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What is dependency injection and inversion of control?


Wikipedia provides quite good definitions of dependency injection pattern and related principles:

.. glossary::

    `Dependency injection`_
        In software engineering, dependency injection is a software design
        pattern that implements inversion of control for resolving
        dependencies. A dependency is an object that can be used (a service).
        An injection is the passing of a dependency to a dependent object (a
        client) that would use it. The service is made part of the client's
        state. Passing the service to the client, rather than allowing a
        client to build or find the service, is the fundamental requirement of
        the pattern.

        Dependency injection allows a program design to follow the dependency
        inversion principle. The client delegates to external code (the
        injector) the responsibility of providing its dependencies. The client
        is not allowed to call the injector code. It is the injecting code
        that constructs the services and calls the client to inject them. This
        means the client code does not need to know about the injecting code.
        The client does not need to know how to construct the services. The
        client does not need to know which actual services it is using. The
        client only needs to know about the intrinsic interfaces of the
        services because these define how the client may use the services.
        This separates the responsibilities of use and construction.

    `Inversion of control`_
        In software engineering, inversion of control (IoC) describes a design
        in which custom-written portions of a computer program receive the
        flow of control from a generic, reusable library. A software
        architecture with this design inverts control as compared to
        traditional procedural programming: in traditional programming, the
        custom code that expresses the purpose of the program calls into
        reusable libraries to take care of generic tasks, but with inversion
        of control, it is the reusable code that calls into the custom, or
        task-specific, code.

        Inversion of control is used to increase modularity of the program and
        make it extensible, and has applications in object-oriented
        programming and other programming paradigms. The term was popularized
        by Robert C. Martin and Martin Fowler.

        The term is related to, but different from, the dependency inversion
        principle, which concerns itself with decoupling dependencies between
        high-level and low-level layers through shared abstractions.

    `Dependency inversion`_
        In object-oriented programming, the dependency inversion principle
        refers to a specific form of decoupling software modules. When
        following this principle, the conventional dependency relationships
        established from high-level, policy-setting modules to low-level,
        dependency modules are reversed, thus rendering high-level modules
        independent of the low-level module implementation details. The
        principle states:

            + High-level modules should not depend on low-level modules.
              Both should depend on abstractions.
            + Abstractions should not depend on details.
              Details should depend on abstractions.

        The principle inverts the way some people may think about
        object-oriented design, dictating that both high- and low-level
        objects must depend on the same abstraction.


Let's go through the code of

.. literalinclude:: ../../examples/di_demo/
   :language: python

At some point, things defined above mean, that the code from, could look different, like in

.. literalinclude:: ../../examples/di_demo/
   :language: python

Best explanation, ever

Some times ago user198313 posted awesome question about dependency injection on StackOverflow:


How to explain dependency injection to a 5-year-old?

And John Munsch provided absolutely Great answer:


When you go and get things out of the refrigerator for yourself, you can cause problems. You might leave the door open, you might get something Mommy or Daddy doesn't want you to have. You might even be looking for something we don't even have or which has expired.

What you should be doing is stating a need, "I need something to drink with lunch," and then we will make sure you have something when you sit down to eat.

.. disqus::