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===================================================== NB - this commit message is repeated in file ext/ed.cpp to act as a comment for future maintainers. Environment ----------- Operating system version Operating system : centos 6 on AMD x86_64 arch Kernel version: >> uname -a >> Linux localhost.localdomain 2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64 #1 SMP Fri May 20 03:51:51 BST 2011 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux Ruby version >> ruby --version >> ruby 1.9.2p290 (2011-07-09 revision 32553) [x86_64-linux] Problem Description ------------------- We detected this problem while developing a client/server job distribution system for a scientific computing application. We have a very large LSF compute cluster which we use to process compute-intensive tasks. The job distribution system gets a compute slot on LSF where a client is launched. The client then rings back to the server and asks for work, which is subsequently launched as a sub-process of the client. We found that we were getting clients 'stuck' on compute slots, without any associated workload being processed. These clients would live forever, taking up capacity on our LSF cluster, which in turn reduced throughput for other users of the cluster. An initial investigation showed that these client processes did not appear to have any corresponding server process. There was a TCP socket open on the client host to the machine which had hosted the server process, but apparently no corresponding socket on the server host. Scenario -------- We knew that users had started killing the server process for their jobs in order to launch newer, fresher workloads. LSF uses a sequence of signals to both warn a job that it is about to be shut down, and to ensure that the job really does terminate. The sequence is as follows: SIGINT -> SIGTERM -> SIGKILL (separated by a time of 10s) We know that the server application traps SIGINT and SIGTERM signals, so it seemed likely that the problem was an incomplete shutdown under SIGKILL conditions. We need to use EM.system() to launch sub processes from the server in order to launch the clients into the compute cluster. Access to the LSF cluster is via vanilla user-facing tools (eg bsub, bjobs, bkill etc etc). The full scenario is as follows: 1) server launches client into lsf with EM.system("bsub ...") 2) EM goes off to handle other tasks while the bsub is running 3) Time passes... 4) server uses EM.system() to do some other time consuming job 5) While this is running, one or more client processes ring home to get their next workloads 6) User decides to terminate their current set of jobs and issues a 'bkill' operation, assuming that this will also kill the clients. (NB - the clients do have a heartbeat mechanism to detect the death of the server) 7) LSF starts killing the server (the EM.system is still running) 8) LSF eventually uses SIGKILL to ensure a full kill >> wedged client processes! Reproduction ------------ We were able to reproduce the scenario by writing a simple EventMachine::HttpServer server and using standard tools such as 'wget' to connect to the server. When the server got an incoming request, it launched a time consuming sub-process such as '/bin/sleep 3600' via EM.system(). We were able to confirm that EM launched the 'sleep' in such a way that it wasn't blocking the wider EM event processing loop. We could also see the 'sleep' as a subprocess of ruby, along with processes for the 20 threads spawned by EM. We also confirmed that the TCP connection was attached to the server as you would expect: lsof -p 28915 COMMAND PID USER FD TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME ruby 28915 nick cwd DIR 253,0 4096 532885 /home/nick/Work/ruby_event_machine_tests ... snip ... ruby 28915 nick 5u IPv4 156947 0t0 TCP *:tproxy (LISTEN) ruby 28915 nick 6u IPv4 157383 0t0 TCP localhost.localdomain:tproxy->loca We then issued a SIGKILL (kill -9) to the server process. We saw that the server process died, as you would expect, since SIGKILL is not trappable. We also saw that the 'sleep' process was still in existance, but orphaned, so therefore attached to PID 1. However, we also saw that the 'wget' client did not detach from its socket when the server died. We also saw that the 'sleep' process had a copy of the TCP connection between the 'wget' client and the (now dead) server. For example: lsof -p 28955 COMMAND PID USER FD TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME sleep 28955 nick cwd DIR 253,0 4096 532885 /home/nick/Work/ruby_event_machine_tests sleep 28955 nick txt REG 253,0 27880 132819 /bin/sleep ... snip ... sleep 28955 nick 6u IPv4 157383 0t0 TCP localhost.localdomain:tproxy->localhost.localdomain:50903 (ESTABLISHED) We validated that the 'wget' client did indeed terminate when the 'sleep' process was terminated. So, how did a 'sleep' process end up getting a TCP connection?? ========== Root cause ========== The root cause is the handling of the FD_CLOEXEC property on the file descriptors which represent the TCP connections onto the server. If you look at the 'lsof' for process 28915 output above, you'll see that the server actually has 2 file descriptors open: 5) LISTEN 6) TCP connection ESTABLISHED When you look at the 'sleep' process (PID 28955), you see the ESTABLISHED connection but you'll notice that it's file descriptor '6'. File descriptor '5' has been closed. This is what we'd expect to see, given that FD_CLOEXEC is set on the file descriptor which was originally created when the TCP server was initialized. You can find this code in file 'em.cpp' at line 1533 (in method EventMachine_t::CreateTcpServer) in the eventmachine-1.0.0.beta.4 release. However, the file descriptor '6' appears to have been inheritted, which suggests that it didn't have FD_CLOEXEC set on it. Fix --- I tracked the generation of the new file descriptor down to the 'accept' statement on line 1410 in this file (above). The fix is to simply set the FD_CLOEXEC property on the new file descriptor, in exactly the same way as done in file em.cpp:1533. In testing, this does solve the inheritance of file descriptors by child processes and allows the client 'wget' process to die as soon as the server process is killed. What this fix does not address ------------------------------ This fix will still allow the child process to be orhpaned. It also does not address what the long-running process launched by the server was, that stayed alive so long that the clients never appeared to terminate. That's a workload issue which we'll need to resolve ourselves. Questions / Possible issues --------------------------- While this fix solves my specific problem, I don't know whether this will cause problems for other EM workloads. Does this fix go against any design philosophy of EventMachine? Was it deliberate that FD_CLOEXEC wasn't set against the new file descriptor? Do any sub-processes launched with EM.system() depend on accessing the TCP socket opened by its parent?
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