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Classes and subroutines dealing with network connections and related topics.
from functools import wraps
import getpass
import re
import threading
import select
import socket
import sys
from fabric.utils import abort
from fabric.auth import get_password, set_password
import warnings
warnings.simplefilter('ignore', DeprecationWarning)
import paramiko as ssh
except ImportError:
abort("paramiko is a required module. Please install it:\n\t$ sudo easy_install paramiko")
host_pattern = r'((?P<user>.+)@)?(?P<host>[^:]+)(:(?P<port>\d+))?'
host_regex = re.compile(host_pattern)
class HostConnectionCache(dict):
Dict subclass allowing for caching of host connections/clients.
This subclass does not offer any extra methods, but will intelligently
create new client connections when keys are requested, or return previously
created connections instead.
Key values are the same as host specifiers throughout Fabric: optional
username + ``@``, mandatory hostname, optional ``:`` + port number.
* ```` - typical Internet host address.
* ``firewall`` - atypical, but still legal, local host address.
* ```` - with specific username attached.
* ```` - with specific nonstandard port attached.
When the username is not given, ``env.user`` is used. ``env.user``
defaults to the currently running user at startup but may be overwritten by
user code or by specifying a command-line flag.
Note that differing explicit usernames for the same hostname will result in
multiple client connections being made. For example, specifying
```` will create a connection to ````, logged
in as ``user1``; later specifying ```` will create a new,
2nd connection as ``user2``.
The same applies to ports: specifying two different ports will result in
two different connections to the same host being made. If no port is given,
22 is assumed, so ```` is equivalent to ````.
def __getitem__(self, key):
# Normalize given key (i.e. obtain username and port, if not given)
user, host, port = normalize(key)
# Recombine for use as a key.
real_key = join_host_strings(user, host, port)
# If not found, create new connection and store it
if real_key not in self:
self[real_key] = connect(user, host, port)
# Return the value either way
return dict.__getitem__(self, real_key)
def __setitem__(self, key, value):
return dict.__setitem__(self, normalize_to_string(key), value)
def __delitem__(self, key):
return dict.__delitem__(self, normalize_to_string(key))
def __contains__(self, key):
return dict.__contains__(self, normalize_to_string(key))
def normalize(host_string, omit_port=False):
Normalizes a given host string, returning explicit host, user, port.
If ``omit_port`` is given and is True, only the host and user are returned.
from fabric.state import env
# Gracefully handle "empty" input by returning empty output
if not host_string:
return ('', '') if omit_port else ('', '', '')
# Get user, host and port separately
r = host_regex.match(host_string).groupdict()
# Add any necessary defaults in
user = r['user'] or env.get('user')
host = r['host']
port = r['port'] or '22'
if omit_port:
return user, host
return user, host, port
def denormalize(host_string):
Strips out default values for the given host string.
If the user part is the default user, it is removed; if the port is port 22,
it also is removed.
from state import env
r = host_regex.match(host_string).groupdict()
user = ''
if r['user'] is not None and r['user'] != env.user:
user = r['user'] + '@'
port = ''
if r['port'] is not None and r['port'] != '22':
port = ':' + r['port']
return user + r['host'] + port
def join_host_strings(user, host, port=None):
Turns user/host/port strings into ``user@host:port`` combined string.
This function is not responsible for handling missing user/port strings; for
that, see the ``normalize`` function.
If ``port`` is omitted, the returned string will be of the form
port_string = ''
if port:
port_string = ":%s" % port
return "%s@%s%s" % (user, host, port_string)
def normalize_to_string(host_string):
normalize() returns a tuple; this returns another valid host string.
return join_host_strings(*normalize(host_string))
def connect(user, host, port):
Create and return a new SSHClient instance connected to given host.
from state import env
# Initialization
# Init client
client = ssh.SSHClient()
# Load known host keys (e.g. ~/.ssh/known_hosts) unless user says not to.
if not env.disable_known_hosts:
# Unless user specified not to, accept/add new, unknown host keys
if not env.reject_unknown_hosts:
# Connection attempt loop
# Initialize loop variables
connected = False
password = get_password()
# Loop until successful connect (keep prompting for new password)
while not connected:
# Attempt connection
allow_agent=not env.no_agent,
look_for_keys=not env.no_keys
connected = True
return client
# BadHostKeyException corresponds to key mismatch, i.e. what on the
# command line results in the big banner error about man-in-the-middle
# attacks.
except ssh.BadHostKeyException:
abort("Host key for %s did not match pre-existing key! Server's key was changed recently, or possible man-in-the-middle attack." %
# Prompt for new password to try on auth failure
except (
), e:
# For whatever reason, empty password + no ssh key or agent results
# in an SSHException instead of an AuthenticationException. Since
# it's difficult to do otherwise, we must assume empty password +
# SSHException == auth exception. Conversely: if we get
# SSHException and there *was* a password -- it is probably
# something non auth related, and should be sent upwards.
if e.__class__ is ssh.SSHException and password:
# Otherwise, assume an auth exception, and prompt for new/better
# password.
# Paramiko doesn't handle prompting for locked private keys (i.e.
# keys with a passphrase and not loaded into an agent) so we have
# to detect this and tweak our prompt slightly. (Otherwise,
# however, the logic flow is the same, because Paramiko's connect()
# method overrides the password argument to be either the login
# password OR the private key passphrase. Meh.)
# NOTE: This will come up if you normally use a
# passphrase-protected private key with ssh-agent, and enter an
# incorrect remote username, because Paramiko:
# * Tries the agent first, which will fail as you gave the wrong
# username, so obviously any loaded keys aren't gonna work for a
# nonexistent remote account;
# * Then tries the on-disk key file, which is passphrased;
# * Realizes there's no password to try unlocking that key with,
# because you didn't enter a password, because you're using
# ssh-agent;
# * In this condition (trying a key file, password is None)
# Paramiko raises PasswordRequiredException.
text = None
if e.__class__ is ssh.PasswordRequiredException:
# NOTE: we can't easily say WHICH key's passphrase is needed,
# because Paramiko doesn't provide us with that info, and
# env.key_filename may be a list of keys, so we can't know
# which one raised the exception. Best not to try.
prompt = "[%s] Passphrase for private key"
text = prompt % env.host_string
password = prompt_for_password(text)
# Update env.password, env.passwords if empty
# Ctrl-D / Ctrl-C for exit
except (EOFError, TypeError):
# Print a newline (in case user was sitting at prompt)
# Handle timeouts
except socket.timeout:
abort('Timed out trying to connect to %s' % host)
# Handle DNS error / name lookup failure
except socket.gaierror:
abort('Name lookup failed for %s' % host)
# Handle generic network-related errors
# NOTE: In 2.6, socket.error subclasses IOError
except socket.error, e:
abort('Low level socket error connecting to host %s: %s' % (
host, e[1])
def prompt_for_password(prompt=None, no_colon=False, stream=None):
Prompts for and returns a new password if required; otherwise, returns None.
A trailing colon is appended unless ``no_colon`` is True.
If the user supplies an empty password, the user will be re-prompted until
they enter a non-empty password.
``prompt_for_password`` autogenerates the user prompt based on the current
host being connected to. To override this, specify a string value for
``stream`` is the stream the prompt will be printed to; if not given,
defaults to ``sys.stderr``.
from fabric.state import env
stream = stream or sys.stderr
# Construct prompt
default = "[%s] Login password" % env.host_string
password_prompt = prompt if (prompt is not None) else default
if not no_colon:
password_prompt += ": "
# Get new password value
new_password = getpass.getpass(password_prompt, stream)
# Otherwise, loop until user gives us a non-empty password (to prevent
# returning the empty string, and to avoid unnecessary network overhead.)
while not new_password:
print("Sorry, you can't enter an empty password. Please try again.")
new_password = getpass.getpass(password_prompt, stream)
return new_password
def needs_host(func):
Prompt user for value of ``env.host_string`` when ``env.host_string`` is
This decorator is basically a safety net for silly users who forgot to
specify the host/host list in one way or another. It should be used to wrap
operations which require a network connection.
Due to how we execute commands per-host in ``main()``, it's not possible to
specify multiple hosts at this point in time, so only a single host will be
prompted for.
Because this decorator sets ``env.host_string``, it will prompt once (and
only once) per command. As ``main()`` clears ``env.host_string`` between
commands, this decorator will also end up prompting the user once per
command (in the case where multiple commands have no hosts set, of course.)
from fabric.state import env
def host_prompting_wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
while not env.get('host_string', False):
host_string = raw_input("No hosts found. Please specify (single) host string for connection: ")
return func(*args, **kwargs)
return host_prompting_wrapper
def interpret_host_string(host_string):
Apply given host string to the env dict.
Split it into hostname, username and port (using
``) and store the full host string plus its
constituent parts into the appropriate env vars.
Returns the parts as split out by ``normalize`` for convenience.
from fabric.state import env
username, hostname, port = normalize(host_string)
env.host_string = host_string = hostname
env.user = username
env.port = port
return username, hostname, port
def disconnect_all():
Disconnect from all currently connected servers.
Used at the end of ``fab``'s main loop, and also intended for use by
library users.
from fabric.state import connections, output
# Explicitly disconnect from all servers
for key in connections.keys():
if output.status:
print "Disconnecting from %s..." % denormalize(key),
del connections[key]
if output.status:
print "done."
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