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/*
* Copyright 2012 Facebook, Inc.
*
* Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
* you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
* You may obtain a copy of the License at
*
* http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
*
* Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
* distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
* WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
* See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
* limitations under the License.
*/
// @author: Xin Liu <xliux@fb.com>
#include <map>
#include <set>
#include <thread>
#include <boost/shared_ptr.hpp>
#include <gflags/gflags.h>
#include <glog/logging.h>
#include "folly/Benchmark.h"
#include "folly/ConcurrentSkipList.h"
#include "folly/Hash.h"
#include "folly/RWSpinLock.h"
DEFINE_int32(num_threads, 12, "num concurrent threads to test");
// In some case, we may want to test worker threads operating on multiple
// lists. For example in search, not all threads are visiting the same posting
// list, but for the ones with some popular terms, they do get multiple
// visitors at the same time.
DEFINE_int32(num_sets, 1, "num of set to operate on");
static const int kInitHeadHeight = 10;
static const int kMaxValue = 0x1000000;
namespace {
using namespace folly;
typedef int ValueType;
typedef ConcurrentSkipList<ValueType> SkipListType;
typedef SkipListType::Accessor SkipListAccessor;
typedef std::set<ValueType> SetType;
static std::vector<ValueType> gData;
static void initData() {
gData.resize(kMaxValue);
for (int i = 0; i < kMaxValue; ++i) {
gData[i] = i;
}
std::random_shuffle(gData.begin(), gData.end());
}
// single thread benchmarks
void BM_IterateOverSet(int iters, int size) {
SetType a_set;
BENCHMARK_SUSPEND {
CHECK_GT(size, 0);
for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
a_set.insert(gData[rand() % kMaxValue]);
}
}
int64_t sum = 0;
auto iter = a_set.begin();
for (int i = 0; i < iters; ++i) {
sum += *iter++;
if (iter == a_set.end()) iter = a_set.begin();
}
BENCHMARK_SUSPEND {
// VLOG(20) << "sum = " << sum;
}
}
void BM_IterateSkipList(int iters, int size) {
BenchmarkSuspender susp;
CHECK_GT(size, 0);
auto skipList = SkipListType::create(kInitHeadHeight);
for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
skipList.add(rand() % kMaxValue);
}
int64_t sum = 0;
susp.dismiss();
auto iter = skipList.begin();
for (int i = 0; i < iters; ++i) {
sum += *iter++;
if (iter == skipList.end()) iter = skipList.begin();
}
BENCHMARK_SUSPEND {
// VLOG(20) << "sum = " << sum;
}
}
void BM_SetMerge(int iters, int size) {
BenchmarkSuspender susp;
SetType a_set;
SetType b_set;
for (int i = 0; i < iters; ++i) {
a_set.insert(rand() % kMaxValue);
}
for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
b_set.insert(rand() % kMaxValue);
}
susp.dismiss();
int64_t mergedSum = 0;
FOR_EACH(it, a_set) {
if (b_set.find(*it) != b_set.end()) mergedSum += *it;
}
BENCHMARK_SUSPEND {
// VLOG(20) << mergedSum;
}
}
void BM_CSLMergeLookup(int iters, int size) {
BenchmarkSuspender susp;
auto skipList = SkipListType::create(kInitHeadHeight);
auto skipList2 = SkipListType::create(kInitHeadHeight);
for (int i = 0; i < iters; ++i) {
skipList.add(rand() % kMaxValue);
}
for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
skipList2.add(rand() % kMaxValue);
}
int64_t mergedSum = 0;
susp.dismiss();
SkipListType::Skipper skipper(skipList2);
FOR_EACH(it, skipList) {
if (skipper.to(*it)) mergedSum += *it;
}
BENCHMARK_SUSPEND {
// VLOG(20) << mergedSum;
}
}
// merge by two skippers
void BM_CSLMergeIntersection(int iters, int size) {
BenchmarkSuspender susp;
auto skipList = SkipListType::create(kInitHeadHeight);
auto skipList2 = SkipListType::create(kInitHeadHeight);
for (int i = 0; i < iters; ++i) {
skipList.add(rand() % kMaxValue);
}
for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
skipList2.add(rand() % kMaxValue);
}
susp.dismiss();
SkipListType::Skipper s1(skipList);
SkipListType::Skipper s2(skipList2);
int64_t mergedSum = 0;
while (s1.good() && s2.good()) {
int v1 = s1.data();
int v2 = s2.data();
if (v1 < v2) {
s1.to(v2);
} else if (v1 > v2) {
s2.to(v1);
} else {
mergedSum += v1;
++s1;
++s2;
}
}
BENCHMARK_SUSPEND {
// VLOG(20) << mergedSum;
}
}
void BM_SetContainsNotFound(int iters, int size) {
BenchmarkSuspender susp;
SetType aset;
CHECK_LT(size, kMaxValue);
for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
aset.insert(2 * i);
}
int64_t sum = 0;
susp.dismiss();
for (int i = 0; i < iters; ++i) {
sum += (aset.end() == aset.find(2 * i + 1));
}
BENCHMARK_SUSPEND {
// VLOG(20) << sum;
}
}
void BM_SetContainsFound(int iters, int size) {
BenchmarkSuspender susp;
SetType aset;
CHECK_LT(size, kMaxValue);
for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
aset.insert(i);
}
std::vector<int> values;
for (int i = 0; i < iters; ++i) {
values.push_back(rand() % size);
}
int64_t sum = 0;
susp.dismiss();
for (int i = 0; i < iters; ++i) {
sum += (aset.end() == aset.find(values[i]));
}
BENCHMARK_SUSPEND {
// VLOG(20) << sum;
}
}
void BM_CSLContainsFound(int iters, int size) {
BenchmarkSuspender susp;
auto skipList = SkipListType::create(kInitHeadHeight);
CHECK_LT(size, kMaxValue);
for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
skipList.add(i);
}
std::vector<int> values;
for (int i = 0; i < iters; ++i) {
values.push_back(rand() % size);
}
int64_t sum = 0;
susp.dismiss();
for (int i = 0; i < iters; ++i) {
sum += skipList.contains(values[i]);
}
BENCHMARK_SUSPEND {
// VLOG(20) << sum;
}
}
void BM_CSLContainsNotFound(int iters, int size) {
BenchmarkSuspender susp;
auto skipList = SkipListType::create(kInitHeadHeight);
CHECK_LT(size, kMaxValue);
for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
skipList.add(2 * i);
}
int64_t sum = 0;
susp.dismiss();
for (int i = 0; i < iters; ++i) {
sum += skipList.contains(2 * i + 1);
}
BENCHMARK_SUSPEND {
// VLOG(20) << sum;
}
}
void BM_AddSet(int iters, int size) {
BenchmarkSuspender susp;
SetType aset;
for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
aset.insert(gData[i]);
}
susp.dismiss();
for (int i = size; i < size + iters; ++i) {
aset.insert(gData[i]);
}
}
void BM_AddSkipList(int iters, int size) {
BenchmarkSuspender susp;
auto skipList = SkipListType::create(kInitHeadHeight);
for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
skipList.add(gData[i]);
}
susp.dismiss();
for (int i = size; i < size + iters; ++i) {
skipList.add(gData[i]);
}
}
BENCHMARK(Accessor, iters) {
BenchmarkSuspender susp;
auto skiplist = SkipListType::createInstance(kInitHeadHeight);
auto sl = skiplist.get();
susp.dismiss();
for (int i = 0; i < iters; ++i) {
SkipListAccessor accessor(sl);
}
}
// a benchmark to estimate the
// low bound of doing a ref counting for an Accessor
BENCHMARK(accessorBasicRefcounting, iters) {
BenchmarkSuspender susp;
auto* value = new std::atomic<int32_t>();
auto* dirty = new std::atomic<int32_t>();
*value = *dirty = 0;
folly::MicroSpinLock l;
l.init();
susp.dismiss();
for (int i = 0; i < iters; ++i) {
value->fetch_add(1, std::memory_order_relaxed);
if (dirty->load(std::memory_order_acquire) != 0) {
folly::MSLGuard g(l);
}
value->fetch_sub(1, std::memory_order_relaxed);
}
BENCHMARK_SUSPEND {
delete dirty;
delete value;
}
}
// Data For testing contention benchmark
class ConcurrentAccessData {
public:
explicit ConcurrentAccessData(int size) :
skipList_(SkipListType::create(10)),
sets_(FLAGS_num_sets), locks_(FLAGS_num_sets) {
for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
sets_[0].insert(i);
skipList_.add(i);
}
for (int i = 0; i < FLAGS_num_sets; ++i) {
locks_[i] = new RWSpinLock();
if (i > 0) sets_[i] = sets_[0];
}
// memory usage
int64_t setMemorySize = sets_[0].size() * sizeof(*sets_[0].begin()._M_node);
int64_t cslMemorySize = 0;
for (auto it = skipList_.begin(); it != skipList_.end(); ++it) {
cslMemorySize += it.nodeSize();
}
LOG(INFO) << "size=" << sets_[0].size()
<< "; std::set memory size=" << setMemorySize
<< "; csl memory size=" << cslMemorySize;
readValues_.reserve(size);
deleteValues_.reserve(size);
writeValues_.reserve(size);
for (int i = size; i < 2 * size; ++i) {
readValues_.push_back(2 * i);
deleteValues_.push_back(2 * i);
// half new values and half already in the list
writeValues_.push_back((rand() % 2) + 2 * i);
}
std::random_shuffle(readValues_.begin(), readValues_.end());
std::random_shuffle(deleteValues_.begin(), deleteValues_.end());
std::random_shuffle(writeValues_.begin(), writeValues_.end());
}
~ConcurrentAccessData() {
FOR_EACH(lock, locks_) delete *lock;
}
inline bool skipListFind(int idx, ValueType val) {
return skipList_.contains(val);
}
inline void skipListInsert(int idx, ValueType val) {
skipList_.add(val);
}
inline void skipListErase(int idx, ValueType val) {
skipList_.remove(val);
}
inline bool setFind(int idx, ValueType val) {
RWSpinLock::ReadHolder g(locks_[idx]);
return sets_[idx].find(val) == sets_[idx].end();
}
inline void setInsert(int idx, ValueType val) {
RWSpinLock::WriteHolder g(locks_[idx]);
sets_[idx].insert(val);
}
inline void setErase(int idx, ValueType val) {
RWSpinLock::WriteHolder g(locks_[idx]);
sets_[idx].erase(val);
}
void runSkipList(int id, int iters) {
int sum = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < iters; ++i) {
sum += accessSkipList(id, i);
}
// VLOG(20) << sum;
}
void runSet(int id, int iters) {
int sum = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < iters; ++i) {
sum += accessSet(id, i);
}
// VLOG(20) << sum;
}
bool accessSkipList(int64_t id, int t) {
if (t > readValues_.size()) {
t = t % readValues_.size();
}
uint32_t h = folly::hash::twang_32from64(t * id);
switch (h % 8) {
case 7: // write
if ((h & 0x31) == 0) { // 1/4 chance to delete
skipListErase(0, deleteValues_[t]);
} else {
skipListInsert(0, writeValues_[t]);
}
return 0;
default:
return skipListFind(0, readValues_[t]);
}
}
bool accessSet(int64_t id, int t) {
if (t > readValues_.size()) {
t = t % readValues_.size();
}
uint32_t h = folly::hash::twang_32from64(t * id);
int idx = (h % FLAGS_num_sets);
switch (h % 8) { // 1/8 chance to write
case 7: // write
if ((h & 0x31) == 0) { // 1/32 chance to delete
setErase(idx, deleteValues_[t]);
} else {
setInsert(idx, writeValues_[t]);
}
return 0;
default:
return setFind(idx, readValues_[t]);
}
}
private:
SkipListType::Accessor skipList_;
std::vector<SetType> sets_;
std::vector<RWSpinLock*> locks_;
std::vector<ValueType> readValues_;
std::vector<ValueType> writeValues_;
std::vector<ValueType> deleteValues_;
};
static std::map<int, boost::shared_ptr<ConcurrentAccessData> > g_data;
static ConcurrentAccessData *mayInitTestData(int size) {
auto it = g_data.find(size);
if (it == g_data.end()) {
auto ptr = boost::shared_ptr<ConcurrentAccessData>(
new ConcurrentAccessData(size));
g_data[size] = ptr;
return ptr.get();
}
return it->second.get();
}
void BM_ContentionCSL(int iters, int size) {
BenchmarkSuspender susp;
auto data = mayInitTestData(size);
std::vector<std::thread> threads;
susp.dismiss();
for (int i = 0; i < FLAGS_num_threads; ++i) {
threads.push_back(std::thread(
&ConcurrentAccessData::runSkipList, data, i, iters));
}
FOR_EACH(t, threads) {
(*t).join();
}
}
void BM_ContentionStdSet(int iters, int size) {
BenchmarkSuspender susp;
auto data = mayInitTestData(size);
std::vector<std::thread> threads;
susp.dismiss();
for (int i = 0; i < FLAGS_num_threads; ++i) {
threads.push_back(std::thread(
&ConcurrentAccessData::runSet, data, i, iters));
}
FOR_EACH(t, threads) {
(*t).join();
}
susp.rehire();
}
// Single-thread benchmarking
BENCHMARK_DRAW_LINE();
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_IterateOverSet, 1000);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_IterateSkipList, 1000);
BENCHMARK_DRAW_LINE();
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_IterateOverSet, 1000000);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_IterateSkipList, 1000000);
BENCHMARK_DRAW_LINE();
// find with keys in the set
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_SetContainsFound, 1000);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_CSLContainsFound, 1000);
BENCHMARK_DRAW_LINE();
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_SetContainsFound, 100000);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_CSLContainsFound, 100000);
BENCHMARK_DRAW_LINE();
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_SetContainsFound, 1000000);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_CSLContainsFound, 1000000);
BENCHMARK_DRAW_LINE();
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_SetContainsFound, 10000000);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_CSLContainsFound, 10000000);
BENCHMARK_DRAW_LINE();
// find with keys not in the set
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_SetContainsNotFound, 1000);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_CSLContainsNotFound, 1000);
BENCHMARK_DRAW_LINE();
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_SetContainsNotFound, 100000);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_CSLContainsNotFound, 100000);
BENCHMARK_DRAW_LINE();
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_SetContainsNotFound, 1000000);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_CSLContainsNotFound, 1000000);
BENCHMARK_DRAW_LINE();
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_AddSet, 1000);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_AddSkipList, 1000);
BENCHMARK_DRAW_LINE();
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_AddSet, 65536);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_AddSkipList, 65536);
BENCHMARK_DRAW_LINE();
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_AddSet, 1000000);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_AddSkipList, 1000000);
BENCHMARK_DRAW_LINE();
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_SetMerge, 1000);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_CSLMergeIntersection, 1000);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_CSLMergeLookup, 1000);
BENCHMARK_DRAW_LINE();
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_SetMerge, 65536);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_CSLMergeIntersection, 65536);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_CSLMergeLookup, 65536);
BENCHMARK_DRAW_LINE();
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_SetMerge, 1000000);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_CSLMergeIntersection, 1000000);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_CSLMergeLookup, 1000000);
BENCHMARK_DRAW_LINE();
// multithreaded benchmarking
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_ContentionStdSet, 1024);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_ContentionCSL, 1024);
BENCHMARK_DRAW_LINE();
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_ContentionStdSet, 65536);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_ContentionCSL, 65536);
BENCHMARK_DRAW_LINE();
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_ContentionStdSet, 1048576);
BENCHMARK_PARAM(BM_ContentionCSL, 1048576);
BENCHMARK_DRAW_LINE();
}
int main(int argc, char** argv) {
google::InitGoogleLogging(argv[0]);
google::ParseCommandLineFlags(&argc, &argv, true);
initData();
runBenchmarks();
return 0;
}
#if 0
/*
Benchmark on Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU X5650 @2.67GHz
==============================================================================
1 thread Benchmark Iters Total t t/iter iter/sec
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+37.0% BM_Accessor 100000 1.958 ms 19.58 ns 48.71 M
* BM_AccessorBasicRefcounting 100000 1.429 ms 14.29 ns 66.74 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ 603% BM_IterateOverSet/1000 100000 1.589 ms 15.89 ns 60.02 M
* BM_IterateSkipList/1000 100000 226 us 2.26 ns 422 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ 107% BM_IterateOverSet/976.6k 100000 8.324 ms 83.24 ns 11.46 M
* BM_IterateSkipList/976.6k 100000 4.016 ms 40.16 ns 23.75 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* BM_SetContainsFound/1000 100000 7.082 ms 70.82 ns 13.47 M
+39.9% BM_CSLContainsFound/1000 100000 9.908 ms 99.08 ns 9.625 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* BM_SetContainsFound/97.66k 100000 23.8 ms 238 ns 4.006 M
+5.97% BM_CSLContainsFound/97.66k 100000 25.23 ms 252.3 ns 3.781 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+33.6% BM_SetContainsFound/976.6k 100000 64.3 ms 643 ns 1.483 M
* BM_CSLContainsFound/976.6k 100000 48.13 ms 481.3 ns 1.981 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+30.3% BM_SetContainsFound/9.537M 100000 115.1 ms 1.151 us 848.6 k
* BM_CSLContainsFound/9.537M 100000 88.33 ms 883.3 ns 1.08 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* BM_SetContainsNotFound/1000 100000 2.081 ms 20.81 ns 45.83 M
+76.2% BM_CSLContainsNotFound/1000 100000 3.667 ms 36.67 ns 26.01 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* BM_SetContainsNotFound/97.66k 100000 6.049 ms 60.49 ns 15.77 M
+32.7% BM_CSLContainsNotFound/97.66k 100000 8.025 ms 80.25 ns 11.88 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* BM_SetContainsNotFound/976.6k 100000 7.464 ms 74.64 ns 12.78 M
+12.8% BM_CSLContainsNotFound/976.6k 100000 8.417 ms 84.17 ns 11.33 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* BM_AddSet/1000 100000 29.26 ms 292.6 ns 3.259 M
+70.0% BM_AddSkipList/1000 100000 49.75 ms 497.5 ns 1.917 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* BM_AddSet/64k 100000 38.73 ms 387.3 ns 2.462 M
+55.7% BM_AddSkipList/64k 100000 60.3 ms 603 ns 1.581 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* BM_AddSet/976.6k 100000 75.71 ms 757.1 ns 1.26 M
+33.6% BM_AddSkipList/976.6k 100000 101.2 ms 1.012 us 965.3 k
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ 716% BM_SetMerge/1000 100000 6.872 ms 68.72 ns 13.88 M
* BM_CSLMergeIntersection/1000 100000 842 us 8.42 ns 113.3 M
+ 268% BM_CSLMergeLookup/1000 100000 3.1 ms 31 ns 30.76 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+36.3% BM_SetMerge/64k 100000 14.03 ms 140.3 ns 6.798 M
+39.4% BM_CSLMergeIntersection/64k 100000 14.35 ms 143.5 ns 6.645 M
* BM_CSLMergeLookup/64k 100000 10.29 ms 102.9 ns 9.266 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+10.3% BM_SetMerge/976.6k 100000 46.24 ms 462.4 ns 2.062 M
+25.1% BM_CSLMergeIntersection/976.6k 100000 52.47 ms 524.7 ns 1.818 M
* BM_CSLMergeLookup/976.6k 100000 41.94 ms 419.3 ns 2.274 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
==============================================================================
Contention benchmark 7/8 find, 3/32 insert, 1/32 erase
4 threads Benchmark Iters Total t t/iter iter/sec
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ 269% BM_ContentionStdSet/1k 100000 75.66 ms 756.6 ns 1.26 M
* BM_ContentionCSL/1k 100000 20.47 ms 204.7 ns 4.658 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ 228% BM_ContentionStdSet/64k 100000 105.6 ms 1.056 us 924.9 k
* BM_ContentionCSL/64k 100000 32.18 ms 321.8 ns 2.963 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ 224% BM_ContentionStdSet/1M 100000 117.4 ms 1.174 us 832.2 k
* BM_ContentionCSL/1M 100000 36.18 ms 361.8 ns 2.636 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12 threads Benchmark Iters Total t t/iter iter/sec
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ 697% BM_ContentionStdSet/1k 100000 455.3 ms 4.553 us 214.5 k
* BM_ContentionCSL/1k 100000 57.12 ms 571.2 ns 1.67 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+1257% BM_ContentionStdSet/64k 100000 654.9 ms 6.549 us 149.1 k
* BM_ContentionCSL/64k 100000 48.24 ms 482.4 ns 1.977 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+1262% BM_ContentionStdSet/1M 100000 657.3 ms 6.573 us 148.6 k
* BM_ContentionCSL/1M 100000 48.25 ms 482.5 ns 1.977 M
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*/
#endif
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