object</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E29_Design_or_Procedure">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E29</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E29 Design or Procedure</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E73_Information_Object"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises documented plans for the execution of actions in order to achieve a result of a specific quality, form or contents. In particular it comprises plans for deliberate human activities that may result in the modification or production of instances of E24 Physical Thing.
Instances of E29 Design or Procedure can be structured in parts and sequences or depend on others. This is modelled using P69 has association with (is associated with)..
Designs or procedures can be seen as one of the following:
1. A schema for the activities it describes
2. A schema of the products that result from their application.
3. An independent intellectual product that may have never been applied, such as Leonardo da Vinci's famous plans for flying machines.
Because designs or procedures may never be applied or only partially executed, the CRM models a loose relationship between the plan and the respective product.
Examples:
- the ISO standardisation procedure
- the musical notation of Beethoven's "Ode to Joy"
- the architectural drawings for the Kölner Dom in Cologne, Germany
- The drawing on the folio 860 of the Codex Atlanticus from Leonardo da Vinci, 1486-1490, kept in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan
In First Order Logic:
E29(x) ⊃ E73(x)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E36_Visual_Item">
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E73_Information_Object"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E36</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E36 Visual Item</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises the intellectual or conceptual aspects of recognisable marks and images.
This class does not intend to describe the idiosyncratic characteristics of an individual physical embodiment of a visual item, but the underlying prototype. For example, a mark such as the ICOM logo is generally considered to be the same logo when used on any number of publications. The size, orientation and colour may change, but the logo remains uniquely identifiable. The same is true of images that are reproduced many times. This means that visual items are independent of their physical support.
The class E36 Visual Item provides a means of identifying and linking together instances of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing that carry the same visual symbols, marks or images etc. The property P62 depicts (is depicted by) between E24 Physical Man-Made Thing and depicted subjects (E1 CRM Entity) can be regarded as a short-cut of the more fully developed path from E24 Physical Man-Made Thing through P65 shows visual item (is shown by), E36 Visual Item, P138 represents (has representation) to E1CRM Entity, which in addition captures the optical features of the depiction.
Examples:
- the visual appearance of Monet's "La Pie" (E38)
- the Coca-Cola logo (E34)
- the Chi-Rho (E37)
- the communist red star (E37)
In First Order Logic:
E36(x) ⊃ E73(x)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E57_Material">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class is a specialization of E55 Type and comprises the concepts of materials.
Instances of E57 Material may denote properties of matter before its use, during its use, and as incorporated in an object, such as ultramarine powder, tempera paste, reinforced concrete. Discrete pieces of raw-materials kept in museums, such as bricks, sheets of fabric, pieces of metal, should be modelled individually in the same way as other objects. Discrete used or processed pieces, such as the stones from Nefer Titi's temple, should be modelled as parts (cf. P46 is composed of).
This type is used categorically in the model without reference to instances of it, i.e. the Model does not foresee the description of instances of instances of E57 Material, e.g.: "instances of gold".
It is recommended that internationally or nationally agreed codes and terminology are used.
Examples:
- brick
- gold
- aluminium
- polycarbonate
- resin
In First Order Logic:
E57(x) ⊃ E55(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E55_Type"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E57</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E57 Material</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E80_Part_Removal">
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E11_Modification"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E80</skos:notation>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises the activities that result in an instance of E18 Physical Thing being decreased by the removal of a part.
Typical scenarios include the detachment of an accessory, the removal of a component or part of a composite object, or the deaccessioning of an object from a curated E78 Collection. If the E80 Part Removal results in the total decomposition of the original object into pieces, such that the whole ceases to exist, the activity should instead be modelled as an E81 Transformation, i.e. a simultaneous destruction and production. In cases where the part removed has no discernible identity prior to its removal but does have an identity subsequent to its removal, the activity should be regarded as both E80 Part Removal and E12 Production. This class of activities forms a basis for reasoning about the history, and continuity of identity over time, of objects that are removed from other objects, such as precious gemstones being extracted from different items of jewelry, or cultural artifacts being deaccessioned from different museum collections over their lifespan.
Examples:
- the removal of the engine from my car
- the disposal of object number 1976:234 from the collection
In First Order Logic:
E80(x) ⊃ E11(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E80 Part Removal</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E56_Language">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E56</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E56 Language</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E55_Type"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class is a specialization of E55 Type and comprises the natural languages in the sense of concepts.
This type is used categorically in the model without reference to instances of it, i.e. the Model does not foresee the description of instances of instances of E56 Language, e.g.: "instances of Mandarin Chinese".
It is recommended that internationally or nationally agreed codes and terminology are used to denote instances of E56 Language, such as those defined in ISO 639:1988.
Examples:
- el [Greek]
- en [English]
- eo [Esperanto]
- es [Spanish]
- fr [French]
In First Order Logic:
E56(x) ⊃ E55(x)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E3_Condition_State">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E3 Condition State</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E3</skos:notation>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises the states of objects characterised by a certain condition over a time-span.
An instance of this class describes the prevailing physical condition of any material object or
feature during a specific E52 Time Span. In general, the time-span for which a certain
condition can be asserted may be shorter than the real time-span, for which this condition held.
The nature of that condition can be described using P2 has type. For example, the E3
Condition State "condition of the SS Great Britain between 22 September 1846 and 27 August
1847" can be characterized as E55 Type "wrecked".
Examples:
- the "Amber Room" in Tsarskoje Selo being completely reconstructed from summer 2003 until now
- the Peterhof Palace near Saint Petersburg being in ruins from 1944 – 1946
- the state of my turkey in the oven at 14:30 on 25 December, 2002 (P2 has type: E55 Type "still not cooked")
In First Order Logic:
E3(x) ⊃ E2(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E2_Temporal_Entity"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E79_Part_Addition">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E79 Part Addition</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises activities that result in an instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing being increased, enlarged or augmented by the addition of a part.
Typical scenarios include the attachment of an accessory, the integration of a component, the addition of an element to an aggregate object, or the accessioning of an object into a curated E78 Collection. Objects to which parts are added are, by definition, man-made, since the addition of a part implies a human activity. Following the addition of parts, the resulting man-made assemblages are treated objectively as single identifiable wholes, made up of constituent or component parts bound together either physically (for example the engine becoming a part of the car), or by sharing a common purpose (such as the 32 chess pieces that make up a chess set). This class of activities forms a basis for reasoning about the history and continuity of identity of objects that are integrated into other objects over time, such as precious gemstones being repeatedly incorporated into different items of jewellery, or cultural artifacts being added to different museum instances of E78 Collection over their lifespan.
Examples:
- the setting of the koh-i-noor diamond into the crown of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother
- the addition of the painting "Room in Brooklyn" by Edward Hopper to the collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
In First Order Logic:
E79(x) ⊃ E11(x)</rdfs:comment>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E79</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E11_Modification"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E11_Modification">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E7_Activity"/>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises all instances of E7 Activity that create, alter or change E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.
This class includes the production of an item from raw materials, and other so far undocumented objects, and the preventive treatment or restoration of an object for conservation.
Since the distinction between modification and production is not always clear, modification is regarded as the more generally applicable concept. This implies that some items may be consumed or destroyed in a Modification, and that others may be produced as a result of it. An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities.
If the instance of the E29 Design or Procedure utilized for the modification prescribes the use of specific materials, they should be documented using property P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by): E57 Material of E29 Design or Procedure, rather than via P126 employed (was employed in): E57 Material.
Examples:
- the construction of the SS Great Britain (E12)
- the impregnation of the Vasa warship in Stockholm for preservation after 1956
- the transformation of the Enola Gay into a museum exhibit by the National Air and Space Museum in Washington DC between 1993 and 1995 (E12, E81)
- the last renewal of the gold coating of the Toshogu shrine in Nikko, Japan
In First Order Logic:
E11(x) ⊃ E7(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E11 Modification</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E11</skos:notation>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E55_Type">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises concepts denoted by terms from thesauri and controlled vocabularies used to characterize and classify instances of CRM classes. Instances of E55 Type represent concepts in contrast to instances of E41 Appellation which are used to name instances of CRM classes.
E55 Type is the CRM's interface to domain specific ontologies and thesauri. These can be represented in the CRM as subclasses of E55 Type, forming hierarchies of terms, i.e. instances of E55 Type linked via P127 has broader term (has narrower term). Such hierarchies may be extended with additional properties.
Examples:
- weight, length, depth [types of E54]
- portrait, sketch, animation [types of E38]
- French, English, German [E56]
- excellent, good, poor [types of E3]
- Ford Model T, chop stick [types of E22]
- cave, doline, scratch [types of E26]
- poem, short story [types of E33]
- wedding, earthquake, skirmish [types of E5]
In First Order Logic:
E55(x) ⊃ E28(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E28_Conceptual_Object"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E55 Type</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E55</skos:notation>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E85_Joining">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E85 Joining</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E85</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E7_Activity"/>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises the activities that result in an instance of E39 Actor becoming a member of an instance of E74 Group. This class does not imply initiative by either party. It may be the initiative of a third party.
Typical scenarios include becoming a member of a social organisation, becoming employee of a company, marriage, the adoption of a child by a family and the inauguration of somebody into an official position.
Examples:
- The election of Sir Isaac Newton as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament of 1689
- The inauguration of Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev as leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1985
- The implementation of the membership treaty between EU and Denmark January 1. 1973
In First Order Logic:
E85(x) ⊃ E7(x)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E78_Collection">
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E24_Physical_Man-Made_Thing"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises aggregations of instances of E18 Physical Thing that are assembled and maintained ("curated" and "preserved," in museological terminology) by one or more instances of E39 Actor over time for a specific purpose and audience, and according to a particular collection development plan.
Items may be added or removed from an E78 Collection in pursuit of this plan. This class should not be confused with the E39 Actor maintaining the E78 Collection often referred to with the name of the E78 Collection (e.g. "The Wallace Collection decided…").
Collective objects in the general sense, like a tomb full of gifts, a folder with stamps or a set of chessmen, should be documented as instances of E19 Physical Object, and not as instances of E78 Collection. This is because they form wholes either because they are physically bound together or because they are kept together for their functionality.
Examples:
- The John Clayton Herbarium
- the Wallace Collection
- Mikael Heggelund Foslie's coralline red algae Herbarium at Museum of Natural History and Archaeology, Trondheim, Norway
In First Order Logic:
E78(x) ⊃ E24(x)</rdfs:comment>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E78</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E78 Collection</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E32_Authority_Document">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises encyclopaedia, thesauri, authority lists and other documents that define terminology or conceptual systems for consistent use.
Examples:
- Webster's Dictionary
- Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus
- the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model
In First Order Logic:
E32(x) ⊃ E31(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E31_Document"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E32</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E32 Authority Document</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E38_Image">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E38</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E38 Image</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises distributions of form, tone and colour that may be found on surfaces such as photos, paintings, prints and sculptures or directly on electronic media.
The degree to which variations in the distribution of form and colour affect the identity of an instance of E38 Image depends on a given purpose. The original painting of the Mona Lisa in the Louvre may be said to bear the same instance of E38 Image as reproductions in the form of transparencies, postcards, posters or T-shirts, even though they may differ in size and carrier and may vary in tone and colour. The images in a "spot the difference" competition are not the same with respect to their context, however similar they may at first appear.
Examples:
- the front side of all 20 Swiss Frs notes
- the image depicted on all reproductions of the Mona Lisa
In First Order Logic:
E38(x) ⊃ E36(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E36_Visual_Item"/>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E20_Biological_Object">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises individual items of a material nature, which live, have lived or are natural products of or from living organisms.
Artificial objects that incorporate biological elements, such as Victorian butterfly frames, can be documented as both instances of E20 Biological Object and E22 Man-Made Object.
Examples:
- me
- Tut-Ankh-Amun
- Boukephalas [Horse of Alexander the Great]
- petrified dinosaur excrement PA1906-344
In First Order Logic:
E20(x) ⊃ E19(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E19_Physical_Object"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E20 Biological Object</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E20</skos:notation>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E30_Right">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E89_Propositional_Object"/>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises legal privileges concerning material and immaterial things or their derivatives.
These include reproduction and property rights.
Examples:
- Copyright held by ISO on ISO/CD 21127
- ownership of the "Mona Lisa" by the Louvre
In First Order Logic:
E30(x) ⊃ E89(x</rdfs:comment>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E30</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E30 Right</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E28_Conceptual_Object">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E28</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E71_Man-Made_Thing"/>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises non-material products of our minds and other human produced data that have become objects of a discourse about their identity, circumstances of creation or historical implication. The production of such information may have been supported by the use of technical devices such as cameras or computers.
Characteristically, instances of this class are created, invented or thought by someone, and then may be documented or communicated between persons. Instances of E28 Conceptual Object have the ability to exist on more than one particular carrier at the same time, such as paper, electronic signals, marks, audio media, paintings, photos, human memories, etc.
They cannot be destroyed. They exist as long as they can be found on at least one carrier or in at least one human memory. Their existence ends when the last carrier and the last memory are lost.
Examples:
- Beethoven's "Ode an die Freude" (Ode to Joy) (E73)
- the definition of "ontology" in the Oxford English Dictionary
- the knowledge about the victory at Marathon carried by the famous runner
- 'Maxwell equations' [preferred subject access point from LCSH,
http://lccn.loc.gov/sh85082387, as of 19 November 2012]
- 'Equations, Maxwell' [variant subject access point, from the same source]
In First Order Logic:
E28(x) ⊃ E71(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E28 Conceptual Object</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E93_Presence">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E93</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E93 Spacetime Snapshot</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">Scope note:
This class comprises instances of E92 Spacetime Volume that result from intersection of instances of
E92 Spacetime Volume with an instance of E52 Time-Span. The identity of an instance of this class is determined by the identities of the constituing spacetime volume and the time-span.
This class can be used to define temporal snapshots at a particular time-span, such as the extent of the Roman Empire at 33 B.C., or the extent occupied by a museum object at rest in an exhibit. In particular, it can be used to define the spatial projection of a spacetime volume during a particular time-span, such as the maximal spatial extent of a flood at some particular hour, or all areas covered by the Poland within the 20th century AD.
In First Order Logic:
E93(x) ⊃ E92(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E92_Spacetime_Volume"/>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E73_Information_Object">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E73</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E73 Information Object</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises identifiable immaterial items, such as a poems, jokes, data sets, images, texts, multimedia objects, procedural prescriptions, computer program code, algorithm or mathematical formulae, that have an objectively recognizable structure and are documented as single units.
The encoding structure known as a "named graph" also falls under this class, so that each "named graph" is an instance of an E73 Information Object.
An E73 Information Object does not depend on a specific physical carrier, which can include human memory, and it can exist on one or more carriers simultaneously.
Instances of E73 Information Object of a linguistic nature should be declared as instances of the E33 Linguistic Object subclass. Instances of E73 Information Object of a documentary nature should be declared as instances of the E31 Document subclass. Conceptual items such as types and classes are not instances of E73 Information Object, nor are ideas without a reproducible expression.
Examples:
- image BM000038850.JPG from the Clayton Herbarium in London
- E. A. Poe's "The Raven"
- the movie "The Seven Samurai" by Akira Kurosawa
- the Maxwell Equations
- The Getty AAT as published as Linked Open Data, accessed 1/10/2014
In First Order Logic:
E73(x) ⊃ E89(x)
E73(x) ⊃ E90(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E90_Symbolic_Object"/>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E89_Propositional_Object"/>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E87_Curation_Activity">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises the activities that result in the continuity of management and the preservation and evolution of instances of E78 Collection, following an implicit or explicit curation plan.
It specializes the notion of activity into the curation of a collection and allows the history of curation to be recorded.
Items are accumulated and organized following criteria like subject, chronological period, material type, style of art etc. and can be added or removed from an E78 Collection for a specific purpose and/or audience. The initial aggregation of items of a collection is regarded as an instance of E12 Production Event while the activity of evolving, preserving and promoting a collection is regarded as an instance of E87 Curation Activity.
Examples:
- the curation of Mikael Heggelund Foslie's coralline red algae Herbarium 1876 – 1909 (when Foslie died), now at Museum of Natural History and Archaeology, Norway
In First Order Logic:
E87(x) ⊃ E7(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E7_Activity"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E87</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E87 Curation Activity</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E2_Temporal_Entity">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises all phenomena, such as the instances of E4 Periods, E5 Events and states, which happen over a limited extent in time. This extent in time must be contiguous, i.e., without gaps. In case the defining kinds of phenomena for an instance of E2 Temporal Entity cease to happen, and occur later again at another time, we regard that the former E2 Temporal Entity has ended and a new instance has come into existence. In more intuitive terms, the same event cannot happen twice.
In some contexts, these are also called perdurants. This class is disjoint from E77 Persistent Item. This is an abstract class and has no direct instances. E2 Temporal Entity is specialized into E4 Period, which applies to a particular geographic area (defined with a greater or lesser degree of precision), and E3 Condition State, which applies to instances of E18 Physical Thing.
Examples:
- Bronze Age (E4)
- the earthquake in Lisbon 1755 (E5)
- the Peterhof Palace near Saint Petersburg being in ruins from 1944 – 1946 (E3)
In First Order Logic:
E2(x) ⊃ E1(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E1_CRM_Entity"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E2</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E2 Temporal Entity</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E84_Information_Carrier">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises all instances of E22 Man-Made Object that are explicitly designed to act as persistent physical carriers for instances of E73 Information Object.
An E84 Information Carrier may or may not contain information, e.g., a diskette. Note that any E18 Physical Thing may carry information, such as an E34 Inscription. However, unless it was specifically designed for this purpose, it is not an Information Carrier. Therefore the property P128 carries (is carried by) applies to E18 Physical Thing in general.
Examples:
- the Rosetta Stone
- my paperback copy of Crime &amp; Punishment
- the computer disk at ICS-FORTH that stores the canonical Definition of the CIDOC CRM
In First Order Logic:
E84(x) ⊃ E22(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E84 Information Carrier</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E84</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E22_Man-Made_Object"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E51_Contact_Point">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E51 Contact Point</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises identifiers employed, or understood, by communication services to direct communications to an instance of E39 Actor. These include E-mail addresses, telephone numbers, post office boxes, Fax numbers, URLs etc. Most postal addresses can be considered both as instances of E44 Place Appellation and E51 Contact Point. In such cases the subclass E45 Address should be used.
URLs are addresses used by machines to access another machine through an http request. Since the accessed machine acts on behalf of the E39 Actor providing the machine, URLs are considered as instances of E51 Contact Point to that E39 Actor.
Examples:
- "+41 22 418 5571"
- "weasel@paveprime.com"
In First Order Logic:
E51(x) ⊃ E41(x)</rdfs:comment>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E51</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E41_Appellation"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E67_Birth">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E67 Birth</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises the births of human beings. E67 Birth is a biological event focussing on the context of people coming into life. (E63 Beginning of Existence comprises the coming into life of any living beings).
Twins, triplets etc. are brought into life by the same E67 Birth event. The introduction of the E67 Birth event as a documentation element allows the description of a range of family relationships in a simple model. Suitable extensions may describe more details and the complexity of motherhood with the intervention of modern medicine. In this model, the biological father is not seen as a necessary participant in the E67 Birth event.
Examples:
- the birth of Alexander the Great
In First Order Logic:
E67(x) ⊃ E63(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E63_Beginning_of_Existence"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E67</skos:notation>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E44_Place_Appellation">
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E41_Appellation"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises any sort of identifier characteristically used to refer to an E53 Place.
Instances of E44 Place Appellation may vary in their degree of precision and their meaning may vary over time - the same instance of E44 Place Appellation may be used to refer to several places, either because of cultural shifts, or because objects used as reference points have moved around. Instances of E44 Place Appellation can be extremely varied in form: postal addresses, instances of E47 Spatial Coordinate, and parts of buildings can all be considered as instances of E44 Place Appellation.
Examples:
- "Vienna"
- "CH-1211, Genève"
- "Aquae Sulis Minerva"
- "Bath"
- "Cambridge"
- "the Other Place"
- "the City"
In First Order Logic:
E44(x) ⊃ E41(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E44 Place Appellation</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E44</skos:notation>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E35_Title">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises the names assigned to works, such as texts, artworks or pieces of music.
Titles are proper noun phrases or verbal phrases, and should not be confused with generic object names such as "chair", "painting" or "book" (the latter are common nouns that stand for instances of E55 Type). Titles may be assigned by the creator of the work itself, or by a social group.
This class also comprises the translations of titles that are used as surrogates for the original titles in different social contexts.
Examples:
- "The Merchant of Venice"
- "Mona Lisa"
- "La Pie or The Magpie"
- "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds"
In First Order Logic:
E35(x) ⊃ E33(x)
E35(x) ⊃ E41(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E41_Appellation"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E33_Linguistic_Object"/>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E35</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E35 Title</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E16_Measurement">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises actions measuring physical properties and other values that can be determined by a systematic procedure.
Examples include measuring the monetary value of a collection of coins or the running time of a specific video cassette.
The E16 Measurement may use simple counting or tools, such as yardsticks or radiation detection devices. The interest is in the method and care applied, so that the reliability of the result may be judged at a later stage, or research continued on the associated documents. The date of the event is important for dimensions, which may change value over time, such as the length of an object subject to shrinkage. Details of methods and devices are best handled as free text, whereas basic techniques such as "carbon 14 dating" should be encoded using P2 has type (is type of:) E55 Type.
Examples:
- measurement of height of silver cup 232 on the 31st August 1997
- the carbon 14 dating of the "Schoeninger Speer II" in 1996 [an about 400.000 years old Palaeolithic complete wooden spear found in Schoeningen, Niedersachsen, Germany in 1995]
In First Order Logic:
E16(x) ⊃ E13(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E13_Attribute_Assignment"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E16</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E16 Measurement</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E41_Appellation">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E41 Appellation</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises signs, either meaningful or not, or arrangements of signs following a specific syntax, that are used or can be used to refer to and identify a specific instance of some class or category within a certain context.
Instances of E41 Appellation do not identify things by their meaning, even if they happen to have one, but instead by convention, tradition, or agreement. Instances of E41 Appellation are cultural constructs; as such, they have a context, a history, and a use in time and space by some group of users. A given instance of E41 Appellation can have alternative forms, i.e., other instances of E41 Appellation that are always regarded as equivalent independent from the thing it denotes.
Specific subclasses of E41 Appellation should be used when instances of E41 Appellation of a characteristic form are used for particular objects. Instances of E49 Time Appellation, for example, which take the form of instances of E50 Date, can be easily recognised.
E41 Appellation should not be confused with the act of naming something. Cf. E15 Identifier Assignment
Examples:
- "Martin"
- "the Forth Bridge"
- "the Merchant of Venice" (E35)
- "Spigelia marilandica (L.) L." [not the species, just the name]
- "information science" [not the science itself, but the name through which we refer to it in an English-speaking context]
- “安” [Chinese "an", meaning "peace"]
In First Order Logic:
E41(x) ⊃ E90(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E90_Symbolic_Object"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E41</skos:notation>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E14_Condition_Assessment">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E14</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E13_Attribute_Assignment"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E14 Condition Assessment</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class describes the act of assessing the state of preservation of an object during a particular period.
The condition assessment may be carried out by inspection, measurement or through historical research. This class is used to document circumstances of the respective assessment that may be relevant to interpret its quality at a later stage, or to continue research on related documents.
Examples:
- last year's inspection of humidity damage to the frescos in the St. George chapel in our village
In First Order Logic:
E14(x) ⊃ E13(x)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E24_Physical_Man-Made_Thing">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises all persistent physical items that are purposely created by human activity.
This class comprises man-made objects, such as a swords, and man-made features, such as rock art. No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding an object as man-made. For example, a "cup and ring" carving on bedrock is regarded as instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.
Examples:
- the Forth Railway Bridge (E22)
- the Channel Tunnel (E25)
- the Historical Collection of the Museum Benaki in Athens (E78)
In First Order Logic:
E24(x) ⊃ E18(x)
E24(x) ⊃ E71(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E71_Man-Made_Thing"/>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E18_Physical_Thing"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E24 Physical Man-Made Thing</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E24</skos:notation>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E22_Man-Made_Object">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E22</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E24_Physical_Man-Made_Thing"/>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E19_Physical_Object"/>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises physical objects purposely created by human activity.
No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding an object as man-made. For example, an inscribed piece of rock or a preserved butterfly are both regarded as instances of E22 Man-Made Object.
Examples:
- Mallard (the World's fastest steam engine)
- the Portland Vase
- the Coliseum
In First Order Logic:
E22(x) ⊃ E19(x)
E22(x) ⊃ E24(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E22 Man-Made Object</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E53_Place">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E53 Place</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises extents in space, in particular on the surface of the earth, in the pure sense of physics: independent from temporal phenomena and matter.
The instances of E53 Place are usually determined by reference to the position of "immobile" objects such as buildings, cities, mountains, rivers, or dedicated geodetic marks. A Place can be determined by combining a frame of reference and a location with respect to this frame. It may be identified by one or more instances of E44 Place Appellation.
It is sometimes argued that instances of E53 Place are best identified by global coordinates or absolute reference systems. However, relative references are often more relevant in the context of cultural documentation and tend to be more precise. In particular, we are often interested in position in relation to large, mobile objects, such as ships. For example, the Place at which Nelson died is known with reference to a large mobile object – H.M.S Victory. A resolution of this Place in terms of absolute coordinates would require knowledge of the movements of the vessel and the precise time of death, either of which may be revised, and the result would lack historical and cultural relevance.
Any object can serve as a frame of reference for E53 Place determination. The model foresees the notion of a "section" of an E19 Physical Object as a valid E53 Place determination.
Examples:
- the extent of the UK in the year 2003
- the position of the hallmark on the inside of my wedding ring
- the place referred to in the phrase: "Fish collected at three miles north of the confluence of the Arve and the Rhone"
- here -&gt; &lt;-
In First Order Logic:
E53(x) ⊃ E1(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E1_CRM_Entity"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E53</skos:notation>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E50_Date">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E50 Date</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises specific forms of E49 Time Appellation.
Dates may vary in their degree of precision.
Examples:
- "1900"
- "4-4-1959"
- "19-MAR-1922"
- "19640604"
In First Order Logic:
E50(x) ⊃ E49(x)</rdfs:comment>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E50</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E49_Time_Appellation"/>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E83_Type_Creation">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E83 Type Creation</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises activities formally defining new types of items.
It is typically a rigorous scholarly or scientific process that ensures a type is exhaustively described and appropriately named. In some cases, particularly in archaeology and the life sciences, E83 Type Creation requires the identification of an exemplary specimen and the publication of the type definition in an appropriate scholarly forum. The activity of E83 Type Creation is central to research in the life sciences, where a type would be referred to as a "taxon," the type description as a "protologue," and the exemplary specimens as "orgininal element" or "holotype".
Examples:
- creation of the taxon 'Penicillium brefeldianum B. O. Dodge' (1933)
- addition of class E84 Information Carrier to the CIDOC CRM
In First Order Logic:
E83(x) ⊃ E65(x)</rdfs:comment>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E83</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E65_Creation"/>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E40_Legal_Body">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E40 Legal Body</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises institutions or groups of people that have obtained a legal recognition as a group and can act collectively as agents.
This means that they can perform actions, own property, create or destroy things and can be held collectively responsible for their actions like individual people. The term 'personne morale' is often used for this in French.
Examples:
- Greenpeace
- Paveprime Ltd
- the National Museum of Denmark
In First Order Logic:
E40(x) ⊃ E74(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E74_Group"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E40</skos:notation>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E58_Measurement_Unit">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E55_Type"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E58</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E58 Measurement Unit</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class is a specialization of E55 Type and comprises the types of measurement units: feet, inches, centimetres, litres, lumens, etc.
This type is used categorically in the model without reference to instances of it, i.e. the Model does not foresee the description of instances of instances of E58 Measurement Unit, e.g.: "instances of cm".
Système International (SI) units or internationally recognized non-SI terms should be used whenever possible. (ISO 1000:1992). Archaic Measurement Units used in historical records should be preserved.
Examples:
- cm [centrimetre]
- km [kilometre]
- m [meter]
- m/s [meters per second]
- A [Ampere]
- GRD [Greek Drachme]
- C° [degrees centigrade]
In First Order Logic:
E58(x) ⊃ E55(x)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E33_Linguistic_Object">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises identifiable expressions in natural language or languages.
Instances of E33 Linguistic Object can be expressed in many ways: e.g. as written texts, recorded speech or sign language. However, the CRM treats instances of E33 Linguistic Object independently from the medium or method by which they are expressed. Expressions in formal languages, such as computer code or mathematical formulae, are not treated as instances of E33 Linguistic Object by the CRM. These should be modelled as instances of E73 Information Object.
The text of an instance of E33 Linguistic Object can be documented in a note by P3 has note: E62 String
Examples:
- the text of the Ellesmere Chaucer manuscript
- the lyrics of the song "Blue Suede Shoes"
- the text of the Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll
- the text of "Doktoro Jekyll kaj Sinjoro Hyde" (an Esperanto translation of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde)
In First Order Logic:
E33(x) ⊃ E73(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E33 Linguistic Object</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E73_Information_Object"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E33</skos:notation>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E6_Destruction">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E64_End_of_Existence"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E6</skos:notation>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises events that destroy one or more instances of E18 Physical Thing such that they lose their identity as the subjects of documentation.
Some destruction events are intentional, while others are independent of human activity. Intentional destruction may be documented by classifying the event as both an E6 Destruction and E7 Activity.
The decision to document an object as destroyed, transformed or modified is context sensitive:
1. If the matter remaining from the destruction is not documented, the event is modelled solely as E6 Destruction.
2. An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the original. In this case, the new items have separate identities. Matter is preserved, but identity is not.
3. When the initial identity of the changed instance of E18 Physical Thing is preserved, the event should be documented as E11 Modification.
Examples:
- the destruction of Herculaneum by volcanic eruption in 79 AD
- the destruction of Nineveh (E6, E7)
- the breaking of a champagne glass yesterday by my dog
In First Order Logic:
E6(x) ⊃ E64(x)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E6 Destruction</rdfs:label>
</owl:Class>
<owl:Class rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E15_Identifier_Assignment">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">E15</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">E15 Identifier Assignment</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E13_Attribute_Assignment"/>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This class comprises activities that result in the allocation of an identifier to an instance of E1 CRM Entity. An E15 Identifier Assignment may include the creation of the identifier from multiple constituents, which themselves may be instances of E41 Appellation. The syntax and kinds of constituents to be used may be declared in a rule constituting an instance of E29 Design or Procedure.
Examples of such identifiers include Find Numbers, Inventory Numbers, uniform titles in the sense of librarianship and Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). Documenting the act of identifier assignment and deassignment is especially useful when objects change custody or the identification system of an organization is changed. In order to keep track of the identity of things in such cases, it is important to document by whom, when and for what purpose an identifier is assigned to an item.
The fact that an identifier is a preferred one for an organisation can be expressed by using the property E1 CRM Entity. P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Identifier. It can better be expressed in a context independent form by assigning a suitable E55 Type, such as "preferred identifier assignment", to the respective instance of E15 Identifier Assignment via the P2 has type property.
Examples:
- Replacement of the inventory number TA959a by GE34604 for a 17th century lament cloth at the Museum Benaki, Athens
- Assigning the author-uniform title heading "Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 1749-1832. Faust. 1. Theil." for a work (E28)
- On June 1, 2001 assigning the personal name heading "Guillaume, de Machaut, ca. 1300-1377" (E42,E82) to Guillaume de Machaut (E21)
In First Order Logic:
E15(x) ⊃ E13(x)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:Class>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P137_exemplifies">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P137 exemplifies</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P2_has_type"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property allows an item to be declared as a particular example of an E55 Type or taxon
The P137.1 in the taxonomic role property of P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by) allows differentiation of taxonomic roles. The taxonomic role renders the specific relationship of this example to the Type, such as "prototypical", "archetypical", "lectotype", etc. The taxonomic role "lectotype" is not associated with the Type Creation (E83) itself, but selected in a later phase.
Examples:
- Object BM000098044 of the Clayton Herbarium (E20) exemplifies Spigelia marilandica (L.) L. (E55) in the taxonomic role lectotype
In First Order Logic:
P137(x,y) ⊃ E1(x)
P137(x,y) ⊃ E55(y)
P137(x,y,z) ⊃ [P137(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]
P137(x,y) ⊃ P2(x,y)
Properties: P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E1_CRM_Entity"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P137i_is_exemplified_by"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P137</skos:notation>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E55_Type"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P45_consists_of">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P45</skos:notation>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E18_Physical_Thing"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P45 consists of</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property identifies the instances of E57 Materials of which an instance of E18 Physical Thing is composed.
All physical things consist of physical materials. P45 consists of (is incorporated in) allows the different Materials to be recorded. P45 consists of (is incorporated in) refers here to observed Material as opposed to the consumed raw material.
A Material, such as a theoretical alloy, may not have any physical instances.
Examples:
- silver cup 232 (E22) consists of silver (E57)
In First Order Logic:
P45(x,y) ⊃ E18(x)
P45(x,y) ⊃ E57(y)</rdfs:comment>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P45i_is_incorporated_in"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E57_Material"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P55_has_current_location">
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E53_Place"/>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P53_has_former_or_current_location"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P55 has current location</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property records the location of an E19 Physical Object at the time of validity of the record or database containing the statement that uses this property.
This property is a specialisation of P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of). It indicates that the E53 Place associated with the E19 Physical Object is the current location of the object. The property does not allow any indication of how long the Object has been at the current location.
P55 has current location (currently holds) is a shortcut. A more detailed representation can make use of the fully developed (i.e. indirect) path from E19 Physical Object through P25 moved (moved by), E9 Move P26 moved to (was destination of) to E53 Place if and only if this Move is the most recent.
Examples:
- silver cup 232 (E22) has current location Display cabinet 23, Room 4, British Museum (E53)
In First Order Logic:
P55(x,y) ⊃ E19(x)
P55(x,y) ⊃ E53(y)
P55(x,y) ⊃ P53(x,y)</rdfs:comment>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P55</skos:notation>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P55i_currently_holds"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E19_Physical_Object"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P149i_identifies">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P149 identifies</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E28_Conceptual_Object"/>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P1i_identifies"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P149_is_identified_by"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E75_Conceptual_Object_Appellation"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P149i</skos:notation>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P110i_was_augmented_by">
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E79_Part_Addition"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P110i</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P31i_was_modified_by"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E24_Physical_Man-Made_Thing"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P110_augmented"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P110 was augmented by</rdfs:label>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P167i_was_place_of">
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E53_Place"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P167_at"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E93_Presence"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P48i_is_preferred_identifier_of">
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P48_has_preferred_identifier"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P48i</skos:notation>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E42_Identifier"/>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P1i_identifies"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P48 is preferred identifier of</rdfs:label>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P78i_identifies">
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E49_Time_Appellation"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P78_is_identified_by"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E52_Time-Span"/>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P1i_identifies"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P78i</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P78 identifies</rdfs:label>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P141_assigned">
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E13_Attribute_Assignment"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P141i_was_assigned_by"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P141</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P141 assigned</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E1_CRM_Entity"/>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property indicates the attribute that was assigned or the item that was related to the item denoted by a property P140 assigned attribute to in an Attribute assignment action.
Examples:
- February 1997 Current Ownership Assessment of Martin Doerr's silver cup (E13) assigned Martin Doerr (E21)
- 01 June 1997 Identifier Assignment of the silver cup donated by Martin Doerr (E15) assigned object identifier 232
In First Order Logic:
P141(x,y) ⊃ E13(x)
P141(x,y) ⊃ E1(y)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P65_shows_visual_item">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property documents an E36 Visual Item shown by an instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.
This property is similar to P62 depicts (is depicted by) in that it associates an item of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing with a visual representation. However, P65 shows visual item (is shown by) differs from the P62 depicts (is depicted by) property in that it makes no claims about what the E36 Visual Item is deemed to represent. E36 Visual Item identifies a recognisable image or visual symbol, regardless of what this image may or may not represent.
For example, all recent British coins bear a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II, a fact that is correctly documented using P62 depicts (is depicted by). Different portraits have been used at different periods, however. P65 shows visual item (is shown by) can be used to refer to a particular portrait.
P65 shows visual item (is shown by) may also be used for Visual Items such as signs, marks and symbols, for example the 'Maltese Cross' or the 'copyright symbol’ that have no particular representational content.
This property is part of the fully developed path from E24 Physical Man-Made Thing through P65 shows visual item (is shown by), E36 Visual Item, P138 represents (has representation) to E1 CRM Entity which is shortcut by, P62 depicts (is depicted by).
Examples:
- My T-Shirt (E22) shows visual item Mona Lisa (E38)
In First Order Logic: P65(x,y) ⊃ E24(x)
P65(x,y) ⊃ E36(y)
P65(x,y) ⊃ P128(x,y)</rdfs:comment>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P65</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P65 shows visual item</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E36_Visual_Item"/>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E24_Physical_Man-Made_Thing"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P65i_is_shown_by"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P128_carries"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P112i_was_diminished_by">
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P31i_was_modified_by"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P112 was diminished by</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E24_Physical_Man-Made_Thing"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P112_diminished"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P112i</skos:notation>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E80_Part_Removal"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P142_used_constituent">
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E15_Identifier_Assignment"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P142</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P142 used constituent</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E90_Symbolic_Object"/>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property associates the event of assigning an instance of E42 Identifier with the instances of E90 Symbolic Object that were used as constituents of the identifier.
Examples:
- On June 1, 2001 assigning the personal name identifier “Guillaume, de Machaut, ca. 1300-1377” (E15) used constituent “ca. 1300-1377” (E49)
- Assigning a uniform title to the anonymous textual work known as ‘The Adoration of the Shepherds’(E15) used constituent ‘Coventry’ (E48)
- Assigning a uniform title to Pina Bausch’s choreographic work entitled ‘Rite of spring’ (E15) used constituent ‘(Choreographic Work: Bausch)’(E90)
- Assigning a uniform title to the motion picture directed in 1933 by Merian C. Cooper and Ernest B. Schoedsack and entitled ‘King Kong’ (E15) used constituent ‘1933’ (E50)
- Assigning the corporate name identifier ‘Univerza v Ljubljani. Oddelek za bibliotekarstvo’ to The Department for library science of the University of Ljubljana (E15) used constituent ‘Univerza v Ljubljani’ (E42)
In First Order Logic:
P142(x,y) ⊃ E15(x)
P142(x,y) ⊃ E90(y)
P142(x,y) ⊃ P16(x,y)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P16_used_specific_object"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P142i_was_used_in"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P58_has_section_definition">
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E46_Section_Definition"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P58</skos:notation>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E18_Physical_Thing"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P58i_defines_section"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P58 has section definition</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property links an area (section) named by a E46 Section Definition to the instance of E18 Physical Thing upon which it is found.
The CRM handles sections as locations (instances of E53 Place) within or on E18 Physical Thing that are identified by E46 Section Definitions. Sections need not be discrete and separable components or parts of an object.
This is part of a more developed path from E18 Physical Thing through P58, E46 Section Definition, P87 is identified by (identifies) that allows a more precise definition of a location found on an object than the shortcut P59 has section (is located on or within).
A particular instance of a Section Definition only applies to one instance of Physical Thing.
Examples:
- HMS Victory (E22) has section definition "poop deck of HMS Victory" (E46)
In First Order Logic:
P58(x,y) ⊃ E18(x)
P58(x,y) ⊃ E46(y)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P39i_was_measured_by">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P39i</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P140i_was_attributed_by"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E1_CRM_Entity"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P39_measured"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E16_Measurement"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P39 was measured by</rdfs:label>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P40_observed_dimension">
<rdfs:subPropertyOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P141_assigned"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P40 observed dimension</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property records the dimension that was observed in an E16 Measurement Event.
E54 Dimension can be any quantifiable aspect of E70 Thing. Weight, image colour depth and monetary value are dimensions in this sense. One measurement activity may determine more than one dimension of one object.
Dimensions may be determined either by direct observation or using recorded evidence. In the latter case the measured Thing does not need to be present or extant.
Even though knowledge of the value of a dimension requires measurement, the dimension may be an object of discourse prior to, or even without, any measurement being made.
Examples:
- 31 August 1997 measurement of height of silver cup 232 (E16) observed dimension silver cup 232 height (E54) has unit mm (E58), has value 224 (E60)
In First Order Logic:
P40(x,y) ⊃ E16(x)
P40(x,y)⊃ E54(y)
P40(x,y) ⊃ P141(x,y)</rdfs:comment>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P40i_was_observed_in"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E16_Measurement"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P40</skos:notation>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E54_Dimension"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P144i_gained_member_by">
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P11i_participated_in"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P144_joined_with"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E74_Group"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P144i</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P144 gained member by</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E85_Joining"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P102i_is_title_of">
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E71_Man-Made_Thing"/>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P1i_identifies"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P102 is title of</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P102i</skos:notation>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P102_has_title"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E35_Title"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P68_foresees_use_of">
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E57_Material"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P68</skos:notation>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E29_Design_or_Procedure"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P68i_use_foreseen_by"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P67_refers_to"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P68 foresees use of</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property identifies an E57 Material foreseeen to be used by an E29 Design or Procedure.
E29 Designs and procedures commonly foresee the use of particular E57 Materials. The fabrication of adobe bricks, for example, requires straw, clay and water. This property enables this to be documented.
This property is not intended for the documentation of E57 Materials that were used on a particular occasion when an instance of E29 Design or Procedure was executed.
Examples:
- procedure for soda glass manufacture (E29) foresees use of soda (E57)
In First Order Logic:
P68(x,y) ⊃ E29(x)
P68(x,y) ⊃ E57(y)
P68(x,y) ⊃ P67(x,y)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P30_transferred_custody_of">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property identifies an item or items of E18 Physical Thing concerned in an E10 Transfer of Custody activity.
The property will typically describe the object that is handed over by an E39 Actor to another Actor's custody. On occasion, physical custody may be transferred involuntarily or illegally – through accident, unsolicited donation, or theft.
Examples:
- the delivery of the paintings by Secure Deliveries Inc. to the National Gallery (E10) transferred custody of paintings from The Iveagh Bequest (E19)
In First Order Logic:
P30 (x,y) ⊃ E10(x)
P30 (x,y) ⊃ E18(y)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E18_Physical_Thing"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P30</skos:notation>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E10_Transfer_of_Custody"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P30 transferred custody of</rdfs:label>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P30i_custody_transferred_through"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P129_is_about">
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E1_CRM_Entity"/>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P67_refers_to"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P129</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P129 is about</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property documents that an E89 Propositional Object has as subject an instance of E1 CRM Entity.
This differs from P67 refers to (is referred to by), which refers to an E1 CRM Entity, in that it describes the primary subject or subjects of an E89 Propositional Object.
Examples:
- The text entitled 'Reach for the sky' (E33) is about Douglas Bader (E21)
In First Order Logic:
P129(x,y) ⊃ E89(x)
P129(x,y) ⊃ E1(y)
P129(x,y) ⊃ P67(x,y)</rdfs:comment>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P129i_is_subject_of"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E89_Propositional_Object"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P16i_was_used_for">
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E7_Activity"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P16i</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P16 was used for</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P15i_influenced"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P12i_was_present_at"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E70_Thing"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P16_used_specific_object"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P136i_supported_type_creation">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P136i</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P136 supported type creation</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E1_CRM_Entity"/>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E83_Type_Creation"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P136_was_based_on"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P15i_influenced"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P167_at">
<rdfs:comment rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">Scope Note:
This property points to a wider area in which my thing /event was ...
In First Order Logic:
P167(x,y) ⊃ E93(x)
P167(x,y) ⊃ E53(y)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E53_Place"/>
<owl:inverseOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P167i_was_place_of"/>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E93_Presence"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P2_has_type">
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E55_Type"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P2 has type</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P2</skos:notation>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property allows sub typing of CRM entities - a form of specialisation – through the use of a terminological hierarchy, or thesaurus.
The CRM is intended to focus on the high-level entities and relationships needed to describe data structures. Consequently, it does not specialise entities any further than is required for this immediate purpose. However, entities in the isA hierarchy of the CRM may by specialised into any number of sub entities, which can be defined in the E55 Type hierarchy. E51 Contact Point, for example, may be specialised into "e-mail address", "telephone number", "post office box", "URL" etc. none of which figures explicitly in the CRM hierarchy. Sub typing obviously requires consistency between the meaning of the terms assigned and the more general intent of the CRM entity in question.
Examples:
- "enquiries@cidoc-crm.org" (E51) has type e-mail address (E55)
In First Order Logic:
P2(x,y) ⊃ E1(x)
P2(x,y) ⊃ E55(y)</rdfs:comment>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P2i_is_type_of"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E1_CRM_Entity"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P51_has_former_or_current_owner">
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E39_Actor"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P51 has former or current owner</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E18_Physical_Thing"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P51i_is_former_or_current_owner_of"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property identifies the E39 Actor that is or has been the legal owner (i.e. title holder) of an instance of E18 Physical Thing at some time.
The distinction with P52 has current owner (is current owner of) is that P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of) does not indicate whether the specified owners are current. P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of) is a shortcut for the more detailed path from E18 Physical Thing through P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through), E8 Acquisition, P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through), or P22 transferred title to (acquired title through) to E39 Actor.
Examples:
- paintings from the Iveagh Bequest (E18) has former or current owner Lord Iveagh (E21)
In First Order Logic:
P51(x,y) ⊃ E18(x)
P51(x,y) ⊃ E39(y)</rdfs:comment>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P51</skos:notation>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P112_diminished">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P112</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P112 diminished</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property identifies the E24 Physical Man-Made Thing that was diminished by E80 Part Removal.
Although a Part removal activity normally concerns only one item of Physical Man-Made Thing, it is possible to imagine circumstances under which more than one item might be diminished by a single Part Removal activity.
Examples:
- the coffin of Tut-Ankh-Amun (E22) was diminished by The opening of the coffin of Tut-Ankh-Amun (E80)
In First Order Logic:
P112(x,y) ⊃ E80(x)
P112(x,y) ⊃ E24(y)
P112(x,y) ⊃ P31(x,y)</rdfs:comment>
<owl:inverseOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P112i_was_diminished_by"/>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E24_Physical_Man-Made_Thing"/>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P31_has_modified"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E80_Part_Removal"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P147_curated">
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E78_Collection"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P147 curated</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E87_Curation_Activity"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P147</skos:notation>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P147i_was_curated_by"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property associates an instance of E87 Curation Activity with the instance of E78 Collection or collections with that is subject of athat curation activity following some implicit or explicit curation plan.
Examples:
- The activities (E87) by the Benaki Museum curated the acquisition of dolls and games of urban and folk manufacture dating from the 17th to the 20th century, from England, France and Germany for the "Toys, Games and Childhood Collection (E78) of the Museum
- The activities (E87) of the Historical Museum of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, curated the development of the permanent Numismatic Collection (E78)
- The activities (E87) by Mikael Heggelund Foslie curated the Mikael Heggelund Foslie's coralline red algae Herbarium
In First Order Logic:
P147(x,y) ⊃ E87(x)
P147(x,y) ⊃ E78(y)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P73i_is_translation_of">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P73i</skos:notation>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E33_Linguistic_Object"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P73 is translation of</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P130i_features_are_also_found_on"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E33_Linguistic_Object"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P73_has_translation"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P156_occupies">
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P161_has_spatial_projection"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E53_Place"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P156 occupies</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">Scope note:
This property describes the largest volume in space that an instance of E18 Physical Thing has occupied at any time during its existence, with respect to the reference space relative to itself. This allows you to describe the thing itself as a place that may contain other things, such as a box that may contain coins. In other words, it is the volume that contains all the points which the thing has covered at some time during its existence. In the case of an E26 Physical Feature the default reference space is the one in which the object that bears the feature or at least the surrounding matter of the feature is at rest. In this case there is a 1:1 relation of E26 Feature and E53 Place. For simplicity of implementation multiple inheritance (E26 Feature IsA E53 Place) may be a practical approach.
For instances of E19 Physical Objects the default reference space is the one which is at rest to the object itself, i.e. which moves together with the object. We include in the occupied space the space filled by the matter of the physical thing and all its inner spaces.
This property is a subproperty of P161 has spatial projection because it refers to its own domain as reference space for its range, whereas P161 has spatial projection may refer to a place in terms of any reference space. For some instances of E18 Physical Object the relative stability of form may not be sufficient to define a useful local reference space, for instance for an amoeba. In such cases the fully
developed path to an external reference space and using a temporal validity component may be adequate to determine the place they have occupied.
In contrast to P156 occupies, the property P53 has former or current location identifies an instance of E53 Place at which a thing is or has been for some unspecified time span. Further it does not constrain the reference space of the referred instance of P53 Place.
In First Order Logic:
P156 (x,y) = [E18(x) ∧ E53(y) ∧ P161(x,y) ∧ P157(y,x)]</rdfs:comment>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P156</skos:notation>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E18_Physical_Thing"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P33i_was_used_by">
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P33_used_specific_technique"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E29_Design_or_Procedure"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P33 was used by</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P16i_was_used_for"/>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E7_Activity"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P33i</skos:notation>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P49_has_former_or_current_keeper">
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E39_Actor"/>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property identifies the E39 Actor or Actors who have or have had custody of an instance of E18 Physical Thing at some time.
The distinction with P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of) is that P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of) leaves open the question as to whether the specified keepers are current.
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of) is a shortcut for the more detailed path from E18 Physical Thing through P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through), E10 Transfer of Custody, P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through) or P29 custody received by (received custody through) to E39 Actor.
Examples:
- paintings from The Iveagh Bequest (E18) has former or current keeper Secure Deliveries Inc. (E40)
In First Order Logic:
P49(x,y) ⊃ E18(x)
P49(x,y) ⊃ E39(y)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P49 has former or current keeper</rdfs:label>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P49i_is_former_or_current_keeper_of"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E18_Physical_Thing"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P49</skos:notation>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P11i_participated_in">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P11 participated in</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E5_Event"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P11i</skos:notation>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P12i_was_present_at"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E39_Actor"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P11_had_participant"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P39_measured">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P39 measured</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P140_assigned_attribute_to"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E1_CRM_Entity"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P39</skos:notation>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E16_Measurement"/>
<owl:inverseOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P39i_was_measured_by"/>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property associates an instance of E16 Measurement with the instance of E1 CRM Entity to which it applied. An instance of E1 CRM Entity may be measured more than once. Material and immaterial things and processes may be measured, e.g. the number of words in a text, or the duration of an event.
Examples:
- 31 August 1997 measurement of height of silver cup 232 (E16) measured silver cup 232 (E22)
In First Order Logic:
P39(x,y) ⊃ E16(x)
P39(x,y) ⊃ E1(y)
P39(x,y) ⊃ P140(x,y)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P126i_was_employed_in">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P126 was employed in</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E57_Material"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P126_employed"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E11_Modification"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P126i</skos:notation>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P103_was_intended_for">
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E55_Type"/>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E71_Man-Made_Thing"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P103i_was_intention_of"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P103</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P103 was intended for</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property links an instance of E71 Man-Made Thing to an E55 Type of usage.
It creates a property between specific man-made things, both physical and immaterial, to Types of intended methods and techniques of use. Note: A link between specific man-made things and a specific use activity should be expressed using P19 was intended use of (was made for).
Examples:
- this plate (E22) was intended for being destroyed at wedding reception (E55)
In First Order Logic:
P103(x,y) ⊃ E71(x)
P103(x,y) ⊃ E55(y)</rdfs:comment>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P1i_identifies">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P1 identifies</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E1_CRM_Entity"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P1i</skos:notation>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P1_is_identified_by"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E41_Appellation"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P59i_is_located_on_or_within">
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E18_Physical_Thing"/>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P157_is_at_rest_relative_to"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P59i</skos:notation>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E53_Place"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P59_has_section"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P59 is located on or within</rdfs:label>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P5_consists_of">
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E3_Condition_State"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P5</skos:notation>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P5i_forms_part_of"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P5 consists of</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property describes the decomposition of an E3 Condition State into discrete, subsidiary states.It is assumed that the sub-states into which the condition state is analysed form a logical whole - although the entire story may not be completely known – and that the sub-states are in fact constitutive of the general condition state. For example, a general condition state of “in ruins” may be decomposed
into the individual stages of decay.
This property is transitive
Examples:
- The Condition State of the ruined Parthenon (E3) consists of the bombarded state after the explosion of a Venetian shell in 1687 (E3)
In First Order Logic:
P5(x,y) ⊃ E3(x)
P5(x,y) ⊃ E3(y)</rdfs:comment>
<rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#TransitiveProperty"/>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E3_Condition_State"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P58i_defines_section">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P58 defines section</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E18_Physical_Thing"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P58i</skos:notation>
<owl:inverseOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P58_has_section_definition"/>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E46_Section_Definition"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P123_resulted_in">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property identifies the E77 Persistent Item or items that are the result of an E81 Transformation.
New items replace the transformed item or items, which cease to exist as units of documentation. The physical continuity between the old and the new is expressed by the link to the common Transformation.
Examples:
- the transformation of the Venetian Loggia in Heraklion into a city hall (E81) resulted in the City Hall of Heraklion (E22)
- the death and mummification of Tut-Ankh-Amun (E81) resulted in the Mummy of Tut Tut-Ankh-Amun (E22 and E20)
In First Order Logic:
P123(x,y) ⊃ E81(x)
P123(x,y) ⊃ E77(y)
P123(x,y) ⊃ P92(x,y)</rdfs:comment>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P123</skos:notation>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E77_Persistent_Item"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P123 resulted in</rdfs:label>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P123i_resulted_from"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E81_Transformation"/>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P92_brought_into_existence"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P94_has_created">
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P94i_was_created_by"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E65_Creation"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P94</skos:notation>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E28_Conceptual_Object"/>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P92_brought_into_existence"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property allows a conceptual E65 Creation to be linked to the E28 Conceptual Object created by it.
It represents the act of conceiving the intellectual content of the E28 Conceptual Object. It does not represent the act of creating the first physical carrier of the E28 Conceptual Object. As an example, this is the composition of a poem, not its commitment to paper.
Examples:
- the composition of "The Four Friends" by A. A. Milne (E65) has created "The Four Friends" by A. A. Milne (E28)
In First Order Logic:
P94(x,y) ⊃ E65(x)
P94(x,y) ⊃ E28(y)
P94(x,y) ⊃ P92(x,y)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P94 has created</rdfs:label>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P24_transferred_title_of">
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E18_Physical_Thing"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P24</skos:notation>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E8_Acquisition"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P24i_changed_ownership_through"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property identifies the E18 Physical Thing or things involved in an E8 Acquisition.
In reality, an acquisition must refer to at least one transferred item.
Examples:
- acquisition of the Amoudrouz collection by the Geneva Ethnographic Museum (E8) transferred title of Amoudrouz Collection (E78)
In First Order Logic:
P24(x,y) ⊃ E8(x)
P24(x,y) ⊃ E18(y)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P24 transferred title of</rdfs:label>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P20i_was_purpose_of">
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E7_Activity"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P20 was purpose of</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P20i</skos:notation>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P20_had_specific_purpose"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E5_Event"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P54i_is_current_permanent_location_of">
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E19_Physical_Object"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P54 is current permanent location of</rdfs:label>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P54_has_current_permanent_location"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P54i</skos:notation>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E53_Place"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P166_was_a_presence_of">
<rdfs:comment rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">Scope Note:
This property relates an E93 Presence with the STV it is part of...
In First Order Logic:
P166(x,y) ⊃ E93(x)
P166(x,y) ⊃ E92(y)</rdfs:comment>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P166i_had_presence"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E93_Presence"/>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E92_Spacetime_Volume"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P157i_provides_reference_space_for">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P157 provides reference space for</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P157i</skos:notation>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E53_Place"/>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E18_Physical_Thing"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P157_is_at_rest_relative_to"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P30i_custody_transferred_through">
<owl:inverseOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P30_transferred_custody_of"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P30 custody transferred through</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E10_Transfer_of_Custody"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P30i</skos:notation>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E18_Physical_Thing"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P40i_was_observed_in">
<owl:inverseOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P40_observed_dimension"/>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E54_Dimension"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P40i</skos:notation>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E16_Measurement"/>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P141i_was_assigned_by"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P40 was observed in</rdfs:label>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P16_used_specific_object">
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E70_Thing"/>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P15_was_influenced_by"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P12_occurred_in_the_presence_of"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P16 used specific object</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P16</skos:notation>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property describes the use of material or immaterial things in a way essential to the performance or the outcome of an E7 Activity.
This property typically applies to tools, instruments, moulds, raw materials and items embedded in a product. It implies that the presence of the object in question was a necessary condition for the action. For example, the activity of writing this text required the use of a computer. An immaterial thing can be used if at least one of its carriers is present. For example, the software tools on a computer.
Another example is the use of a particular name by a particular group of people over some span to identify a thing, such as a settlement. In this case, the physical carriers of this name are at least the people understanding its use.
Examples:
- the writing of this scope note (E7) used specific object Nicholas Crofts' computer (E22)
mode of use Typing Tool; Storage Medium (E55)
- the people of Iraq calling the place identified by TGN '7017998' (E7) used specific object
"Quyunjig" (E44) mode of use Current; Vernacular (E55)
FOL:
P16 (x,y) ⊃ E7(x)
P16 (x,y) ⊃ E70(y)
P16 (x,y) ⊃ P12(x,y)
P16 (x,y) ⊃ P15(x,y)
P16(x,y,z) ⊃ [P16(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E7_Activity"/>
<owl:inverseOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P16i_was_used_for"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P23_transferred_title_from">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P23 transferred title from</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E8_Acquisition"/>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P14_carried_out_by"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P23</skos:notation>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property identifies the E39 Actor or Actors who relinquish legal ownership as the result of an E8 Acquisition.
The property will typically be used to describe a person donating or selling an object to a museum. In reality title is either transferred to or from someone, or both.
Examples:
- acquisition of the Amoudrouz collection by the Geneva Ethnographic Museum (E8) transferred title from Heirs of Amoudrouz (E74)
In First Order Logic:
P23(x,y) ⊃ E8(x)
P23(x,y) ⊃ E39(y)
P23 (x,y) ⊃ P14(x,y)</rdfs:comment>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P23i_surrendered_title_through"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P118_overlaps_in_time_with">
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P118i_is_overlapped_in_time_by"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P118</skos:notation>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E2_Temporal_Entity"/>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E2_Temporal_Entity"/>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property identifies an overlap between the instances of E52 Time-Span of two instances of E2 Temporal Entity.
It implies a temporal order between the two entities: if A overlaps in time B, then A must start before B, and B must end after A. This property is only necessary if the relevant time spans are unknown (otherwise the relationship can be calculated).
This property is the same as the "overlaps / overlapped-by" relationships of Allen’s temporal logic (Allen, 1983, pp. 832-843).
Examples:
- the Iron Age (E4) overlaps in time with the Roman period (E4)
In First Order Logic:
P118(x,y) ⊃ E2(x)
P118(x,y) ⊃ E2(y)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P118 overlaps in time with</rdfs:label>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P144_joined_with">
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P11_had_participant"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P144</skos:notation>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E85_Joining"/>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E74_Group"/>
<owl:inverseOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P144i_gained_member_by"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P144 joined with</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property identifies the instance of E74 Group of which an instance of E39 Actor becomes a member through an instance of E85 Joining.
Although a Joining activity normally concerns only one instance of E74 Group, it is possible to imagine circumstances under which becoming member of one Group implies becoming member of another Group as well.
Joining events allow for describing people becoming members of a group with a more detailed path from E74 Group through P144 joined with (gained member by), E85 Joining, P143 joined (was joined by) to E39 Actor, compared to the shortcut offered by P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of).
The property P144.1 kind of member can be used to specify the type of membership or the role the member has in the group.
Examples:
- The election of Sir Isaac Newton as Member of Parliament to the Convention Parliament of 1689 (E85) joined with the Convention Parliament (E40)
- The inauguration of Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev as Leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1985 (E85) joined with the office of Leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (E40) with P144.1 kind of member President (E55)
- The implementation of the membership treaty January 1. 1973 between EU and Denmark (E85) joined with EU (E40)
In First Order Logic:
P144(x,y) ⊃ E85(x)
P144(x,y)⊃ E74(y)
P144(x,y,z) ⊃ [P144(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]
P144(x,y) ⊃ P11(x,y)
Properties: P144.1 kind of member: E55 Type</rdfs:comment>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P69i_is_associated_with">
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E29_Design_or_Procedure"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P69_has_association_with"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E29_Design_or_Procedure"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P69i</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P69 is associated with</rdfs:label>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P19i_was_made_for">
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P19i</skos:notation>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E7_Activity"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P19_was_intended_use_of"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E71_Man-Made_Thing"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P19 was made for</rdfs:label>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P91i_is_unit_of">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P91 is unit of</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E54_Dimension"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P91i</skos:notation>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P91_has_unit"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E58_Measurement_Unit"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P97i_was_father_for">
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P97_from_father"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E67_Birth"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P97i</skos:notation>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P97 was father for</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E21_Person"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P102_has_title">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property describes the E35 Title applied to an instance of E71 Man-Made Thing. The E55 Type of Title is assigned in a sub property.
The P102.1 has type property of the P102 has title (is title of) property enables the relationship between the Title and the thing to be further clarified, for example, if the Title was a given Title, a supplied Title etc.
It allows any man-made material or immaterial thing to be given a Title. It is possible to imagine a Title being created without a specific object in mind.
Examples:
- the first book of the Old Testament (E33) has title "Genesis" (E35) has type translated (E55)
In First Order Logic:
P102(x,y) ⊃ E71(x)
P102(x,y) ⊃ E35(y)
P102(x,y,z) ⊃ [P102(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]
P102(x,y) ⊃ P1(x,y)
Properties: P102.1 has type: E55 Type</rdfs:comment>
<owl:inverseOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P102i_is_title_of"/>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E71_Man-Made_Thing"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P102</skos:notation>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E35_Title"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P102 has title</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P1_is_identified_by"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P84i_was_maximum_duration_of">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P84 was maximum duration of</rdfs:label>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P84_had_at_most_duration"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E54_Dimension"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P84i</skos:notation>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E52_Time-Span"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P93_took_out_of_existence">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Scope note:
This property allows an E64 End of Existence event to be linked to the E77 Persistent Item taken out of existence by it.
In the case of immaterial things, the E64 End of Existence is considered to take place with the destruction of the last physical carrier.
This allows an “end” to be attached to any Persistent Item being documented i.e. E70 Thing, E72 Legal Object, E39 Actor, E41 Appellation, E51 Contact Point and E55 Type. For many Persistent Items we know the maximum life-span and can infer, that they must have ended to exist. We assume in that case an End of Existence, which may be as unnoticeable as forgetting the secret knowledge by the last representative of some indigenous nation.
Examples:
- the death of Mozart (E69) took out of existence Mozart (E21)
In First Order Logic:
P93 (x,y) ⊃ E64(x)
P93 (x,y) ⊃ E77(y)
P93(x,y) ⊃ P12(x,y)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P93 took out of existence</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E77_Persistent_Item"/>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P12_occurred_in_the_presence_of"/>
</rdfs:subPropertyOf>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P93i_was_taken_out_of_existence_by"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E64_End_of_Existence"/>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P93</skos:notation>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P131i_identifies">
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P131 identifies</rdfs:label>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E39_Actor"/>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P1i_identifies"/>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E82_Actor_Appellation"/>
<owl:inverseOf>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P131_is_identified_by"/>
</owl:inverseOf>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P131i</skos:notation>
</owl:ObjectProperty>
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P45i_is_incorporated_in">
<rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E18_Physical_Thing"/>
<rdfs:label xml:lang="en">P45 is incorporated in</rdfs:label>
<skos:notation rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">P45i</skos:notation>
<owl:inverseOf rdf:resource="http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P45_consists_of"