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Feeds, previously known as Mutable Resource Updates, is an experimental feature, available since Swarm POC3. It is under active development, so expect things to change.

Since Swarm hashes are content addressed, changes to data will constantly result in changing hashes. Swarm Feeds provide a way to easily overcome this problem and provide a single, persistent, identifier to follow sequential data.

The usual way of keeping the same pointer to changing data is using the Ethereum Name Service (ENS). However, since ENS is an on-chain feature, it might not be suitable for each use case since:

  1. Every update to an ENS resolver will cost gas to execute
  2. It is not be possible to change the data faster than the rate that new blocks are mined
  3. ENS resolution requires your node to be synced to the blockchain

Swarm Feeds provide a way to have a persistent identifier for changing data without having to use ENS. It is named Feeds for its similarity with a news feed.

If you are using Feeds in conjunction with an ENS resolver contract, only one initial transaction to register the "Feed manifest address" will be necessary. This key will resolve to the latest version of the Feed (updating the Feed will not change the key).

You can think of a Feed as a user's Twitter account, where he/she posts updates about a particular Topic. In fact, the Feed object is simply defined as:

type Feed struct {
  Topic Topic
  User  common.Address

That is, a specific user posting updates about a specific Topic.

Users can post to any topic. If you know the user's address and agree on a particular Topic, you can then effectively "follow" that user's Feed.


How you build the Topic is entirely up to your application. You could calculate a hash of something and use that, the recommendation is that it should be easy to derive out of information that is accesible to other users.

For convenience, feed.NewTopic() provides a way to "merge" a byte array with a string in order to build a Feed Topic out of both. This is used at the API level to create the illusion of subtopics. This way of building topics allows using a random byte array (for example the hash of a photo) and merge it with a human-readable string such as "comments" in order to create a Topic that could represent the comments about that particular photo. This way, when you see a picture in a website you could immediately build a Topic out of it and see if some user posted comments about that photo.

Feeds are not created, only updated. If a particular Feed (user, topic combination) has never posted to, trying to fetch updates will yield nothing.

Feed Manifests

A Feed Manifest is simply a JSON object that contains the Topic and User of a particular Feed (i.e., a serialized Feed object). Uploading this JSON object to Swarm in the regular way will return the immutable hash of this object. We can then store this immutable hash in an ENS Resolver so that we can have a ENS domain that "follows" the Feed described in the manifest.

Feeds API

There are 3 different ways of interacting with Feeds : HTTP API, CLI and Golang API.


Posting to a Feed

Since Feed updates need to be signed, and an update has some correlation with a previous update, it is necessary to retrieve first the Feed's current status. Thus, the first step to post an update will be to retrieve this current status in a ready-to-sign template:

  1. Get Feed template

GET /bzz-feed:/?topic=<TOPIC>&user=<USER>&meta=1

GET /bzz-feed:/<MANIFEST OR ENS NAME>/?meta=1

  • user: Ethereum address of the user who publishes the Feed
  • topic: Feed topic, encoded as a hex string. Topic is an arbitrary 32-byte string (64 hex chars)


  • If topic is omitted, it is assumed to be zero, 0x000...
  • if name=<name> (optional) is provided, a subtopic is composed with that name
  • A common use is to omit topic and just use name, allowing for human-readable topics

You will receive a JSON like the below:

  "feed": {
    "topic": "0x6a61766900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
    "user": "0xdfa2db618eacbfe84e94a71dda2492240993c45b"
  "epoch": {
    "level": 16,
    "time": 1534237239
  "protocolVersion" : 0,
  1. Post the update

Extract the fields out of the JSON and build a query string as below:

POST /bzz-feed:/?topic=<TOPIC>&user=<USER>&level=<LEVEL>&time=<TIME>&signature=<SIGNATURE>

  • topic: Feed topic, as specified above
  • user: your Ethereum address
  • level: Suggested frequency level retrieved in the JSON above
  • time: Suggested timestamp retrieved in the JSON above
  • protocolVersion: Feeds protocol version. Currently 0
  • signature: Signature, hex encoded. See below on how to calclulate the signature
  • Request posted data: binary stream with the update data

Reading a Feed

To retrieve a Feed's last update:

GET /bzz-feed:/?topic=<TOPIC>&user=<USER>



  • Again, if topic is omitted, it is assumed to be zero, 0x000...
  • If name=<name> is provided, a subtopic is composed with that name
  • A common use is to omit topic and just use name, allowing for human-readable topics, for example: GET /bzz-feed:/?name=profile-picture&user=<USER>

To get a previous update:

Add an addtional time parameter. The last update before that time (unix time) will be looked up.

GET /bzz-feed:/?topic=<TOPIC>&user=<USER>&time=<T>

GET /bzz-feed:/<MANIFEST OR ENS NAME>?time=<T>

Creating a Feed Manifest

To create a Feed manifest using the HTTP API:

POST /bzz-feed:/?topic=<TOPIC>&user=<USER>&manifest=1. With an empty body.

This will create a manifest referencing the provided Feed.


This API call will be deprecated in the near future.


Query object

The Query object allows you to build a query to browse a particular Feed.

The default Query, obtained with feed.NewQueryLatest() will build a Query that retrieves the latest update of the given Feed.

You can also use feed.NewQuery() instead, if you want to build a Query to look up an update before a certain date.

Advanced usage of Query includes hinting the lookup algorithm for faster lookups. The default hint lookup.NoClue will have your node track Feeds you query frequently and handle hints automatically.

Request object

The Request object makes it easy to construct and sign a request to Swarm to update a particular Feed. It contains methods to sign and add data. We can manually build the Request object, or fetch a valid "template" to use for the update.

A Request can also be serialized to JSON in case you need your application to delegate signatures, such as having a browser sign a Feed update request.

Posting to a Feed

  1. Retrieve a Request object or build one from scratch. To retrieve a ready-to-sign one:
func (c *Client) GetFeedRequest(query *feed.Query, manifestAddressOrDomain string) (*feed.Request, error)
  1. Use Request.SetData() and Request.Sign() to load the payload data into the request and sign it
  2. Call UpdateFeed() with the filled Request:
func (c *Client) UpdateFeed(request *feed.Request, createManifest bool) (io.ReadCloser, error)

Reading a Feed

To retrieve a Feed update, use client.QueryFeed(). QueryFeed returns a byte stream with the raw content of the Feed update.

func (c *Client) QueryFeed(query *feed.Query, manifestAddressOrDomain string) (io.ReadCloser, error)

manifestAddressOrDomain is the address you obtained in CreateFeedWithManifest or an ENS domain whose Resolver points to that address. query is a Query object, as defined above.

You only need to provide either manifestAddressOrDomain or Query to QueryFeed(). Set to "" or nil respectively.

Creating a Feed Manifest

Swarm client (package swarm/api/client) has the following method:

func (c *Client) CreateFeedWithManifest(request *feed.Request) (string, error)

CreateFeedWithManifest uses the request parameter to set and create a Feed manifest.

Returns the resulting Feed manifest address that you can set in an ENS Resolver (setContent) or reference future updates using Client.UpdateFeed()

Example Go code

// Build a `Feed` object to track a particular user's updates
f := new(feed.Feed)
f.User = signer.Address()
f.Topic, _ = feed.NewTopic("weather",nil)

// Build a `Query` to retrieve a current Request for this feed
query := feeds.NewQueryLatest(&f, lookup.NoClue)

// Retrieve a ready-to-sign request using our query
// (queries can be reused)
request, err := client.GetFeedRequest(query, "")
if err != nil {
    utils.Fatalf("Error retrieving feed status: %s", err.Error())

// set the new data
request.SetData([]byte("Weather looks bright and sunny today, we should merge this PR and go out enjoy"))

// sign update
if err = request.Sign(signer); err != nil {
    utils.Fatalf("Error signing feed update: %s", err.Error())

// post update
err = client.UpdateFeed(request)
if err != nil {
    utils.Fatalf("Error updating feed: %s", err.Error())


The CLI API allows us to go through how Feeds work using practical examples. You can look up CL usage by typing swarm feed into your CLI.

In the CLI examples, we will create and update feeds using the bzzapi on a running local Swarm node that listens by default on port 8500.

Creating a Feed Manifest

The Swarm CLI allows creating Feed Manifests directly from the console.

swarm feed create is defined as a command to create and publish a Feed manifest.

The feed topic can be built in the following ways:
  • use --topic to set the topic to an arbitrary binary hex string.
  • use --name to set the topic to a human-readable name.
    For example, --name could be set to "profile-picture", meaning this feed allows to get this user's current profile picture.
  • use both --topic and --name to create named subtopics.
    For example, --topic could be set to an Ethereum contract address and --name could be set to "comments", meaning this feed tracks a discussion about that contract.

The --user flag allows to have this manifest refer to a user other than yourself. If not specified, it will then default to your local account (--bzzaccount).

If you don't specify a name or a topic, the topic will be set to 0 hex and name will be set to your username.

$ swarm --bzzapi http://localhost:8500 feed create --name test

creates a feed named "test". This is equivalent to the HTTP API way of

$ swarm --bzzapi http://localhost:8500 feed create --topic 0x74657374

since test string == 0x74657374 hex. Name and topic are interchangeable, as long as you don't specify both.

feed create will return the feed manifest.

You can also use curl in the HTTP API, but, here, you have to explicitly define the user (which, in this case, is your account) and the manifest.

$ curl -XPOST -d 'name=test&user=<your account>&manifest=1' http://localhost:8500/bzz-Feed:/

is equivalent to

$ curl -XPOST -d 'topic=0x74657374&user=<your account>&manifest=1' http://localhost:8500/bzz-Feed:/

Posting to a Feed

To update a Feed with the CLI, use feed update. The update argument has to be in hex. If you want to update your test feed with the update hello, you can refer to it by name:

$ swarm --bzzapi http://localhost:8500 feed update --name test 0x68656c6c6f203

You can also refer to it by topic,

$ swarm --bzzapi http://localhost:8500 feed update --topic 0x74657374 0x68656c6c6f203

or manifest.

$ swarm --bzzapi http://localhost:8500 feed update --manifest <manifest hash> 0x68656c6c6f203

Reading Feed status

You can read the feed object using feed info. Again, you can use the feed name, the topic, or the manifest hash. Below, we use the name.

$ swarm --bzzapi http://localhost:8500 feed info --name test

Reading Feed Updates

Although the Swarm CLI doesn't have the functionality to retrieve feed updates, we can use curl and the HTTP api to retrieve them. Again, you can use the feed name, topic, or manifest hash. To return the update hello for your test feed, do this:

$ curl 'http://localhost:8500/bzz-feed:/?user=<your address>&name=test'

Computing Feed Signatures

  1. computing the digest:
The digest is computed concatenating the following:
  • 1-byte protocol version (currently 0)
  • 7-bytes padding, set to 0
  • 32-bytes topic
  • 20-bytes user address
  • 7-bytes time, little endian
  • 1-byte level
  • payload data (variable length)
  1. Take the SHA3 hash of the above digest
  2. Compute the ECDSA signature of the hash
  3. Convert to hex string and put in the signature field above

JavaScript example

var web3 = require("web3");

if (module !== undefined) {
  module.exports = {
    digest: feedUpdateDigest

var topicLength = 32;
var userLength = 20;
var timeLength = 7;
var levelLength = 1;
var headerLength = 8;
var updateMinLength = topicLength + userLength + timeLength + levelLength + headerLength;

function feedUpdateDigest(request /*request*/, data /*UInt8Array*/) {
  var topicBytes = undefined;
    var userBytes = undefined;
    var protocolVersion = 0;

    protocolVersion = request.protocolVersion

  try {
    topicBytes = web3.utils.hexToBytes(request.feed.topic);
  } catch(err) {
    console.error("topicBytes: " + err);
    return undefined;

  try {
    userBytes = web3.utils.hexToBytes(request.feed.user);
  } catch(err) {
    console.error("topicBytes: " + err);
    return undefined;

  var buf = new ArrayBuffer(updateMinLength + data.length);
  var view = new DataView(buf);
    var cursor = 0;

    view.setUint8(cursor, protocolVersion) // first byte is protocol version.
    cursor+=headerLength; // leave the next 7 bytes (padding) set to zero

  topicBytes.forEach(function(v) {
    view.setUint8(cursor, v);

  userBytes.forEach(function(v) {
    view.setUint8(cursor, v);

  // time is little-endian
  view.setUint32(cursor, request.epoch.time, true);
  cursor += 7;

  view.setUint8(cursor, request.epoch.level);

  data.forEach(function(v) {
    view.setUint8(cursor, v);
    console.log(web3.utils.bytesToHex(new Uint8Array(buf)))

  return web3.utils.sha3(web3.utils.bytesToHex(new Uint8Array(buf)));

// data payload
data = new Uint8Array([5,154,15,165,62])

// request template, obtained calling http://localhost:8500/bzz-feed:/?user=<0xUSER>&topic=<0xTOPIC>&meta=1
request = {"feed":{"topic":"0x1234123412341234123412341234123412341234123412341234123412341234","user":"0xabcdefabcdefabcdefabcdefabcdefabcdefabcd"},"epoch":{"time":1538650124,"level":25},"protocolVersion":0}

// obtain digest
digest = feedUpdateDigest(request, data)

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