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/*
* Copyright 2012 Facebook, Inc.
*
* Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
* you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
* You may obtain a copy of the License at
*
* http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
*
* Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
* distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
* WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
* See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
* limitations under the License.
*/
/**
* Various low-level, bit-manipulation routines.
*
* findFirstSet(x)
* find first (least significant) bit set in a value of an integral type,
* 1-based (like ffs()). 0 = no bits are set (x == 0)
*
* findLastSet(x)
* find last (most significant) bit set in a value of an integral type,
* 1-based. 0 = no bits are set (x == 0)
* for x != 0, findLastSet(x) == 1 + floor(log2(x))
*
* popcount(x)
* return the number of 1 bits in x
*
* nextPowTwo(x)
* Finds the next power of two >= x.
*
* isPowTwo(x)
* return true iff x is a power of two
*
* Endian
* convert between native, big, and little endian representation
* Endian::big(x) big <-> native
* Endian::little(x) little <-> native
* Endian::swap(x) big <-> little
*
* BitIterator
* Wrapper around an iterator over an integral type that iterates
* over its underlying bits in MSb to LSb order
*
* findFirstSet(BitIterator begin, BitIterator end)
* return a BitIterator pointing to the first 1 bit in [begin, end), or
* end if all bits in [begin, end) are 0
*
* @author Tudor Bosman (tudorb@fb.com)
*/
#ifndef FOLLY_BITS_H_
#define FOLLY_BITS_H_
#include "folly/Portability.h"
#ifndef _GNU_SOURCE
#define _GNU_SOURCE 1
#endif
#ifndef __GNUC__
#error GCC required
#endif
#include "folly/detail/BitsDetail.h"
#include "folly/detail/BitIteratorDetail.h"
#include "folly/Likely.h"
#include <byteswap.h>
#include <cassert>
#include <cinttypes>
#include <endian.h>
#include <iterator>
#include <limits>
#include <type_traits>
#include <boost/iterator/iterator_adaptor.hpp>
#include <stdint.h>
namespace folly {
// Generate overloads for findFirstSet as wrappers around
// appropriate ffs, ffsl, ffsll gcc builtins
template <class T>
typename std::enable_if<
(std::is_integral<T>::value &&
std::is_unsigned<T>::value &&
sizeof(T) <= sizeof(unsigned int)),
unsigned int>::type
findFirstSet(T x) {
return __builtin_ffs(x);
}
template <class T>
typename std::enable_if<
(std::is_integral<T>::value &&
std::is_unsigned<T>::value &&
sizeof(T) > sizeof(unsigned int) &&
sizeof(T) <= sizeof(unsigned long)),
unsigned int>::type
findFirstSet(T x) {
return __builtin_ffsl(x);
}
template <class T>
typename std::enable_if<
(std::is_integral<T>::value &&
std::is_unsigned<T>::value &&
sizeof(T) > sizeof(unsigned long) &&
sizeof(T) <= sizeof(unsigned long long)),
unsigned int>::type
findFirstSet(T x) {
return __builtin_ffsll(x);
}
template <class T>
typename std::enable_if<
(std::is_integral<T>::value && std::is_signed<T>::value),
unsigned int>::type
findFirstSet(T x) {
// Note that conversion from a signed type to the corresponding unsigned
// type is technically implementation-defined, but will likely work
// on any impementation that uses two's complement.
return findFirstSet(static_cast<typename std::make_unsigned<T>::type>(x));
}
// findLastSet: return the 1-based index of the highest bit set
// for x > 0, findLastSet(x) == 1 + floor(log2(x))
template <class T>
typename std::enable_if<
(std::is_integral<T>::value &&
std::is_unsigned<T>::value &&
sizeof(T) <= sizeof(unsigned int)),
unsigned int>::type
findLastSet(T x) {
return x ? 8 * sizeof(unsigned int) - __builtin_clz(x) : 0;
}
template <class T>
typename std::enable_if<
(std::is_integral<T>::value &&
std::is_unsigned<T>::value &&
sizeof(T) > sizeof(unsigned int) &&
sizeof(T) <= sizeof(unsigned long)),
unsigned int>::type
findLastSet(T x) {
return x ? 8 * sizeof(unsigned long) - __builtin_clzl(x) : 0;
}
template <class T>
typename std::enable_if<
(std::is_integral<T>::value &&
std::is_unsigned<T>::value &&
sizeof(T) > sizeof(unsigned long) &&
sizeof(T) <= sizeof(unsigned long long)),
unsigned int>::type
findLastSet(T x) {
return x ? 8 * sizeof(unsigned long long) - __builtin_clzll(x) : 0;
}
template <class T>
typename std::enable_if<
(std::is_integral<T>::value &&
std::is_signed<T>::value),
unsigned int>::type
findLastSet(T x) {
return findLastSet(static_cast<typename std::make_unsigned<T>::type>(x));
}
template <class T>
inline
typename std::enable_if<
std::is_integral<T>::value && std::is_unsigned<T>::value,
T>::type
nextPowTwo(T v) {
if (UNLIKELY(v == 0)) {
return 1;
}
return 1ul << findLastSet(v - 1);
}
template <class T>
inline
typename std::enable_if<
std::is_integral<T>::value && std::is_unsigned<T>::value,
bool>::type
isPowTwo(T v) {
return ((v != 0) && !(v & (v-1))); // yes, this is endian-agnostic
}
/**
* Population count
*/
template <class T>
inline typename std::enable_if<
(std::is_integral<T>::value &&
std::is_unsigned<T>::value &&
sizeof(T) <= sizeof(unsigned int)),
size_t>::type
popcount(T x) {
return detail::popcount(x);
}
template <class T>
inline typename std::enable_if<
(std::is_integral<T>::value &&
std::is_unsigned<T>::value &&
sizeof(T) > sizeof(unsigned int) &&
sizeof(T) <= sizeof(unsigned long long)),
size_t>::type
popcount(T x) {
return detail::popcountll(x);
}
/**
* Endianness detection and manipulation primitives.
*/
namespace detail {
template <class T>
struct EndianIntBase {
public:
static T swap(T x);
};
#define FB_GEN(t, fn) \
template<> inline t EndianIntBase<t>::swap(t x) { return fn(x); }
// fn(x) expands to (x) if the second argument is empty, which is exactly
// what we want for [u]int8_t
FB_GEN( int8_t,)
FB_GEN(uint8_t,)
FB_GEN( int64_t, bswap_64)
FB_GEN(uint64_t, bswap_64)
FB_GEN( int32_t, bswap_32)
FB_GEN(uint32_t, bswap_32)
FB_GEN( int16_t, bswap_16)
FB_GEN(uint16_t, bswap_16)
#undef FB_GEN
#if __BYTE_ORDER == __LITTLE_ENDIAN
template <class T>
struct EndianInt : public detail::EndianIntBase<T> {
public:
static T big(T x) { return EndianInt::swap(x); }
static T little(T x) { return x; }
};
#elif __BYTE_ORDER == __BIG_ENDIAN
template <class T>
struct EndianInt : public detail::EndianIntBase<T> {
public:
static T big(T x) { return x; }
static T little(T x) { return EndianInt::swap(x); }
};
#else
# error Your machine uses a weird endianness!
#endif /* __BYTE_ORDER */
} // namespace detail
// big* convert between native and big-endian representations
// little* convert between native and little-endian representations
// swap* convert between big-endian and little-endian representations
//
// ntohs, htons == big16
// ntohl, htonl == big32
#define FB_GEN1(fn, t, sz) \
static t fn##sz(t x) { return fn<t>(x); } \
#define FB_GEN2(t, sz) \
FB_GEN1(swap, t, sz) \
FB_GEN1(big, t, sz) \
FB_GEN1(little, t, sz)
#define FB_GEN(sz) \
FB_GEN2(uint##sz##_t, sz) \
FB_GEN2(int##sz##_t, sz)
class Endian {
public:
enum class Order : uint8_t {
LITTLE,
BIG
};
static constexpr Order order =
#if __BYTE_ORDER == __LITTLE_ENDIAN
Order::LITTLE;
#elif __BYTE_ORDER == __BIG_ENDIAN
Order::BIG;
#else
# error Your machine uses a weird endianness!
#endif /* __BYTE_ORDER */
template <class T> static T swap(T x) {
return detail::EndianInt<T>::swap(x);
}
template <class T> static T big(T x) {
return detail::EndianInt<T>::big(x);
}
template <class T> static T little(T x) {
return detail::EndianInt<T>::little(x);
}
FB_GEN(64)
FB_GEN(32)
FB_GEN(16)
FB_GEN(8)
};
#undef FB_GEN
#undef FB_GEN2
#undef FB_GEN1
/**
* Fast bit iteration facility.
*/
template <class BaseIter> class BitIterator;
template <class BaseIter>
BitIterator<BaseIter> findFirstSet(BitIterator<BaseIter>,
BitIterator<BaseIter>);
/**
* Wrapper around an iterator over an integer type that iterates
* over its underlying bits in LSb to MSb order.
*
* BitIterator models the same iterator concepts as the base iterator.
*/
template <class BaseIter>
class BitIterator
: public bititerator_detail::BitIteratorBase<BaseIter>::type {
public:
/**
* Return the number of bits in an element of the underlying iterator.
*/
static size_t bitsPerBlock() {
return std::numeric_limits<
typename std::make_unsigned<
typename std::iterator_traits<BaseIter>::value_type
>::type
>::digits;
}
/**
* Construct a BitIterator that points at a given bit offset (default 0)
* in iter.
*/
explicit BitIterator(const BaseIter& iter, size_t bitOffset=0)
: bititerator_detail::BitIteratorBase<BaseIter>::type(iter),
bitOffset_(bitOffset) {
assert(bitOffset_ < bitsPerBlock());
}
size_t bitOffset() const {
return bitOffset_;
}
void advanceToNextBlock() {
bitOffset_ = 0;
++this->base_reference();
}
BitIterator& operator=(const BaseIter& other) {
this->~BitIterator();
new (this) BitIterator(other);
return *this;
}
private:
friend class boost::iterator_core_access;
friend BitIterator findFirstSet<>(BitIterator, BitIterator);
typedef bititerator_detail::BitReference<
typename std::iterator_traits<BaseIter>::reference,
typename std::iterator_traits<BaseIter>::value_type
> BitRef;
void advanceInBlock(size_t n) {
bitOffset_ += n;
assert(bitOffset_ < bitsPerBlock());
}
BitRef dereference() const {
return BitRef(*this->base_reference(), bitOffset_);
}
void advance(ssize_t n) {
size_t bpb = bitsPerBlock();
ssize_t blocks = n / bpb;
bitOffset_ += n % bpb;
if (bitOffset_ >= bpb) {
bitOffset_ -= bpb;
++blocks;
}
this->base_reference() += blocks;
}
void increment() {
if (++bitOffset_ == bitsPerBlock()) {
advanceToNextBlock();
}
}
void decrement() {
if (bitOffset_-- == 0) {
bitOffset_ = bitsPerBlock() - 1;
--this->base_reference();
}
}
bool equal(const BitIterator& other) const {
return (bitOffset_ == other.bitOffset_ &&
this->base_reference() == other.base_reference());
}
ssize_t distance_to(const BitIterator& other) const {
return
(other.base_reference() - this->base_reference()) * bitsPerBlock() +
(other.bitOffset_ - bitOffset_);
}
ssize_t bitOffset_;
};
/**
* Helper function, so you can write
* auto bi = makeBitIterator(container.begin());
*/
template <class BaseIter>
BitIterator<BaseIter> makeBitIterator(const BaseIter& iter) {
return BitIterator<BaseIter>(iter);
}
/**
* Find first bit set in a range of bit iterators.
* 4.5x faster than the obvious std::find(begin, end, true);
*/
template <class BaseIter>
BitIterator<BaseIter> findFirstSet(BitIterator<BaseIter> begin,
BitIterator<BaseIter> end) {
// shortcut to avoid ugly static_cast<>
static const typename BaseIter::value_type one = 1;
while (begin.base() != end.base()) {
typename BaseIter::value_type v = *begin.base();
// mask out the bits that don't matter (< begin.bitOffset)
v &= ~((one << begin.bitOffset()) - 1);
size_t firstSet = findFirstSet(v);
if (firstSet) {
--firstSet; // now it's 0-based
assert(firstSet >= begin.bitOffset());
begin.advanceInBlock(firstSet - begin.bitOffset());
return begin;
}
begin.advanceToNextBlock();
}
// now begin points to the same block as end
if (end.bitOffset() != 0) { // assume end is dereferenceable
typename BaseIter::value_type v = *begin.base();
// mask out the bits that don't matter (< begin.bitOffset)
v &= ~((one << begin.bitOffset()) - 1);
// mask out the bits that don't matter (>= end.bitOffset)
v &= (one << end.bitOffset()) - 1;
size_t firstSet = findFirstSet(v);
if (firstSet) {
--firstSet; // now it's 0-based
assert(firstSet >= begin.bitOffset());
begin.advanceInBlock(firstSet - begin.bitOffset());
return begin;
}
}
return end;
}
template <class T, class Enable=void> struct Unaligned;
/**
* Representation of an unaligned value of a POD type.
*/
template <class T>
struct Unaligned<
T,
typename std::enable_if<std::is_pod<T>::value>::type> {
Unaligned() { } // uninitialized
/* implicit */ Unaligned(T v) : value(v) { }
T value;
} __attribute__((packed));
/**
* Read an unaligned value of type T and return it.
*/
template <class T>
inline T loadUnaligned(const void* p) {
static_assert(sizeof(Unaligned<T>) == sizeof(T), "Invalid unaligned size");
static_assert(alignof(Unaligned<T>) == 1, "Invalid alignment");
return static_cast<const Unaligned<T>*>(p)->value;
}
/**
* Write an unaligned value of type T.
*/
template <class T>
inline void storeUnaligned(void* p, T value) {
static_assert(sizeof(Unaligned<T>) == sizeof(T), "Invalid unaligned size");
static_assert(alignof(Unaligned<T>) == 1, "Invalid alignment");
new (p) Unaligned<T>(value);
}
} // namespace folly
#endif /* FOLLY_BITS_H_ */
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