Deal or No Deal? End-to-End Learning for Negotiation Dialogues
Python
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README.md

Introduction

This is a PyTorch implementation of research paper Deal or No Deal? End-to-End Learning for Negotiation Dialogues developed by Facebook AI Research.

The code trains neural networks to hold negotiations in natural language, and allows reinforcement learning self play and rollout-based planning.

Citation

If you want to use this code in your research, please cite:

@article{lewis2017dealornodeal,
  author          = {Lewis, Mike and Yarats, Denis and Dauphin, Yann N and Parikh, Devi and Batra, Dhruv},
  title           = "{Deal or No Deal? End-to-End Learning for Negotiation Dialogues}",
  journal         = {ArXiv e-prints},
  archivePrefix   = "arXiv",
  eprinttype      = {arxiv},
  eprint          = {1706.05125},
  primaryClass    = "cs.AI",
  keywords        = {Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence},
  year            = 2017,
  month           = June,
}

Dataset

We release our dataset together with the code, you can find it under data/negotiate. This dataset consists of 5808 dialogues, based on 2236 unique scenarios. Take a look at §2.3 of the paper to learn about data collection.

Each dialogue is converted into two training examples in the dataset, showing the complete conversation from the perspective of each agent. The perspectives differ on their input goals, output choice, and in special tokens marking whether a statement was read or written. See §3.1 for the details on data representation.

# Perspective of Agent 1
<input> 1 4 4 1 1 2 </input>
<dialogue> THEM: i would like 4 hats and you can have the rest . <eos> YOU: deal <eos> THEM: <selection> </dialogue>
<output> item0=1 item1=0 item2=1 item0=0 item1=4 item2=0 </output> 
<partner_input> 1 0 4 2 1 2 </partner_input>

# Perspective of Agent 2
<input> 1 0 4 2 1 2 </input>
<dialogue> YOU: i would like 4 hats and you can have the rest . <eos> THEM: deal <eos> YOU: <selection> </dialogue>
<output> item0=0 item1=4 item2=0 item0=1 item1=0 item2=1 </output>
<partner_input> 1 4 4 1 1 2 </partner_input>

Setup

All code was developed with Python 3.0 on CentOS Linux 7. In addition, we used PyTorch and CUDA8.

We recommend to use Anaconda. In order to set up a working environment follow the steps below:

# Install anaconda
conda create -n py30 python=3 anaconda
# Activate environment
source activate py30
# Install PyTorch
conda install pytorch torchvision cuda80 -c soumith
# Install Visdom if you want to use visualization
pip install visdom

Usage

Training

In order to train a new model use the train.py script. Here is how one would train a particular configuration on GPU:

python train.py \
  --data data/negotiate \
  --cuda \
  --bsz 16 \
  --clip 0.5 \
  --decay_every 1 \
  --decay_rate 5.0 \
  --dropout 0.5 \
  --init_range 0.1 \
  --lr 1 \
  --max_epoch 30 \
  --min_lr 0.01 \
  --momentum 0.1 \
  --nembed_ctx 64 \
  --nembed_word 256 \
  --nesterov \
  --nhid_attn 256 \
  --nhid_ctx 64 \
  --nhid_lang 128 \
  --nhid_sel 256 \
  --nhid_strat 128 \
  --sel_weight 0.5 \
  --model_file sv_model.th

To refine a pre-trained supervised model with a goal-based incentive, one could use reinforce.py as follows:

python reinforce.py \
  --data data/negotiate \
  --cuda \
  --bsz 16 \
  --clip 1 \
  --context_file data/negotiate/selfplay.txt \
  --eps 0.0 \
  --gamma 0.95 \
  --lr 0.5 \
  --momentum 0.1 \
  --nepoch 1 \
  --nesterov \
  --ref_text data/negotiate/train.txt \
  --rl_clip 1 \
  --rl_lr 0.1 \
  --score_threshold 6 \
  --sv_train_freq 4 \
  --temperature 0.5 \
  --alice_model sv_model.th \
  --bob_model sv_model.th \
  --output_model_file rl_model.th

Selfplay

If you want to have two pretrained models to negotiate against each another, use selfplay.py. For example, lets have the reinforced model to play against the supervised model:

python selfplay.py \
  --alice_model_file rl_model.th \
  --bob_model_file sv_model.th \
  --context_file data/negotiate/selfplay.txt \
  --temperature 0.5 \
  --log_file selfplay.log \
  --ref_text data/negotiate/train.txt

In the selfplay.log log file you will find the actual dialogues produced by the models, as well as some statistics. For example:

================================================================================
Alice : book=(count:3 value:1) hat=(count:1 value:5) ball=(count:1 value:2)
Bob   : book=(count:3 value:1) hat=(count:1 value:1) ball=(count:1 value:6)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alice : i would like the hat and the ball . <eos>
Bob   : i need the ball and the hat <eos>
Alice : i can give you the ball and one book . <eos>
Bob   : i can't make a deal without the ball <eos>
Alice : okay then i will take the hat and the ball <eos>
Bob   : okay , that's fine . <eos>
Alice : <selection>
Alice : book=0 hat=1 ball=1 book=3 hat=0 ball=0
Bob   : book=3 hat=0 ball=0 book=0 hat=1 ball=1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Agreement!
Alice : 7 points
Bob   : 3 points
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
dialog_len=4.47 sent_len=6.93 agree=86.67% advantage=3.14 time=2.069s comb_rew=10.93 alice_rew=6.93 alice_sel=60.00% alice_unique=26 bob_rew=4.00 bob_sel=40.00% bob_unique=25 full_match=0.78 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
debug: 3 1 1 5 1 2 item0=0 item1=1 item2=1
debug: 3 1 1 1 1 6 item0=3 item1=0 item2=0
================================================================================

To enhance the negotiating performance of either of the models by performing planning via rollouts, add --smart_alice or --smart_bob respectively:

python selfplay.py \
  --alice_model_file rl_model.th \
  --smart_alice \
  --bob_model_file sv_model.th \
  --context_file data/negotiate/selfplay.txt \
  --temperature 0.5 \
  --log_file selfplay.log \
  --ref_text data/negotiate/train.txt

Chat

You can also try yourself and negotiate with your model through a text based interface by using chat.py:

python chat.py \
  --model_file rl_model.th \
  --smart_ai \
  --context_file data/negotiate/selfplay.txt  \
  --temperature 0.5 \
  --ref_text data/negotiate/train.txt

Here is an example of a human-bot interaction, with a bot named 'Alice':

================================================================================
Dialog 0
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Human : book=(count:1 value:2) hat=(count:2 value:2) ball=(count:2 value:2)
Alice : book=(count:1 value:4) hat=(count:2 value:0) ball=(count:2 value:3)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Human : hi i want the hats and the balls
Alice : i will take the balls and book <eos>
Human : no i need the balls
Alice : i will take the balls and book <eos>
Human : i need the balls
Alice : you can have the hats if i get the balls and book <eos>
Human : no i need the balls and you can take the rest
Alice : i will take the balls and 1 book <eos>
Human : no, no balls for you
Alice : ok , you can have two hats and one ball <eos>
Human : ok deal
Alice : <selection>
Human choice: 0 2 1
Human : book=0 hat=2 ball=1
Alice : book=1 hat=0 ball=1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Agreement!
Human : 6 points
Alice : 7 points
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
dialog_len=12.00 sent_len=7.58 agree=100.00% advantage=-1.00 time=87.341s comb_rew=13.00 human_rew=6.00 human_sel=0.00% human_unique=6 alice_rew=7.00 alice_sel=100.00%  alice_unique=5 full_match=0.25
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
debug: 1 2 2 2 2 2 item0=0 item1=2 item2=1
debug: 1 4 2 0 2 3 item0=1 item1=0 item2=1 item0=0 item1=2 item2=1
================================================================================

License

This project is licenced under CC-by-NC, see the LICENSE file for details.