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"""
The MIT License
Copyright (c) 2007 Leah Culver
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
THE SOFTWARE.
"""
import cgi
import urllib
import time
import random
import urlparse
import hmac
import binascii
VERSION = '1.0' # Hi Blaine!
HTTP_METHOD = 'GET'
SIGNATURE_METHOD = 'PLAINTEXT'
class OAuthError(RuntimeError):
"""Generic exception class."""
def __init__(self, message='OAuth error occured.'):
self.message = message
def build_authenticate_header(realm=''):
"""Optional WWW-Authenticate header (401 error)"""
return {'WWW-Authenticate': 'OAuth realm="%s"' % realm}
def escape(s):
"""Escape a URL including any /."""
return urllib.quote(s, safe='~')
def _utf8_str(s):
"""Convert unicode to utf-8."""
if isinstance(s, unicode):
return s.encode("utf-8")
else:
return str(s)
def generate_timestamp():
"""Get seconds since epoch (UTC)."""
return int(time.time())
def generate_nonce(length=8):
"""Generate pseudorandom number."""
return ''.join([str(random.randint(0, 9)) for i in range(length)])
def generate_verifier(length=8):
"""Generate pseudorandom number."""
return ''.join([str(random.randint(0, 9)) for i in range(length)])
class OAuthConsumer(object):
"""Consumer of OAuth authentication.
OAuthConsumer is a data type that represents the identity of the Consumer
via its shared secret with the Service Provider.
"""
key = None
secret = None
def __init__(self, key, secret):
self.key = key
self.secret = secret
class OAuthToken(object):
"""OAuthToken is a data type that represents an End User via either an access
or request token.
key -- the token
secret -- the token secret
"""
key = None
secret = None
callback = None
callback_confirmed = None
verifier = None
def __init__(self, key, secret):
self.key = key
self.secret = secret
def set_callback(self, callback):
self.callback = callback
self.callback_confirmed = 'true'
def set_verifier(self, verifier=None):
if verifier is not None:
self.verifier = verifier
else:
self.verifier = generate_verifier()
def get_callback_url(self):
if self.callback and self.verifier:
# Append the oauth_verifier.
parts = urlparse.urlparse(self.callback)
scheme, netloc, path, params, query, fragment = parts[:6]
if query:
query = '%s&oauth_verifier=%s' % (query, self.verifier)
else:
query = 'oauth_verifier=%s' % self.verifier
return urlparse.urlunparse((scheme, netloc, path, params,
query, fragment))
return self.callback
def to_string(self):
data = {
'oauth_token': self.key,
'oauth_token_secret': self.secret,
}
if self.callback_confirmed is not None:
data['oauth_callback_confirmed'] = self.callback_confirmed
return urllib.urlencode(data)
def from_string(s):
""" Returns a token from something like:
oauth_token_secret=xxx&oauth_token=xxx
"""
params = cgi.parse_qs(s, keep_blank_values=False)
key = params['oauth_token'][0]
secret = params['oauth_token_secret'][0]
token = OAuthToken(key, secret)
try:
token.callback_confirmed = params['oauth_callback_confirmed'][0]
except KeyError:
pass # 1.0, no callback confirmed.
return token
from_string = staticmethod(from_string)
def __str__(self):
return self.to_string()
class OAuthRequest(object):
"""OAuthRequest represents the request and can be serialized.
OAuth parameters:
- oauth_consumer_key
- oauth_token
- oauth_signature_method
- oauth_signature
- oauth_timestamp
- oauth_nonce
- oauth_version
- oauth_verifier
... any additional parameters, as defined by the Service Provider.
"""
parameters = None # OAuth parameters.
http_method = HTTP_METHOD
http_url = None
version = VERSION
def __init__(self, http_method=HTTP_METHOD, http_url=None, parameters=None):
self.http_method = http_method
self.http_url = http_url
self.parameters = parameters or {}
def set_parameter(self, parameter, value):
self.parameters[parameter] = value
def get_parameter(self, parameter):
try:
return self.parameters[parameter]
except:
raise OAuthError('Parameter not found: %s' % parameter)
def _get_timestamp_nonce(self):
return self.get_parameter('oauth_timestamp'), self.get_parameter(
'oauth_nonce')
def get_nonoauth_parameters(self):
"""Get any non-OAuth parameters."""
parameters = {}
for k, v in self.parameters.iteritems():
# Ignore oauth parameters.
if k.find('oauth_') < 0:
parameters[k] = v
return parameters
def to_header(self, realm=''):
"""Serialize as a header for an HTTPAuth request."""
auth_header = 'OAuth realm="%s"' % realm
# Add the oauth parameters.
if self.parameters:
for k, v in self.parameters.iteritems():
if k[:6] == 'oauth_':
auth_header += ', %s="%s"' % (k, escape(str(v)))
return {'Authorization': auth_header}
def to_postdata(self):
"""Serialize as post data for a POST request."""
return '&'.join(['%s=%s' % (escape(str(k)), escape(str(v))) \
for k, v in self.parameters.iteritems()])
def to_url(self):
"""Serialize as a URL for a GET request."""
return '%s?%s' % (self.get_normalized_http_url(), self.to_postdata())
def get_normalized_parameters(self):
"""Return a string that contains the parameters that must be signed."""
params = self.parameters
try:
# Exclude the signature if it exists.
del params['oauth_signature']
except:
pass
# Escape key values before sorting.
key_values = [(escape(_utf8_str(k)), escape(_utf8_str(v))) \
for k,v in params.items()]
# Sort lexicographically, first after key, then after value.
key_values.sort()
# Combine key value pairs into a string.
return '&'.join(['%s=%s' % (k, v) for k, v in key_values])
def get_normalized_http_method(self):
"""Uppercases the http method."""
return self.http_method.upper()
def get_normalized_http_url(self):
"""Parses the URL and rebuilds it to be scheme://host/path."""
parts = urlparse.urlparse(self.http_url)
scheme, netloc, path = parts[:3]
# Exclude default port numbers.
if scheme == 'http' and netloc[-3:] == ':80':
netloc = netloc[:-3]
elif scheme == 'https' and netloc[-4:] == ':443':
netloc = netloc[:-4]
return '%s://%s%s' % (scheme, netloc, path)
def sign_request(self, signature_method, consumer, token):
"""Set the signature parameter to the result of build_signature."""
# Set the signature method.
self.set_parameter('oauth_signature_method',
signature_method.get_name())
# Set the signature.
self.set_parameter('oauth_signature',
self.build_signature(signature_method, consumer, token))
def build_signature(self, signature_method, consumer, token):
"""Calls the build signature method within the signature method."""
return signature_method.build_signature(self, consumer, token)
def from_request(http_method, http_url, headers=None, parameters=None,
query_string=None):
"""Combines multiple parameter sources."""
if parameters is None:
parameters = {}
# Headers
if headers and 'Authorization' in headers:
auth_header = headers['Authorization']
# Check that the authorization header is OAuth.
if auth_header[:6] == 'OAuth ':
auth_header = auth_header[6:]
try:
# Get the parameters from the header.
header_params = OAuthRequest._split_header(auth_header)
parameters.update(header_params)
except:
raise OAuthError('Unable to parse OAuth parameters from '
'Authorization header.')
# GET or POST query string.
if query_string:
query_params = OAuthRequest._split_url_string(query_string)
parameters.update(query_params)
# URL parameters.
param_str = urlparse.urlparse(http_url)[4] # query
url_params = OAuthRequest._split_url_string(param_str)
parameters.update(url_params)
if parameters:
return OAuthRequest(http_method, http_url, parameters)
return None
from_request = staticmethod(from_request)
def from_consumer_and_token(oauth_consumer, token=None,
callback=None, verifier=None, http_method=HTTP_METHOD,
http_url=None, parameters=None):
if not parameters:
parameters = {}
defaults = {
'oauth_consumer_key': oauth_consumer.key,
'oauth_timestamp': generate_timestamp(),
'oauth_nonce': generate_nonce(),
'oauth_version': OAuthRequest.version,
}
defaults.update(parameters)
parameters = defaults
if token:
parameters['oauth_token'] = token.key
if token.callback:
parameters['oauth_callback'] = token.callback
# 1.0a support for verifier.
if verifier:
parameters['oauth_verifier'] = verifier
elif callback:
# 1.0a support for callback in the request token request.
parameters['oauth_callback'] = callback
return OAuthRequest(http_method, http_url, parameters)
from_consumer_and_token = staticmethod(from_consumer_and_token)
def from_token_and_callback(token, callback=None, http_method=HTTP_METHOD,
http_url=None, parameters=None):
if not parameters:
parameters = {}
parameters['oauth_token'] = token.key
if callback:
parameters['oauth_callback'] = callback
return OAuthRequest(http_method, http_url, parameters)
from_token_and_callback = staticmethod(from_token_and_callback)
def _split_header(header):
"""Turn Authorization: header into parameters."""
params = {}
parts = header.split(',')
for param in parts:
# Ignore realm parameter.
if param.find('realm') > -1:
continue
# Remove whitespace.
param = param.strip()
# Split key-value.
param_parts = param.split('=', 1)
# Remove quotes and unescape the value.
params[param_parts[0]] = urllib.unquote(param_parts[1].strip('\"'))
return params
_split_header = staticmethod(_split_header)
def _split_url_string(param_str):
"""Turn URL string into parameters."""
parameters = cgi.parse_qs(param_str, keep_blank_values=False)
for k, v in parameters.iteritems():
parameters[k] = urllib.unquote(v[0])
return parameters
_split_url_string = staticmethod(_split_url_string)
class OAuthServer(object):
"""A worker to check the validity of a request against a data store."""
timestamp_threshold = 300 # In seconds, five minutes.
version = VERSION
signature_methods = None
data_store = None
def __init__(self, data_store=None, signature_methods=None):
self.data_store = data_store
self.signature_methods = signature_methods or {}
def set_data_store(self, data_store):
self.data_store = data_store
def get_data_store(self):
return self.data_store
def add_signature_method(self, signature_method):
self.signature_methods[signature_method.get_name()] = signature_method
return self.signature_methods
def fetch_request_token(self, oauth_request):
"""Processes a request_token request and returns the
request token on success.
"""
try:
# Get the request token for authorization.
token = self._get_token(oauth_request, 'request')
except OAuthError:
# No token required for the initial token request.
version = self._get_version(oauth_request)
consumer = self._get_consumer(oauth_request)
try:
callback = self.get_callback(oauth_request)
except OAuthError:
callback = None # 1.0, no callback specified.
self._check_signature(oauth_request, consumer, None)
# Fetch a new token.
token = self.data_store.fetch_request_token(consumer, callback)
return token
def fetch_access_token(self, oauth_request):
"""Processes an access_token request and returns the
access token on success.
"""
version = self._get_version(oauth_request)
consumer = self._get_consumer(oauth_request)
try:
verifier = self._get_verifier(oauth_request)
except OAuthError:
verifier = None
# Get the request token.
token = self._get_token(oauth_request, 'request')
self._check_signature(oauth_request, consumer, token)
new_token = self.data_store.fetch_access_token(consumer, token, verifier)
return new_token
def verify_request(self, oauth_request):
"""Verifies an api call and checks all the parameters."""
# -> consumer and token
version = self._get_version(oauth_request)
consumer = self._get_consumer(oauth_request)
# Get the access token.
token = self._get_token(oauth_request, 'access')
self._check_signature(oauth_request, consumer, token)
parameters = oauth_request.get_nonoauth_parameters()
return consumer, token, parameters
def authorize_token(self, token, user):
"""Authorize a request token."""
return self.data_store.authorize_request_token(token, user)
def get_callback(self, oauth_request):
"""Get the callback URL."""
return oauth_request.get_parameter('oauth_callback')
def build_authenticate_header(self, realm=''):
"""Optional support for the authenticate header."""
return {'WWW-Authenticate': 'OAuth realm="%s"' % realm}
def _get_version(self, oauth_request):
"""Verify the correct version request for this server."""
try:
version = oauth_request.get_parameter('oauth_version')
except:
version = VERSION
if version and version != self.version:
raise OAuthError('OAuth version %s not supported.' % str(version))
return version
def _get_signature_method(self, oauth_request):
"""Figure out the signature with some defaults."""
try:
signature_method = oauth_request.get_parameter(
'oauth_signature_method')
except:
signature_method = SIGNATURE_METHOD
try:
# Get the signature method object.
signature_method = self.signature_methods[signature_method]
except:
signature_method_names = ', '.join(self.signature_methods.keys())
raise OAuthError('Signature method %s not supported try one of the '
'following: %s' % (signature_method, signature_method_names))
return signature_method
def _get_consumer(self, oauth_request):
consumer_key = oauth_request.get_parameter('oauth_consumer_key')
consumer = self.data_store.lookup_consumer(consumer_key)
if not consumer:
raise OAuthError('Invalid consumer.')
return consumer
def _get_token(self, oauth_request, token_type='access'):
"""Try to find the token for the provided request token key."""
token_field = oauth_request.get_parameter('oauth_token')
token = self.data_store.lookup_token(token_type, token_field)
if not token:
raise OAuthError('Invalid %s token: %s' % (token_type, token_field))
return token
def _get_verifier(self, oauth_request):
return oauth_request.get_parameter('oauth_verifier')
def _check_signature(self, oauth_request, consumer, token):
timestamp, nonce = oauth_request._get_timestamp_nonce()
self._check_timestamp(timestamp)
self._check_nonce(consumer, token, nonce)
signature_method = self._get_signature_method(oauth_request)
try:
signature = oauth_request.get_parameter('oauth_signature')
except:
raise OAuthError('Missing signature.')
# Validate the signature.
valid_sig = signature_method.check_signature(oauth_request, consumer,
token, signature)
if not valid_sig:
key, base = signature_method.build_signature_base_string(
oauth_request, consumer, token)
raise OAuthError('Invalid signature. Expected signature base '
'string: %s' % base)
built = signature_method.build_signature(oauth_request, consumer, token)
def _check_timestamp(self, timestamp):
"""Verify that timestamp is recentish."""
timestamp = int(timestamp)
now = int(time.time())
lapsed = abs(now - timestamp)
if lapsed > self.timestamp_threshold:
raise OAuthError('Expired timestamp: given %d and now %s has a '
'greater difference than threshold %d' %
(timestamp, now, self.timestamp_threshold))
def _check_nonce(self, consumer, token, nonce):
"""Verify that the nonce is uniqueish."""
nonce = self.data_store.lookup_nonce(consumer, token, nonce)
if nonce:
raise OAuthError('Nonce already used: %s' % str(nonce))
class OAuthClient(object):
"""OAuthClient is a worker to attempt to execute a request."""
consumer = None
token = None
def __init__(self, oauth_consumer, oauth_token):
self.consumer = oauth_consumer
self.token = oauth_token
def get_consumer(self):
return self.consumer
def get_token(self):
return self.token
def fetch_request_token(self, oauth_request):
"""-> OAuthToken."""
raise NotImplementedError
def fetch_access_token(self, oauth_request):
"""-> OAuthToken."""
raise NotImplementedError
def access_resource(self, oauth_request):
"""-> Some protected resource."""
raise NotImplementedError
class OAuthDataStore(object):
"""A database abstraction used to lookup consumers and tokens."""
def lookup_consumer(self, key):
"""-> OAuthConsumer."""
raise NotImplementedError
def lookup_token(self, oauth_consumer, token_type, token_token):
"""-> OAuthToken."""
raise NotImplementedError
def lookup_nonce(self, oauth_consumer, oauth_token, nonce):
"""-> OAuthToken."""
raise NotImplementedError
def fetch_request_token(self, oauth_consumer, oauth_callback):
"""-> OAuthToken."""
raise NotImplementedError
def fetch_access_token(self, oauth_consumer, oauth_token, oauth_verifier):
"""-> OAuthToken."""
raise NotImplementedError
def authorize_request_token(self, oauth_token, user):
"""-> OAuthToken."""
raise NotImplementedError
class OAuthSignatureMethod(object):
"""A strategy class that implements a signature method."""
def get_name(self):
"""-> str."""
raise NotImplementedError
def build_signature_base_string(self, oauth_request, oauth_consumer, oauth_token):
"""-> str key, str raw."""
raise NotImplementedError
def build_signature(self, oauth_request, oauth_consumer, oauth_token):
"""-> str."""
raise NotImplementedError
def check_signature(self, oauth_request, consumer, token, signature):
built = self.build_signature(oauth_request, consumer, token)
return built == signature
class OAuthSignatureMethod_HMAC_SHA1(OAuthSignatureMethod):
def get_name(self):
return 'HMAC-SHA1'
def build_signature_base_string(self, oauth_request, consumer, token):
sig = (
escape(oauth_request.get_normalized_http_method()),
escape(oauth_request.get_normalized_http_url()),
escape(oauth_request.get_normalized_parameters()),
)
key = '%s&' % escape(consumer.secret)
if token:
key += escape(token.secret)
raw = '&'.join(sig)
return key, raw
def build_signature(self, oauth_request, consumer, token):
"""Builds the base signature string."""
key, raw = self.build_signature_base_string(oauth_request, consumer,
token)
# HMAC object.
try:
import hashlib # 2.5
hashed = hmac.new(key, raw, hashlib.sha1)
except:
import sha # Deprecated
hashed = hmac.new(key, raw, sha)
# Calculate the digest base 64.
return binascii.b2a_base64(hashed.digest())[:-1]
class OAuthSignatureMethod_PLAINTEXT(OAuthSignatureMethod):
def get_name(self):
return 'PLAINTEXT'
def build_signature_base_string(self, oauth_request, consumer, token):
"""Concatenates the consumer key and secret."""
sig = '%s&' % escape(consumer.secret)
if token:
sig = sig + escape(token.secret)
return sig, sig
def build_signature(self, oauth_request, consumer, token):
key, raw = self.build_signature_base_string(oauth_request, consumer,
token)
return key
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