Official Go implementation of the eInc protocol
Clone or download
Pull request Compare This branch is 53 commits ahead, 1020 commits behind ethereum:master.
Latest commit 4ae27aa Nov 2, 2018
Permalink
Failed to load latest commit information.
.github eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
accounts eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
bmt eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
build eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
cmd eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
common eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
compression/rle eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
consensus eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
console eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
containers eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
contracts eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
core eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
crypto eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
dashboard eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
eth eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
ethclient eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
ethdb eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
ethstats eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
event eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
internal eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
les eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
light eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
log eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
metrics eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
miner eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
mobile eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
node Update defaults.go Mar 19, 2018
p2p eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
params fix bootnodes Nov 2, 2018
rlp eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
rpc eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
swarm eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
tests eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
trie eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
vendor eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
whisper eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
.dockerignore dockerignore, internal/build: forward correct git folder Nov 12, 2017
.gitattributes .gitattributes: add Aug 6, 2015
.gitignore dashboard: deep state update, version in footer (ethereum#15837) Jan 15, 2018
.gitmodules tests: update tests and implement general state tests (ethereum#14734) Jul 11, 2017
.mailmap all: update license information Apr 14, 2017
.travis.yml eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
AUTHORS eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
COPYING eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
COPYING.LESSER all: update license information Jul 7, 2015
Dockerfile eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
Dockerfile.alltools eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
Makefile all: update generated code (ethereum#15808) Jan 8, 2018
README.md Update README.md Mar 19, 2018
VERSION VERSION, params: begin 1.8.0 release cycle Nov 21, 2017
appveyor.yml eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
circle.yml eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018
genesis.json Update genesis.json Feb 11, 2018
interfaces.go eInc protocol update Mar 19, 2018

README.md

Go Etherinc | eInc Blockchain

Official golang implementation of the eInc protocol.

Go Report Card

Building the source

Building geth requires both a Go (version 1.7 or later) and a C compiler. You can install them using your favourite package manager. Once the dependencies are installed, run

make geth

or, to build the full suite of utilities:

make all

Executables

The go-etherinc project comes with several wrappers/executables found in the cmd directory.

Command Description
geth Our main Etherinc CLI client. It is the entry point into the Etherinc network (main-, test- or private net), capable of running as a full node (default) archive node (retaining all historical state) or a light node (retrieving data live). It can be used by other processes as a gateway into the Etherinc network via JSON RPC endpoints exposed on top of HTTP, WebSocket and/or IPC transports. geth --help for command line options.
abigen Source code generator to convert Etherinc contract definitions into easy to use, compile-time type-safe Go packages. It operates on plain Etherinc contract ABIs with expanded functionality if the contract bytecode is also available. However it also accepts Solidity source files, making development much more streamlined.
bootnode Stripped down version of our Etherinc client implementation that only takes part in the network node discovery protocol, but does not run any of the higher level application protocols. It can be used as a lightweight bootstrap node to aid in finding peers in private networks.
evm Developer utility version of the EVM (Etherinc Virtual Machine) that is capable of running bytecode snippets within a configurable environment and execution mode. Its purpose is to allow isolated, fine-grained debugging of EVM opcodes (e.g. evm --code 60ff60ff --debug).
rlpdump Developer utility tool to convert binary RLP Recursive Length Prefix dumps (data encoding used by the Etherinc protocol both network as well as consensus wise) to user friendlier hierarchical representation (e.g. rlpdump --hex CE0183FFFFFFC4C304050583616263).
swarm swarm daemon and tools. This is the entrypoint for the swarm network. swarm --help for command line options and subcommands. See https://swarm-guide.readthedocs.io for swarm documentation.
puppeth a CLI wizard that aids in creating a new Etherinc network.

Running geth

Going through all the possible command line flags is out of scope here, but we've enumerated a few common parameter combos to get you up to speed quickly on how you can run your own Geth instance.

Full node on the main Etherinc network

By far the most common scenario is people wanting to simply interact with the Etherinc network: create accounts; transfer funds; deploy and interact with contracts. For this particular use-case the user doesn't care about years-old historical data, so we can fast-sync quickly to the current state of the network. To do so:

$ geth console

This command will:

  • Start geth in fast sync mode (default, can be changed with the --syncmode flag), causing it to download more data in exchange for avoiding processing the entire history of the Etherinc network, which is very CPU intensive.
  • Start up Geth's built-in interactive JavaScript console, (via the trailing console subcommand) through which you can invoke all official web3 methods. This too is optional and if you leave it out you can always attach to an already running Geth instance with geth attach.

Full node on the Etherinc test network

Transitioning towards developers, if you'd like to play around with creating Etherinc contracts, you almost certainly would like to do that without any real money involved until you get the hang of the entire system. In other words, instead of attaching to the main network, you want to join the test network with your node, which is fully equivalent to the main network, but with play-Ether only.

$ geth --testnet console

The console subcommand have the exact same meaning as above and they are equally useful on the testnet too. Please see above for their explanations if you've skipped to here.

Specifying the --testnet flag however will reconfigure your Geth instance a bit:

  • Instead of using the default data directory (~/.etherinc on Linux for example), Geth will nest itself one level deeper into a testnet subfolder (~/.etherinc/testnet on Linux). Note, on OSX and Linux this also means that attaching to a running testnet node requires the use of a custom endpoint since geth attach will try to attach to a production node endpoint by default. E.g. geth attach <datadir>/testnet/geth.ipc. Windows users are not affected by this.
  • Instead of connecting the main Etherinc network, the client will connect to the test network, which uses different P2P bootnodes, different network IDs and genesis states.

Note: Although there are some internal protective measures to prevent transactions from crossing over between the main network and test network, you should make sure to always use separate accounts for play-money and real-money. Unless you manually move accounts, Geth will by default correctly separate the two networks and will not make any accounts available between them.

Configuration

As an alternative to passing the numerous flags to the geth binary, you can also pass a configuration file via:

$ geth --config /path/to/your_config.toml

To get an idea how the file should look like you can use the dumpconfig subcommand to export your existing configuration:

$ geth --your-favourite-flags dumpconfig

Note: This works only with geth v1.6.0 and above.

Programatically interfacing Geth nodes

As a developer, sooner rather than later you'll want to start interacting with Geth and the Etherinc network via your own programs and not manually through the console. To aid this, Geth has built in support for a JSON-RPC based APIs. These can be exposed via HTTP, WebSockets and IPC (unix sockets on unix based platforms, and named pipes on Windows).

The IPC interface is enabled by default and exposes all the APIs supported by Geth, whereas the HTTP and WS interfaces need to manually be enabled and only expose a subset of APIs due to security reasons. These can be turned on/off and configured as you'd expect.

HTTP based JSON-RPC API options:

  • --rpc Enable the HTTP-RPC server
  • --rpcaddr HTTP-RPC server listening interface (default: "localhost")
  • --rpcport HTTP-RPC server listening port (default: 8545)
  • --rpcapi API's offered over the HTTP-RPC interface (default: "eth,net,web3")
  • --rpccorsdomain Comma separated list of domains from which to accept cross origin requests (browser enforced)
  • --ws Enable the WS-RPC server
  • --wsaddr WS-RPC server listening interface (default: "localhost")
  • --wsport WS-RPC server listening port (default: 8546)
  • --wsapi API's offered over the WS-RPC interface (default: "eth,net,web3")
  • --wsorigins Origins from which to accept websockets requests
  • --ipcdisable Disable the IPC-RPC server
  • --ipcapi API's offered over the IPC-RPC interface (default: "admin,debug,eth,miner,net,personal,shh,txpool,web3")
  • --ipcpath Filename for IPC socket/pipe within the datadir (explicit paths escape it)

You'll need to use your own programming environments' capabilities (libraries, tools, etc) to connect via HTTP, WS or IPC to a Geth node configured with the above flags and you'll need to speak JSON-RPC on all transports. You can reuse the same connection for multiple requests!

Note: Please understand the security implications of opening up an HTTP/WS based transport before doing so! Hackers on the internet are actively trying to subvert Etherinc nodes with exposed APIs! Further, all browser tabs can access locally running webservers, so malicious webpages could try to subvert locally available APIs!

Operating a private network

Maintaining your own private network is more involved as a lot of configurations taken for granted in the official networks need to be manually set up.

Defining the private genesis state

First, you'll need to create the genesis state of your networks, which all nodes need to be aware of and agree upon. This consists of a small JSON file (e.g. call it genesis.json):

{
  "config": {
        "chainId": 0,
        "homesteadBlock": 0,
        "eip155Block": 0,
        "eip158Block": 0
    },
  "alloc"      : {},
  "coinbase"   : "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
  "difficulty" : "0x20000",
  "extraData"  : "",
  "gasLimit"   : "0x2fefd8",
  "nonce"      : "0x0000000000000042",
  "mixhash"    : "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
  "parentHash" : "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
  "timestamp"  : "0x00"
}

The above fields should be fine for most purposes, although we'd recommend changing the nonce to some random value so you prevent unknown remote nodes from being able to connect to you. If you'd like to pre-fund some accounts for easier testing, you can populate the alloc field with account configs:

"alloc": {
  "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000001": {"balance": "111111111"},
  "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000002": {"balance": "222222222"}
}

With the genesis state defined in the above JSON file, you'll need to initialize every Geth node with it prior to starting it up to ensure all blockchain parameters are correctly set:

$ geth init path/to/genesis.json

Creating the rendezvous point

With all nodes that you want to run initialized to the desired genesis state, you'll need to start a bootstrap node that others can use to find each other in your network and/or over the internet. The clean way is to configure and run a dedicated bootnode:

$ bootnode --genkey=boot.key
$ bootnode --nodekey=boot.key

With the bootnode online, it will display an enode URL that other nodes can use to connect to it and exchange peer information. Make sure to replace the displayed IP address information (most probably [::]) with your externally accessible IP to get the actual enode URL.

Note: You could also use a full fledged Geth node as a bootnode, but it's the less recommended way.

Starting up your member nodes

With the bootnode operational and externally reachable (you can try telnet <ip> <port> to ensure it's indeed reachable), start every subsequent Geth node pointed to the bootnode for peer discovery via the --bootnodes flag. It will probably also be desirable to keep the data directory of your private network separated, so do also specify a custom --datadir flag.

$ geth --datadir=path/to/custom/data/folder --bootnodes=<bootnode-enode-url-from-above>

Note: Since your network will be completely cut off from the main and test networks, you'll also need to configure a miner to process transactions and create new blocks for you.

Running a private miner

Mining on the public Etherinc network is a complex task as it's only feasible using GPUs, requiring an OpenCL or CUDA enabled ethminer instance. For information on such a setup, please consult the EtherMining subreddit and the Genoil miner repository.

In a private network setting however, a single CPU miner instance is more than enough for practical purposes as it can produce a stable stream of blocks at the correct intervals without needing heavy resources (consider running on a single thread, no need for multiple ones either). To start a Geth instance for mining, run it with all your usual flags, extended by:

$ geth <usual-flags> --mine --minerthreads=1 --etherbase=0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000

Which will start mining blocks and transactions on a single CPU thread, crediting all proceedings to the account specified by --etherbase. You can further tune the mining by changing the default gas limit blocks converge to (--targetgaslimit) and the price transactions are accepted at (--gasprice).

License

The go-etherinc library (i.e. all code outside of the cmd directory) is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License v3.0, also included in our repository in the COPYING.LESSER file.

The go-etherinc binaries (i.e. all code inside of the cmd directory) is licensed under the GNU General Public License v3.0, also included in our repository in the COPYING file.

copyright einc.io copyright ethereum.org