Write declarative scrapers in Ruby
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Absolute urls decorator: encode urls correctly

README.md

Scraped

Write declarative scrapers in Ruby

Installation

Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'scraped'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install scraped

Usage

To write a standard HTML scraper, start by creating a subclass of Scraped::HTML for each type of page you wish to scrape.

For example if you were scraping a list of people you might have a PeopleListPage class for the list page and a PersonPage class for an individual person's page.

require 'scraped'

class ExamplePage < Scraped::HTML
  field :title do
    noko.at_css('h1').text
  end

  field :more_information do
    noko.at_css('a')[:href]
  end
end

Then you can create a new instance and pass in a Scraped::Response instance.

page = ExamplePage.new(response: Scraped::Request.new(url: 'http://example.com').response)

page.title
# => "Example Domain"

page.more_information
# => "http://www.iana.org/domains/reserved"

page.to_h
# => { :title => "Example Domain", :more_information => "http://www.iana.org/domains/reserved" }

Dealing with sections of a page

When writing an HTML scraper you'll often need to deal with just a part of the page. For example you might want to scrape a table containing a list of people and some associated data.

To do this you can use the fragment method, passing it a hash with one entry where the key is the noko fragment you want to use and the value is the class that should handle that fragment.

class MemberRow < Scraped::HTML
  field :name do
    noko.css('td')[2].text
  end

  field :party do
    noko.css('td')[3].text
  end
end

class AllMembersPage < Scraped::HTML
  field :members do
    noko.css('table.members-list tr').map do |row|
      fragment row => MemberRow
    end
  end
end

Extending

There are two main ways to extend scraped with your own custom logic - custom requests and decorated responses. Custom requests allow you to change where the scraper is getting its responses from, e.g. you might want to make requests to archive.org if the site you're scraping has disappeared. Decorated responses allow you to manipulate the response before it's passed to the scraper. Scraped comes with some built in decorators for common tasks such as making all the link urls on the page absolute rather than relative.

Custom request strategies

To make a custom request you'll need to create a class that subclasses Scraped::Request::Strategy and defines a response method.

class FileOnDiskRequest < Scraped::Request::Strategy
  def response
    { body: open(filename).read }
  end

  private

  def filename
    @filename ||= File.join(URI.parse(url).host, Digest::SHA1.hexdigest(url))
  end
end

The response method should return a Hash which has at least a body key. You can also include status and headers parameters in the hash to fill out those fields in the response. If not given, status will default to 200 (OK) and headers will default to {}.

To use a custom request strategy pass it to Scraped::Request:

request = Scraped::Request.new(url: 'http://example.com', strategies: [FileOnDiskRequest, Scraped::Request::Strategy::LiveRequest])
page = MyPersonPage.new(response: request.response)

Decorated responses

To manipulate the response before it is processed by the scraper create a class that subclasses Scraped::Response::Decorator and defines any of the following methods: body, url, status, headers.

class AbsoluteLinks < Scraped::Response::Decorator
  def body
    doc = Nokogiri::HTML(super)
    doc.css('a').each do |link|
      link[:href] = URI.join(url, link[:href]).to_s
    end
    doc.to_s
  end
end

As well as the body method you can also supply your own url, status and headers methods. You can access the current request body by calling super from your method. You can also call url, headers or status to access those properties of the current response.

To use a response decorator you need to use the decorator class method in a Scraped::HTML subclass:

class PageWithRelativeLinks < Scraped::HTML
  decorator AbsoluteLinks

  # Other fields...
end

Configuring requests and responses

When passing an array of request strategies or response decorators you should always pass the class, rather than the instance. If you want to configure an instance you can pass in a two element array where the first element is the class and the second element is the config:

class CustomHeader < Scraped::Response::Decorator
  def headers
    response.headers.merge('X-Greeting' => config[:greeting])
  end
end

class ExamplePage < Scraped::HTML
  decorator CustomHeader, greeting: 'Hello, world'
end

With the above code a custom header would be added to the response: X-Greeting: Hello, world.

Inheritance with decorators

When you inherit from a class that already has decorators the child class will also inherit the parent's decorators. There's currently no way to re-order or remove decorators in child classes, though that may be added in the future.

Built in decorators

Absolute link and image urls

Very frequently you will find that you need to make links and images on the page you are scraping absolute rather than relative. Scraped comes with support for this out of the box via the Scraped::Response::Decorator::AbsoluteUrls decorator.

require 'scraped'

class MemberPage < Scraped::HTML
  decorator Scraped::Response::Decorator::AbsoluteUrls

  field :image do
    # Image url will be absolute thanks to the decorator.
    noko.at_css('.profile-picture/@src').text
  end
end

Development

After checking out the repo, run bin/setup to install dependencies. Then, run rake test to run the tests. You can also run bin/console for an interactive prompt that will allow you to experiment.

To install this gem onto your local machine, run bundle exec rake install. To release a new version, update the version number in version.rb, and then run bundle exec rake release, which will create a git tag for the version, push git commits and tags, and push the .gem file to rubygems.org.

Contributing

Bug reports and pull requests are welcome on GitHub at https://github.com/everypolitician/scraped.

License

The gem is available as open source under the terms of the MIT License.