High-performance atomic increment using thread caching.
folly/ThreadCachedInt.h introduces a integer class designed for high
performance increments from multiple threads simultaneously without
loss of precision. It has two read modes,
readFast gives a potentially stale
value with one load, and
readFull gives the exact value, but is much slower,
as discussed below.
Increment performance is up to 10x greater than
std::atomic_fetch_add in high
contention environments. See
folly/test/ThreadCachedIntTest.h for more
readFast is as fast as a single load.
readFull, on the other hand, requires acquiring a mutex and iterating through
a list to accumulate the values of all the thread local counters, so is
significantly slower than
Create an instance and increment it with
increment or the operator overloads.
Read the value with
readFast for quick, potentially stale data, or
for a more expensive but precise result. There are additional convenience
functions as well, such as
ThreadCachedInt<int64_t> val; EXPECT_EQ(0, val.readFast()); ++val; // increment in thread local counter only EXPECT_EQ(0, val.readFast()); // increment has not been flushed EXPECT_EQ(1, val.readFull()); // accumulates all thread local counters val.set(2); EXPECT_EQ(2, val.readFast()); EXPECT_EQ(2, val.readFull());
folly::ThreadLocal to store thread specific
objects that each have a local counter. When incrementing, the thread local
instance is incremented. If the local counter passes the cache size, the value
is flushed to the global counter with an atomic increment. It is this global
counter that is read with
readFast via a simple load, but will not count any
of the updates that haven't been flushed.
In order to read the exact value,
ThreadCachedInt uses the extended
readAllThreads() API of
folly::ThreadLocal to iterate through all the
references to all the associated thread local object instances. This currently
requires acquiring a global mutex and iterating through the references,
accumulating the counters along with the global counter. This also means that
the first use of the object from a new thread will acquire the mutex in order to
insert the thread local reference into the list. By default, there is one
global mutex per integer type used in
ThreadCachedInt. If you plan on using a
ThreadCachedInts in your application, considering breaking up the
global mutex by introducing additional
Tag template parameters.
set simply sets the global counter value, and marks all the thread local
instances as needing to be reset. When iterating with
readFull, thread local
counters that have been marked as reset are skipped. When incrementing, thread
local counters marked for reset are set to zero and unmarked for reset.
Upon destruction, thread local counters are flushed to the parent so that counts are not lost after increments in temporary threads. This requires grabbing the global mutex to make sure the parent itself wasn't destroyed in another thread already.
There are of course many ways to skin a cat, and you may notice there is a
partial alternate implementation in
provides similar performance.
ShardedAtomicInt simply uses an array of
std::atomic<int64_t>'s and hashes threads across them to do low-contention
atomic increments, and
readFull just sums up all the ints.
This sounds great, but in order to get the contention low enough to get similar
performance as ThreadCachedInt with 24 threads,
ShardedAtomicInt needs about
2000 ints to hash across. This uses about 20x more memory, and the lock-free
readFull has to sum up all 2048 ints, which ends up being a about 50x slower
ThreadCachedInt in low contention situations, which is hopefully the
common case since it's designed for high-write, low read access patterns.
readFull is about the same speed as
ThreadCachedInt in high
Depending on the operating conditions, it may make more sense to use one
implementation over the other. For example, a lower contention environment will
probably be able to use a
ShardedAtomicInt with a much smaller array without
hurting performance, while improving memory consumption and perf of