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Extism Java SDK

Java SDK for the Extism WebAssembly Plugin-System.

maven javadoc

Installation

Install the Extism Runtime Dependency

For this library, you first need to install the Extism Runtime. You can download the shared object directly from a release or use the Extism CLI to install it:

sudo extism lib install latest

#=> Fetching https://github.com/extism/extism/releases/download/v0.5.2/libextism-aarch64-apple-darwin-v0.5.2.tar.gz
#=> Copying libextism.dylib to /usr/local/lib/libextism.dylib
#=> Copying extism.h to /usr/local/include/extism.h

Install Jar

To use the Extism java-sdk you need to add the org.extism.sdk dependency to your dependency management system.

Maven

To use the Extism java-sdk with maven you need to add the following dependency to your pom.xml file:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.extism.sdk</groupId>
    <artifactId>extism</artifactId>
    <version>1.0.0</version>
</dependency>

Gradle

To use the Extism java-sdk with maven you need to add the following dependency to your build.gradle file:

implementation 'org.extism.sdk:extism:1.0.0'

Getting Started

This guide should walk you through some of the concepts in Extism and this java library.

Creating A Plug-in

The primary concept in Extism is the plug-in. You can think of a plug-in as a code module stored in a .wasm file. Since you may not have an Extism plug-in on hand to test, let's load a demo plug-in from the web:

import org.extism.sdk.manifest.Manifest;
import org.extism.sdk.wasm.UrlWasmSource;
import org.extism.sdk.Plugin;

var url = "https://github.com/extism/plugins/releases/latest/download/count_vowels.wasm";
var manifest = new Manifest(List.of(UrlWasmSource.fromUrl(url)));
var plugin = new Plugin(manifest, false, null);

Note: See the Manifest docs as it has a rich schema and a lot of options.

Calling A Plug-in's Exports

This plug-in was written in Rust and it does one thing, it counts vowels in a string. As such, it exposes one "export" function: count_vowels. We can call exports using Plugin#call

var output = plugin.call("count_vowels", "Hello, World!");
System.out.println(output);
// => "{"count": 3, "total": 3, "vowels": "aeiouAEIOU"}"

All exports have a simple interface of bytes-in and bytes-out. This plug-in happens to take a string and return a JSON encoded string with a report of results.

Plug-in State

Plug-ins may be stateful or stateless. Plug-ins can maintain state b/w calls by the use of variables. Our count vowels plug-in remembers the total number of vowels it's ever counted in the "total" key in the result. You can see this by making subsequent calls to the export:

var output = plugin.call("count_vowels", "Hello, World!");
System.out.println(output);
// => "{"count": 3, "total": 6, "vowels": "aeiouAEIOU"}"

var output = plugin.call("count_vowels", "Hello, World!");
System.out.println(output);
// => "{"count": 3, "total": 9, "vowels": "aeiouAEIOU"}"

These variables will persist until this plug-in is freed or you initialize a new one.

Configuration

Plug-ins may optionally take a configuration object. This is a static way to configure the plug-in. Our count-vowels plugin takes an optional configuration to change out which characters are considered vowels. Example:

var plugin = new Plugin(manifest, false, null);
var output = plugin.call("count_vowels", "Yellow, World!");
System.out.println(output);
// => {"count": 3, "total": 3, "vowels": "aeiouAEIOU"}

// Let's change the vowels config it uses to determine what is a vowel:
var config = Map.of("vowels", "aeiouyAEIOUY");
var manifest2 = new Manifest(List.of(UrlWasmSource.fromUrl(url)), null, config);
var plugin = new Plugin(manifest2, false, null);
var output = plugin.call("count_vowels", "Yellow, World!");
System.out.println(output);
// => {"count": 4, "total": 4, "vowels": "aeiouyAEIOUY"}
// ^ note count changed to 4 as we configured Y as a vowel this time

Host Functions

Let's extend our count-vowels example a little bit: Instead of storing the total in an ephemeral plug-in var, let's store it in a persistent key-value store!

Wasm can't use our app's KV store on its own. This is where Host Functions come in.

Host functions allow us to grant new capabilities to our plug-ins from our application. They are simply some java methods you write which can be passed down and invoked from any language inside the plug-in.

Let's load the manifest like usual but load up this count_vowels_kvstore plug-in:

var url = "https://github.com/extism/plugins/releases/latest/download/count_vowels_kvstore.wasm";
var manifest = new Manifest(List.of(UrlWasmSource.fromUrl(url)));
var plugin = new Plugin(manifest, false, null);

Note: The source code for this plug-in is here and is written in rust, but it could be written in any of our PDK languages.

Unlike our previous plug-in, this plug-in expects you to provide host functions that satisfy its import interface for a KV store. We want to expose two functions to our plugin, kv_write(String key, Bytes value) which writes a bytes value to a key and Bytes kv_read(String key) which reads the bytes at the given key.

// Our application KV store
// Pretend this is redis or a database :)
var kvStore = new HashMap<String, byte[]>();

ExtismFunction kvWrite = (plugin, params, returns, data) -> {
    System.out.println("Hello from kv_write Java Function!");
    var key = plugin.inputString(params[0]);
    var value = plugin.inputBytes(params[1]);
    System.out.println("Writing to key " +  key);
    kvStore.put(key, value);
};

ExtismFunction kvRead = (plugin, params, returns, data) -> {
    System.out.println("Hello from kv_read Java Function!");
    var key = plugin.inputString(params[0]);
    System.out.println("Reading from key " +  key);
    var value = kvStore.get(key);
    if (value == null) {
        // default to zeroed bytes
        var zero = new byte[]{0,0,0,0};
        plugin.returnBytes(returns[0], zero);
    } else {
        plugin.returnBytes(returns[0], value);
    }
};

HostFunction kvWriteHostFn = new HostFunction<>(
    "kv_write",
    new LibExtism.ExtismValType[]{LibExtism.ExtismValType.I64, LibExtism.ExtismValType.I64},
    new LibExtism.ExtismValType[0],
    kvWrite,
    Optional.empty()
);

HostFunction kvReadHostFn = new HostFunction<>(
    "kv_read",
    new LibExtism.ExtismValType[]{LibExtism.ExtismValType.I64},
    new LibExtism.ExtismValType[]{LibExtism.ExtismValType.I64},
    kvRead,
    Optional.empty()
);

Note: In order to write host functions you should get familiar with the methods on the ExtismCurrentPlugin class. The plugin parameter is an instance of this class.

Now we just need to pass in these function references when creating the plugin:.

HostFunction[] functions = {kvWriteHostFn, kvReadHostFn};
var plugin = new Plugin(manifest, false, functions);
var output = plugin.call("count_vowels", "Hello, World!");
// => Hello from kv_read Java Function!
// => Reading from key count-vowels
// => Hello from kv_write Java Function!
// => Writing to key count-vowels
System.out.println(output);
// => {"count": 3, "total": 3, "vowels": "aeiouAEIOU"}

Development

Build

To build the Extism java-sdk run the following command:

mvn clean verify

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