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# [Romanian] Limbajul de programare Serpent

Joseph Cook edited this page May 24, 2022 · 2 revisions

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###Operatiile limbajului de programare Serpent

Aritmetica

• Aritmetica normala functioneaza dupa cum ne asteptam:: x = 20 + 7 * 5 fixeaza x ca 55 • Numerele negative nu exista: x = 0 - 1 seteaza x la 115792089237316195423570985008687907853269984665640564039457584007913129639935 • Decimalele nu exista: x = 7 / 4 seteaza x la 1 • Se poate folosi #/ si #% pentru a se putea pretinde ca numerele sunt numere intregi: x = (0-9) #/ 3 + 5 seteaza x la 2, pe cand y = (0-9) / 3 + 5seteaza y la 38597363079105398474523661669562635951089994888546854679819194669304376546647 • Aritmetica deviaza 2^256: x = 3 ^ (2 ^ 254) setand x la 1 (aceasta este o consecinta a Teoremei Euler) • Folositi x = y | z, x = y & z si x = y xor z pentru operatii bitwise Variable • Variablele functioneaza ca orice fel de limbaj : x = 25 atunci y = x + 5 seteaza y la 30 • Folositi x = array(n) pentru a initializa o multime de valori n 32-byte • Folositi x[i] = v pentru a seta valori in multimi si v = x[i] pentru a obtine valori in multimi • Folositi x = bytes(n) pentru a initializa un sir/multime de bytes de n bytes • Folositi setch(x,i,v) pentru a seta to set and v = getch(x,i) to get • Use array literals to declare arrays inline: x = [1,2,3] Variables are encoded into EVM code by assigning a memory index to each variable, with 32 bytes of spacing between variables. In the last example, x literally is the memory index of the start of the array, which is itself stored in a dynamically allocated slice of memory. Note that bounds-checking is not performed; array(3)[5] = 10 will have completely unknown and likely compiler-dependent consequences on code execution. Pseudovariables Ethereum provides the following pseudovariables and pseudoarrays: • block.prevhash - previous block hash • block.number - block number • block.timestamp - block timestamp • block.difficulty - block difficulty • block.coinbase - address of block miner • block.gaslimit - maximum amount of gas that can be spent in the block • tx.gasprice - amount paid by transaction for gas • tx.origin - original sender of transaction (NOT the sender of the current message, which is different in a nested call situation) • tx.gas - current amount of gas remaining • msg.datasize - length of the data provided by the message, measured as the number of complete 32-byte chunks • msg.sender - sender of the message • msg.value - value of the message • contract.balance - balance of the contract • msg.data[i] - the ith 32-byte chunk in message data • contract.storage[i] - the contract's long term storage, at index i Functions • send(to, value, gas) - sends value ether to to, allowing the computation the given amount of gas. • x = msg(to, value, gas, datastart, datalen) - sends a message to to, using the data at memory indices datastart ... datastart+datalen32-1, with the given amount of ether and gas, and sets x to the first 32 bytes of the result. • msg(to, value, gas, datastart, datalen, outputstart, outputlen) - sends a message toto, using the data at memory indicesdatastart ... datastart+datalen32-1, with the given amount of ether and gas, and pastes the result to memory indicesoutputstart ... outputstart+outputlen32-1` • x = create(endowment, gas, datastart, datalen) - creates a new contract using code from the given indices in memory as above, and return the address of the contract • x = sha3(v) - returns the SHA3 of the given 32-byte value • x = byte(y,z) - sets x to the zth byte of y A lot of these commands require data to be loaded from memory; this is actually fairly easy to manage. Consider the following equivalent examples: x = msg(0xf345747062de4d05d897d62c4696febbedcb36b8, 10^18, tx.gas - 100, [10,20,30], 3) And: a = array(3) a[0] = 10 a[1] = 20 a[2] = 30 y = array(1) msg(0xf345747062de4d05d897d62c4696febbedcb36b8, 10^18, tx.gas - 100, a, 3, y, 1) x = y[0] Conditionals and Loops Best to learn by example: if x > 5: y = 7 And: x = 248 while x > 1: if (x % 2) == 0: x = x / 2 else: x = 3 * x + 1 Note that if x > 5: y = 7 on one line is invalid. Comments x = 4 //this is a comment and does not appear in the compiled code // this also is a comment on its own line / this style is not supported however / Halting • stop - this keyword by itself on one line stops execution • return(x) - returns the 32 bytes of value x • return(memstart, len) - returns the memory at indices memstart ... memstart+32len-1 • suicide(a) - destroys the contract, sending all remaining balance to a Last edited by vbuterin, 3 days ago

# Whisper

0x927c0E368722206312D243417dA9797424b56434