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* fayax/toFayax/fromFayax methods for sending and receiving fay records.

* example:
    * Refactored to use monadic operations
    * Graphical updates for example
    * Ajax login with snaplet-auth and automatic encode/decode from forms, in fay and on server
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commit d8ab7ad6fceee1421dd85252fca40b9d7e7a15c3 1 parent 098ab7a
@bergmark bergmark authored
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13 .gitignore
@@ -1,8 +1,11 @@
-dist
-test-dest
-example/log
-example/snaplets/fay/js
*.hi
*.o
-cabal-dev
TAGS
+cabal-dev
+dist
+example/fay
+example/log
+example/site_key.txt
+example/snaplets/fay/js
+example/users.json
+test-dest
View
1  README.md
@@ -20,6 +20,7 @@ Features
are easier to debug.
* Writes JS to disk to allow reading the generated source.
* Share Fay source files between Haskell and Fay.
+* Automatically encode/decode shared records by using the fayax functions.
Installation
View
30 example/snaplets/fay/src/Application/SharedTypes.hs
@@ -1,10 +1,28 @@
-{-# LANGUAGE NoImplicitPrelude #-}
+{-# LANGUAGE DeriveDataTypeable #-}
+{-# LANGUAGE FlexibleInstances #-}
+{-# LANGUAGE NoImplicitPrelude #-}
+{-# LANGUAGE StandaloneDeriving #-}
module Application.SharedTypes where
-import Language.Fay.Prelude
-import Language.Fay.FFI
+import Language.Fay.FFI
+import Language.Fay.Prelude
-data CTR = CTR { time :: String }
- deriving (Show)
-instance Foreign CTR
+data Time = Time { time :: String }
+ deriving (Read,Data,Typeable,Show)
+instance Foreign Time
+
+data UserRegister = UserRegister { user :: String, password :: String, passwordConfirmation :: String }
+ deriving (Read,Data,Typeable,Show)
+instance Foreign UserRegister
+
+data UserLogin = UserLogin { ul_user :: String, ul_password :: String, remember :: Bool }
+ deriving (Read,Data,Typeable,Show); instance Foreign UserLogin
+
+data UserRegisterResponse = Fail | OK
+ deriving (Read,Data,Typeable,Show)
+instance Foreign UserRegisterResponse
+
+data UserLoginResponse = LoggedIn | BadLogin
+ deriving (Read,Data,Typeable,Show)
+instance Foreign UserLoginResponse
View
25 example/snaplets/fay/src/Dom.hs
@@ -16,30 +16,17 @@ instance Foreign Global
data Document
instance Foreign Document
+instance Foreign Integer
+
head :: [a] -> a
head (x:_) = x
-getBody :: Fay Element
-getBody = firstByTag "body"
-
getWindow :: Fay Global
getWindow = ffi "window"
getDocument :: Fay Document
getDocument = ffi "document"
-firstByTag :: String -> Fay Element
-firstByTag tag = byTag tag >>= (return . head)
-
-byTag :: String -> Fay [Element]
-byTag = ffi "document.getElementsByTagName(%1)"
-
-byId :: String -> Fay Element
-byId = ffi "document.getElementById(%1)"
-
-addEvent :: Foreign f => f -> String -> (Event -> Fay ()) -> Fay ()
-addEvent = ffi "%1.addEventListener(%2,%3)"
-
addOnload :: Foreign f => Fay f -> Fay ()
addOnload = ffi "window.addEventListener(\"load\", %1)"
@@ -52,15 +39,11 @@ preventDefault = ffi "%1.preventDefault()"
createElement :: String -> Fay Element
createElement = ffi "document.createElement(%1)"
-setInnerHtml :: Element -> String -> Fay ()
-setInnerHtml = ffi "%1.innerHTML = %2"
-
-appendChild :: Element -> Element -> Fay ()
-appendChild = ffi "%1.appendChild(%2)"
-
printS :: String -> Fay ()
printS = ffi "console.log(%1)"
print :: Foreign f => f -> Fay ()
print = ffi "console.log(%1)"
+setTimeout :: Integer -> Fay () -> Fay Integer
+setTimeout = ffi "setInterval(%2, %1)"
View
102 example/snaplets/fay/src/Index.hs
@@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
{-# LANGUAGE EmptyDataDecls #-}
{-# LANGUAGE NoImplicitPrelude #-}
-{-# OPTIONS -Wall -fno-warn-name-shadowing #-}
+{-# OPTIONS -Wall -fno-warn-name-shadowing -fno-warn-unused-do-bind #-}
module Index where
@@ -8,34 +8,96 @@ import Language.Fay.FFI
import Language.Fay.Prelude
-- | Time is shared between Snap and Fay
--- | Location: src/Application/SharedTypes.hs
+-- | Location: snaplets/fay/src/Application/SharedTypes.hs
-- import Time
import Application.SharedTypes
--- | Dom is a Fay only module
+-- | Dom and JQuery are Fay only modules
-- | Location: snaplets/fay/src
import Dom
+import JQuery
+
+void :: Fay f -> Fay ()
+void f = f >> return ()
main :: Fay ()
-main = addOnload onload
+main = mapM_ addOnload [onload, registrationOnload, loginOnload, void (j "#logout" >>= click submitLogout)]
-onload :: Fay ()
-onload = do
- contents <- byId "content"
- div <- createElement "div"
- setInnerHtml div "This element was created by Fay through an onload handler!"
- appendChild contents div
+(=<<) :: (a -> Fay b) -> Fay a -> Fay b
+(=<<) = flip (>>=)
- currentTime
- button <- byId "current-time-button"
- addEvent button "click" (const currentTime)
+onload :: Fay ()
+onload = void $ do
+ contents <- j "#content"
+ div <- j "<div></div>"
+ html "This element was created by Fay through an onload handler!" div
+ appendTo div contents
- return ()
+ setTimeout 5000 currentTime
currentTime :: Fay ()
-currentTime = do
- ajaxJson "/ajax/current-time" $ \(CTR time) -> do
- el <- byId "current-time"
- setInnerHtml el time
+currentTime =
+ ajaxJson "/ajax/current-time" $ \(Time time) -> void $ j "#current-time" >>= html time
+
+formOnload :: String -> Fay () -> Fay ()
+formOnload buttonSel getForm = void $ j buttonSel >>= click getForm
+
+registrationOnload :: Fay ()
+registrationOnload = formOnload "#viewRegisterForm" requestRegisterHtml
+
+loginOnload :: Fay ()
+loginOnload = formOnload "#viewLoginForm" requestLoginHtml
+
+requestHtml :: String -> Fay () -> Fay ()
+requestHtml url submitAction = do
+ formContainer <- j "#formContainer"
+ hide "slow" formContainer
+ ajaxHtml url $ \h -> void $ do
+ html h formContainer
+ submit <- child ".submit" formContainer
+ click submitAction submit
+ jShow "slow" formContainer
+
+requestRegisterHtml :: Fay ()
+requestRegisterHtml = requestHtml "/ajax/register-form" submitRegister
+
+requestLoginHtml :: Fay ()
+requestLoginHtml = requestHtml "/ajax/login-form" submitLogin
+
+submitRegister :: Fay ()
+submitRegister = do
+ json <- j "#formContainer form" >>= formJson :: Fay UserRegister
+ jPost "/ajax/register" json $ \c -> case c of
+ Fail -> j "#loginStatus" >>= showStatus Error "Oops! Username taken or fields have length < 4"
+ OK -> do
+ j "#loginStatus" >>= showStatus Notice "Account created!"
+ j "#formContainer" >>= hide "fast" >> requestLoginHtml
+
+submitLogin :: Fay ()
+submitLogin = do
+ form <- j "#formContainer form"
+ json <- formJson form :: Fay UserLogin
+ jPost "/ajax/login" json $ \c -> case c of
+ BadLogin -> j "#loginStatus" >>= showStatus Error "Oops! Bad login information!"
+ LoggedIn -> void $ do
+ j "#loginStatus" >>= showStatus Notice "Logged in! Too bad there is no additional functionality for you now."
+ j "#formContainer" >>= hide "fast"
+
+submitLogout :: Fay ()
+submitLogout = ajax "/ajax/logout" (void $ j "#loginStatus" >>= showStatus Notice "You have been logged out.")
+
+data Status = Error | Notice
+
+statusClass :: Status -> String
+statusClass Error = "error"
+statusClass Notice = "notice"
+
+showStatus :: Status -> String -> JQuery -> Fay ()
+showStatus status msg el = void $
+ return el >>= hide "fast" >>=
+ removeClass (statusClass Error) >>= removeClass (statusClass Notice) >>=
+ html msg >>=
+ addClass (statusClass status) >>=
+ jShow "fast"
-ajaxJson :: Foreign a => String -> (a -> Fay ()) -> Fay ()
-ajaxJson = ffi "jQuery.ajax(%1, { success : %2 })"
+formJson :: Foreign f => JQuery -> Fay f
+formJson = ffi "Helpers.formJson(%1)"
View
50 example/snaplets/fay/src/JQuery.hs
@@ -0,0 +1,50 @@
+{-# LANGUAGE EmptyDataDecls #-}
+{-# LANGUAGE NoImplicitPrelude #-}
+{-# OPTIONS -Wall -fno-warn-name-shadowing #-}
+
+module JQuery where
+
+import Language.Fay.FFI
+import Language.Fay.Prelude
+
+data JQuery
+instance Foreign JQuery
+
+ajax :: String -> Fay () -> Fay ()
+ajax = ffi "jQuery.ajax(%1, { success : %2 })"
+
+ajaxJson :: Foreign f => String -> (f -> Fay ()) -> Fay ()
+ajaxJson = ffi "jQuery.ajax(%1, { success : %2 })"
+
+jPost :: (Foreign f, Foreign g) => String -> f -> (g -> Fay ()) -> Fay ()
+jPost = ffi "jQuery.ajax(%1, { data: JSON.stringify(%2), type: 'POST', processData: false, contentType: 'text/json', success: %3 })"
+
+ajaxHtml :: String -> (String -> Fay()) -> Fay ()
+ajaxHtml = ffi "jQuery.ajax(%1, { success : %2 })"
+
+jShow :: String -> JQuery -> Fay JQuery
+jShow = ffi "jQuery(%2).show(%1)"
+
+hide :: String -> JQuery -> Fay JQuery
+hide = ffi "jQuery(%2).hide(%1)"
+
+child :: String -> JQuery -> Fay JQuery
+child = ffi "jQuery(%1,%2)[0]"
+
+addClass :: String -> JQuery -> Fay JQuery
+addClass = ffi "jQuery(%2).addClass(%1)"
+
+removeClass :: String -> JQuery -> Fay JQuery
+removeClass = ffi "jQuery(%2).removeClass(%1)"
+
+j :: String -> Fay JQuery
+j = ffi "jQuery(%1)"
+
+html :: String -> JQuery -> Fay JQuery
+html = ffi "jQuery(%2).html(%1)"
+
+appendTo :: JQuery -> JQuery -> Fay JQuery
+appendTo = ffi "jQuery(%1).appendTo(%2)"
+
+click :: Fay () -> JQuery -> Fay JQuery
+click = ffi "jQuery(%2).click(%1)"
View
19 example/snaplets/heist/templates/index.tpl
@@ -3,6 +3,8 @@
<title>Snaplet Fay Example Application</title>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/static/screen.css"/>
<script src="/static/jquery.js"></script>
+ <script src="/static/underscore.js"></script>
+ <script src="/static/index.js"></script>
<script src="/fay/Index.js"></script>
</head>
<body>
@@ -11,7 +13,22 @@
<div>Current time:</div>
<div id="current-time"><current-time/></div>
- <div><input id="current-time-button" type="button" value="Update current time"></div>
+
+ <br>
+ <div id="loginStatus" class="status">
+ <ifLoggedIn>
+ You're logged in.
+ </ifLoggedIn>
+ <ifLoggedOut>
+ You're not logged in.
+ </ifLoggedOut>
+ </div>
+ <input id="viewLoginForm" type="button" value="Log in">
+ <input id="viewRegisterForm" type="button" value="Register">
+ <input id="logout" type="button" value="Log out">
+
+ <div id="formContainer">
+ </div>
<br>
View
10 example/snaplets/heist/templates/login-form.tpl
@@ -0,0 +1,10 @@
+<form class="login-form" action="/login">
+ <input type="hidden" name="instance" value="UserLogin">
+ <label for="ul_user">Username</label>
+ <input type="text" name="ul_user">
+ <label for="ul_password">Password</label>
+ <input type="password" name="ul_password">
+ <input type="checkbox" name="remember"> Remember me
+ <input class="submit" type="button" value="Log In">
+ <div class="status"></div>
+</form>
View
11 example/snaplets/heist/templates/register-form.tpl
@@ -0,0 +1,11 @@
+<form class="register-form" action="/register">
+ <input type="hidden" name="instance" value="UserRegister">
+ <label for="user">Username</label>
+ <input type="text" name="user">
+ <label for="password">Password</label>
+ <input type="password" name="password">
+ <label for="user">Repeat Password</label>
+ <input type="password" name="passwordConfirmation">
+ <input class="submit" type="button" value="Register">
+ <div class="status"></div>
+</form>
View
20 example/src/Application.hs
@@ -1,20 +1,19 @@
{-# LANGUAGE TemplateHaskell #-}
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--- | This module defines our application's state type and an alias for its
--- handler monad.
module Application where
-
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-import Data.Lens.Template
-import Snap.Snaplet
-import Snap.Snaplet.Heist
-import Snap.Snaplet.Fay
-
+import Data.Lens.Template
+import Snap.Snaplet
+import Snap.Snaplet.Auth
+import Snap.Snaplet.Fay
+import Snap.Snaplet.Heist
+import Snap.Snaplet.Session
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
data App = App
{ _heist :: Snaplet (Heist App)
, _fay :: Snaplet Fay
+ , _session :: Snaplet SessionManager
+ , _auth :: Snaplet (AuthManager App)
}
makeLens ''App
@@ -22,8 +21,5 @@ makeLens ''App
instance HasHeist App where
heistLens = subSnaplet heist
-
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
type AppHandler = Handler App App
-
-
View
57 example/src/Site.hs
@@ -1,43 +1,62 @@
{-# LANGUAGE OverloadedStrings #-}
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--- | This module is where all the routes and handlers are defined for your
--- site. The 'app' function is the initializer that combines everything
--- together and is exported by this module.
module Site
( app
) where
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+import Control.Applicative
import Control.Monad.Trans
-import Data.Aeson
-import Data.ByteString (ByteString)
+import Data.ByteString (ByteString)
+import qualified Data.ByteString.Char8 as BS
+import qualified Data.Text as T
import Data.Time.Clock
-import Language.Fay.Convert
-import Snap.Core
import Snap.Snaplet
+import Snap.Snaplet.Auth hiding (session)
+import Snap.Snaplet.Auth.Backends.JsonFile
import Snap.Snaplet.Fay
import Snap.Snaplet.Heist
+import Snap.Snaplet.Session.Backends.CookieSession
import Snap.Util.FileServe
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
import Application
import Application.SharedTypes
-currentTimeAjax :: AppHandler ()
-currentTimeAjax = do
- t <- liftIO getCurrentTime
- modifyResponse . setContentType $ "text/json;charset=utf-8"
- writeLBS $ encode $ showToFay (CTR (show t))
+currentTimeAjax :: AppHandler Time
+currentTimeAjax = Time . show <$> liftIO getCurrentTime
+
+-- TODO this can be handled automatically by heistServe
+registerForm :: AppHandler ()
+registerForm = render "register-form"
+loginForm :: AppHandler ()
+loginForm = render "login-form"
+
+register :: UserRegister -> Handler App (AuthManager App) UserRegisterResponse
+register (UserRegister u p pc)
+ | length u < 4 || length p < 4 || p /= pc = return Fail
+ | otherwise = do
+ let u' = T.pack u
+ exists <- usernameExists u'
+ if exists then return Fail else (createUser u' (BS.pack p) >> return OK)
+login :: UserLogin -> Handler App (AuthManager App) UserLoginResponse
+login (UserLogin u p r) =
+ either (return BadLogin) (return LoggedIn) <$>
+ loginByUsername (BS.pack u) (ClearText $ BS.pack p) r
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- | The application's routes.
routes :: [(ByteString, Handler App App ())]
routes = [
- ("/ajax/current-time", currentTimeAjax)
- , ("/fay", with fay fayServe)
- , ("/static", serveDirectory "static")
+ ("/ajax/current-time", toFayax currentTimeAjax)
+ , ("/ajax/login", with auth $ fayax login)
+ , ("/ajax/login-form", loginForm)
+ , ("/ajax/logout", with auth logout)
+ , ("/ajax/register", with auth $ fayax register)
+ , ("/ajax/register-form", registerForm)
+ , ("/fay", with fay fayServe)
+ , ("/static", serveDirectory "static")
]
@@ -45,7 +64,11 @@ routes = [
-- | The application initializer.
app :: SnapletInit App App
app = makeSnaplet "app" "An snaplet example application." Nothing $ do
+ s <- nestSnaplet "sess" session $
+ initCookieSessionManager "site_key.txt" "sess" (Just 3600)
h <- nestSnaplet "" heist $ heistInit "templates"
f <- nestSnaplet "fay" fay $ initFay
+ a <- nestSnaplet "auth" auth $ initJsonFileAuthManager defAuthSettings session "users.json"
+ addAuthSplices auth
addRoutes routes
- return $ App h f
+ return $ App h f s a
View
21 example/static/index.js
@@ -0,0 +1,21 @@
+window.Helpers = {
+ formJson : function (form) {
+ var o = {};
+ $("input, select", form).each(function (_,e) {
+ e = $(e);
+ var t = e.attr("type");
+ var p = e.attr("name");
+ if (!p) return;
+ var v = e.val();
+ v = t === "checkbox" ? v === "on" : v;
+ if (p in o && o[p] instanceof Array) {
+ o[p].push(v);
+ } else if (p in o) {
+ o[p] = [o[p], v];
+ } else {
+ o[p] = v;
+ }
+ });
+ return o;
+ }
+};
View
42 example/static/screen.css
@@ -1,26 +1,42 @@
html {
- padding: 0;
- margin: 0;
- background-color: #ffffff;
- font-family: Verdana, Helvetica, sans-serif;
+ padding: 0;
+ margin: 0;
+ background-color: #dcdccc;
+ font-family: Verdana, Helvetica, sans-serif;
+ color: #3f3f3f;
}
body {
- padding: 0;
- margin: 0;
+ padding: 0;
+ margin: 0;
}
a {
- text-decoration: underline;
+ color: #5c888b;
+ text-decoration: underline;
}
a :hover {
- cursor: pointer;
- text-decoration: underline;
+ cursor: pointer;
+ text-decoration: underline;
}
img {
- border: none;
+ border: none;
}
#content {
- padding-left: 1em;
+ padding-left: 1em;
}
-#info {
- font-size: 60%;
+
+#formContainer {
+ display: none;
+ padding:1em;
+ width:500px;
+ border:1px solid #bcbccc;
}
+
+#formContainer label, #formContainer input {
+ display: block;
+}
+
+.status { display: none; padding: 1em; margin-top: 1em; }
+.status.error { background-color: #bc8383; }
+.status.notice { background-color: #7f9f7f; }
+
+#loginStatus.status { width: 500px; }
View
1,059 example/static/underscore.js
@@ -0,0 +1,1059 @@
+// Underscore.js 1.3.3
+// (c) 2009-2012 Jeremy Ashkenas, DocumentCloud Inc.
+// Underscore may be freely distributed under the MIT license.
+// Portions of Underscore are inspired or borrowed from Prototype,
+// Oliver Steele's Functional, and John Resig's Micro-Templating.
+// For all details and documentation:
+// http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore
+
+(function() {
+
+ // Baseline setup
+ // --------------
+
+ // Establish the root object, `window` in the browser, or `global` on the server.
+ var root = this;
+
+ // Save the previous value of the `_` variable.
+ var previousUnderscore = root._;
+
+ // Establish the object that gets returned to break out of a loop iteration.
+ var breaker = {};
+
+ // Save bytes in the minified (but not gzipped) version:
+ var ArrayProto = Array.prototype, ObjProto = Object.prototype, FuncProto = Function.prototype;
+
+ // Create quick reference variables for speed access to core prototypes.
+ var slice = ArrayProto.slice,
+ unshift = ArrayProto.unshift,
+ toString = ObjProto.toString,
+ hasOwnProperty = ObjProto.hasOwnProperty;
+
+ // All **ECMAScript 5** native function implementations that we hope to use
+ // are declared here.
+ var
+ nativeForEach = ArrayProto.forEach,
+ nativeMap = ArrayProto.map,
+ nativeReduce = ArrayProto.reduce,
+ nativeReduceRight = ArrayProto.reduceRight,
+ nativeFilter = ArrayProto.filter,
+ nativeEvery = ArrayProto.every,
+ nativeSome = ArrayProto.some,
+ nativeIndexOf = ArrayProto.indexOf,
+ nativeLastIndexOf = ArrayProto.lastIndexOf,
+ nativeIsArray = Array.isArray,
+ nativeKeys = Object.keys,
+ nativeBind = FuncProto.bind;
+
+ // Create a safe reference to the Underscore object for use below.
+ var _ = function(obj) { return new wrapper(obj); };
+
+ // Export the Underscore object for **Node.js**, with
+ // backwards-compatibility for the old `require()` API. If we're in
+ // the browser, add `_` as a global object via a string identifier,
+ // for Closure Compiler "advanced" mode.
+ if (typeof exports !== 'undefined') {
+ if (typeof module !== 'undefined' && module.exports) {
+ exports = module.exports = _;
+ }
+ exports._ = _;
+ } else {
+ root['_'] = _;
+ }
+
+ // Current version.
+ _.VERSION = '1.3.3';
+
+ // Collection Functions
+ // --------------------
+
+ // The cornerstone, an `each` implementation, aka `forEach`.
+ // Handles objects with the built-in `forEach`, arrays, and raw objects.
+ // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `forEach` if available.
+ var each = _.each = _.forEach = function(obj, iterator, context) {
+ if (obj == null) return;
+ if (nativeForEach && obj.forEach === nativeForEach) {
+ obj.forEach(iterator, context);
+ } else if (obj.length === +obj.length) {
+ for (var i = 0, l = obj.length; i < l; i++) {
+ if (i in obj && iterator.call(context, obj[i], i, obj) === breaker) return;
+ }
+ } else {
+ for (var key in obj) {
+ if (_.has(obj, key)) {
+ if (iterator.call(context, obj[key], key, obj) === breaker) return;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ };
+
+ // Return the results of applying the iterator to each element.
+ // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `map` if available.
+ _.map = _.collect = function(obj, iterator, context) {
+ var results = [];
+ if (obj == null) return results;
+ if (nativeMap && obj.map === nativeMap) return obj.map(iterator, context);
+ each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ results[results.length] = iterator.call(context, value, index, list);
+ });
+ if (obj.length === +obj.length) results.length = obj.length;
+ return results;
+ };
+
+ // **Reduce** builds up a single result from a list of values, aka `inject`,
+ // or `foldl`. Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `reduce` if available.
+ _.reduce = _.foldl = _.inject = function(obj, iterator, memo, context) {
+ var initial = arguments.length > 2;
+ if (obj == null) obj = [];
+ if (nativeReduce && obj.reduce === nativeReduce) {
+ if (context) iterator = _.bind(iterator, context);
+ return initial ? obj.reduce(iterator, memo) : obj.reduce(iterator);
+ }
+ each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ if (!initial) {
+ memo = value;
+ initial = true;
+ } else {
+ memo = iterator.call(context, memo, value, index, list);
+ }
+ });
+ if (!initial) throw new TypeError('Reduce of empty array with no initial value');
+ return memo;
+ };
+
+ // The right-associative version of reduce, also known as `foldr`.
+ // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `reduceRight` if available.
+ _.reduceRight = _.foldr = function(obj, iterator, memo, context) {
+ var initial = arguments.length > 2;
+ if (obj == null) obj = [];
+ if (nativeReduceRight && obj.reduceRight === nativeReduceRight) {
+ if (context) iterator = _.bind(iterator, context);
+ return initial ? obj.reduceRight(iterator, memo) : obj.reduceRight(iterator);
+ }
+ var reversed = _.toArray(obj).reverse();
+ if (context && !initial) iterator = _.bind(iterator, context);
+ return initial ? _.reduce(reversed, iterator, memo, context) : _.reduce(reversed, iterator);
+ };
+
+ // Return the first value which passes a truth test. Aliased as `detect`.
+ _.find = _.detect = function(obj, iterator, context) {
+ var result;
+ any(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ if (iterator.call(context, value, index, list)) {
+ result = value;
+ return true;
+ }
+ });
+ return result;
+ };
+
+ // Return all the elements that pass a truth test.
+ // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `filter` if available.
+ // Aliased as `select`.
+ _.filter = _.select = function(obj, iterator, context) {
+ var results = [];
+ if (obj == null) return results;
+ if (nativeFilter && obj.filter === nativeFilter) return obj.filter(iterator, context);
+ each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ if (iterator.call(context, value, index, list)) results[results.length] = value;
+ });
+ return results;
+ };
+
+ // Return all the elements for which a truth test fails.
+ _.reject = function(obj, iterator, context) {
+ var results = [];
+ if (obj == null) return results;
+ each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ if (!iterator.call(context, value, index, list)) results[results.length] = value;
+ });
+ return results;
+ };
+
+ // Determine whether all of the elements match a truth test.
+ // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `every` if available.
+ // Aliased as `all`.
+ _.every = _.all = function(obj, iterator, context) {
+ var result = true;
+ if (obj == null) return result;
+ if (nativeEvery && obj.every === nativeEvery) return obj.every(iterator, context);
+ each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ if (!(result = result && iterator.call(context, value, index, list))) return breaker;
+ });
+ return !!result;
+ };
+
+ // Determine if at least one element in the object matches a truth test.
+ // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `some` if available.
+ // Aliased as `any`.
+ var any = _.some = _.any = function(obj, iterator, context) {
+ iterator || (iterator = _.identity);
+ var result = false;
+ if (obj == null) return result;
+ if (nativeSome && obj.some === nativeSome) return obj.some(iterator, context);
+ each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ if (result || (result = iterator.call(context, value, index, list))) return breaker;
+ });
+ return !!result;
+ };
+
+ // Determine if a given value is included in the array or object using `===`.
+ // Aliased as `contains`.
+ _.include = _.contains = function(obj, target) {
+ var found = false;
+ if (obj == null) return found;
+ if (nativeIndexOf && obj.indexOf === nativeIndexOf) return obj.indexOf(target) != -1;
+ found = any(obj, function(value) {
+ return value === target;
+ });
+ return found;
+ };
+
+ // Invoke a method (with arguments) on every item in a collection.
+ _.invoke = function(obj, method) {
+ var args = slice.call(arguments, 2);
+ return _.map(obj, function(value) {
+ return (_.isFunction(method) ? method || value : value[method]).apply(value, args);
+ });
+ };
+
+ // Convenience version of a common use case of `map`: fetching a property.
+ _.pluck = function(obj, key) {
+ return _.map(obj, function(value){ return value[key]; });
+ };
+
+ // Return the maximum element or (element-based computation).
+ _.max = function(obj, iterator, context) {
+ if (!iterator && _.isArray(obj) && obj[0] === +obj[0]) return Math.max.apply(Math, obj);
+ if (!iterator && _.isEmpty(obj)) return -Infinity;
+ var result = {computed : -Infinity};
+ each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ var computed = iterator ? iterator.call(context, value, index, list) : value;
+ computed >= result.computed && (result = {value : value, computed : computed});
+ });
+ return result.value;
+ };
+
+ // Return the minimum element (or element-based computation).
+ _.min = function(obj, iterator, context) {
+ if (!iterator && _.isArray(obj) && obj[0] === +obj[0]) return Math.min.apply(Math, obj);
+ if (!iterator && _.isEmpty(obj)) return Infinity;
+ var result = {computed : Infinity};
+ each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ var computed = iterator ? iterator.call(context, value, index, list) : value;
+ computed < result.computed && (result = {value : value, computed : computed});
+ });
+ return result.value;
+ };
+
+ // Shuffle an array.
+ _.shuffle = function(obj) {
+ var shuffled = [], rand;
+ each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ rand = Math.floor(Math.random() * (index + 1));
+ shuffled[index] = shuffled[rand];
+ shuffled[rand] = value;
+ });
+ return shuffled;
+ };
+
+ // Sort the object's values by a criterion produced by an iterator.
+ _.sortBy = function(obj, val, context) {
+ var iterator = _.isFunction(val) ? val : function(obj) { return obj[val]; };
+ return _.pluck(_.map(obj, function(value, index, list) {
+ return {
+ value : value,
+ criteria : iterator.call(context, value, index, list)
+ };
+ }).sort(function(left, right) {
+ var a = left.criteria, b = right.criteria;
+ if (a === void 0) return 1;
+ if (b === void 0) return -1;
+ return a < b ? -1 : a > b ? 1 : 0;
+ }), 'value');
+ };
+
+ // Groups the object's values by a criterion. Pass either a string attribute
+ // to group by, or a function that returns the criterion.
+ _.groupBy = function(obj, val) {
+ var result = {};
+ var iterator = _.isFunction(val) ? val : function(obj) { return obj[val]; };
+ each(obj, function(value, index) {
+ var key = iterator(value, index);
+ (result[key] || (result[key] = [])).push(value);
+ });
+ return result;
+ };
+
+ // Use a comparator function to figure out at what index an object should
+ // be inserted so as to maintain order. Uses binary search.
+ _.sortedIndex = function(array, obj, iterator) {
+ iterator || (iterator = _.identity);
+ var low = 0, high = array.length;
+ while (low < high) {
+ var mid = (low + high) >> 1;
+ iterator(array[mid]) < iterator(obj) ? low = mid + 1 : high = mid;
+ }
+ return low;
+ };
+
+ // Safely convert anything iterable into a real, live array.
+ _.toArray = function(obj) {
+ if (!obj) return [];
+ if (_.isArray(obj)) return slice.call(obj);
+ if (_.isArguments(obj)) return slice.call(obj);
+ if (obj.toArray && _.isFunction(obj.toArray)) return obj.toArray();
+ return _.values(obj);
+ };
+
+ // Return the number of elements in an object.
+ _.size = function(obj) {
+ return _.isArray(obj) ? obj.length : _.keys(obj).length;
+ };
+
+ // Array Functions
+ // ---------------
+
+ // Get the first element of an array. Passing **n** will return the first N
+ // values in the array. Aliased as `head` and `take`. The **guard** check
+ // allows it to work with `_.map`.
+ _.first = _.head = _.take = function(array, n, guard) {
+ return (n != null) && !guard ? slice.call(array, 0, n) : array[0];
+ };
+
+ // Returns everything but the last entry of the array. Especcialy useful on
+ // the arguments object. Passing **n** will return all the values in
+ // the array, excluding the last N. The **guard** check allows it to work with
+ // `_.map`.
+ _.initial = function(array, n, guard) {
+ return slice.call(array, 0, array.length - ((n == null) || guard ? 1 : n));
+ };
+
+ // Get the last element of an array. Passing **n** will return the last N
+ // values in the array. The **guard** check allows it to work with `_.map`.
+ _.last = function(array, n, guard) {
+ if ((n != null) && !guard) {
+ return slice.call(array, Math.max(array.length - n, 0));
+ } else {
+ return array[array.length - 1];
+ }
+ };
+
+ // Returns everything but the first entry of the array. Aliased as `tail`.
+ // Especially useful on the arguments object. Passing an **index** will return
+ // the rest of the values in the array from that index onward. The **guard**
+ // check allows it to work with `_.map`.
+ _.rest = _.tail = function(array, index, guard) {
+ return slice.call(array, (index == null) || guard ? 1 : index);
+ };
+
+ // Trim out all falsy values from an array.
+ _.compact = function(array) {
+ return _.filter(array, function(value){ return !!value; });
+ };
+
+ // Return a completely flattened version of an array.
+ _.flatten = function(array, shallow) {
+ return _.reduce(array, function(memo, value) {
+ if (_.isArray(value)) return memo.concat(shallow ? value : _.flatten(value));
+ memo[memo.length] = value;
+ return memo;
+ }, []);
+ };
+
+ // Return a version of the array that does not contain the specified value(s).
+ _.without = function(array) {
+ return _.difference(array, slice.call(arguments, 1));
+ };
+
+ // Produce a duplicate-free version of the array. If the array has already
+ // been sorted, you have the option of using a faster algorithm.
+ // Aliased as `unique`.
+ _.uniq = _.unique = function(array, isSorted, iterator) {
+ var initial = iterator ? _.map(array, iterator) : array;
+ var results = [];
+ // The `isSorted` flag is irrelevant if the array only contains two elements.
+ if (array.length < 3) isSorted = true;
+ _.reduce(initial, function (memo, value, index) {
+ if (isSorted ? _.last(memo) !== value || !memo.length : !_.include(memo, value)) {
+ memo.push(value);
+ results.push(array[index]);
+ }
+ return memo;
+ }, []);
+ return results;
+ };
+
+ // Produce an array that contains the union: each distinct element from all of
+ // the passed-in arrays.
+ _.union = function() {
+ return _.uniq(_.flatten(arguments, true));
+ };
+
+ // Produce an array that contains every item shared between all the
+ // passed-in arrays. (Aliased as "intersect" for back-compat.)
+ _.intersection = _.intersect = function(array) {
+ var rest = slice.call(arguments, 1);
+ return _.filter(_.uniq(array), function(item) {
+ return _.every(rest, function(other) {
+ return _.indexOf(other, item) >= 0;
+ });
+ });
+ };
+
+ // Take the difference between one array and a number of other arrays.
+ // Only the elements present in just the first array will remain.
+ _.difference = function(array) {
+ var rest = _.flatten(slice.call(arguments, 1), true);
+ return _.filter(array, function(value){ return !_.include(rest, value); });
+ };
+
+ // Zip together multiple lists into a single array -- elements that share
+ // an index go together.
+ _.zip = function() {
+ var args = slice.call(arguments);
+ var length = _.max(_.pluck(args, 'length'));
+ var results = new Array(length);
+ for (var i = 0; i < length; i++) results[i] = _.pluck(args, "" + i);
+ return results;
+ };
+
+ // If the browser doesn't supply us with indexOf (I'm looking at you, **MSIE**),
+ // we need this function. Return the position of the first occurrence of an
+ // item in an array, or -1 if the item is not included in the array.
+ // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `indexOf` if available.
+ // If the array is large and already in sort order, pass `true`
+ // for **isSorted** to use binary search.
+ _.indexOf = function(array, item, isSorted) {
+ if (array == null) return -1;
+ var i, l;
+ if (isSorted) {
+ i = _.sortedIndex(array, item);
+ return array[i] === item ? i : -1;
+ }
+ if (nativeIndexOf && array.indexOf === nativeIndexOf) return array.indexOf(item);
+ for (i = 0, l = array.length; i < l; i++) if (i in array && array[i] === item) return i;
+ return -1;
+ };
+
+ // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `lastIndexOf` if available.
+ _.lastIndexOf = function(array, item) {
+ if (array == null) return -1;
+ if (nativeLastIndexOf && array.lastIndexOf === nativeLastIndexOf) return array.lastIndexOf(item);
+ var i = array.length;
+ while (i--) if (i in array && array[i] === item) return i;
+ return -1;
+ };
+
+ // Generate an integer Array containing an arithmetic progression. A port of
+ // the native Python `range()` function. See
+ // [the Python documentation](http://docs.python.org/library/functions.html#range).
+ _.range = function(start, stop, step) {
+ if (arguments.length <= 1) {
+ stop = start || 0;
+ start = 0;
+ }
+ step = arguments[2] || 1;
+
+ var len = Math.max(Math.ceil((stop - start) / step), 0);
+ var idx = 0;
+ var range = new Array(len);
+
+ while(idx < len) {
+ range[idx++] = start;
+ start += step;
+ }
+
+ return range;
+ };
+
+ // Function (ahem) Functions
+ // ------------------
+
+ // Reusable constructor function for prototype setting.
+ var ctor = function(){};
+
+ // Create a function bound to a given object (assigning `this`, and arguments,
+ // optionally). Binding with arguments is also known as `curry`.
+ // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `Function.bind` if available.
+ // We check for `func.bind` first, to fail fast when `func` is undefined.
+ _.bind = function bind(func, context) {
+ var bound, args;
+ if (func.bind === nativeBind && nativeBind) return nativeBind.apply(func, slice.call(arguments, 1));
+ if (!_.isFunction(func)) throw new TypeError;
+ args = slice.call(arguments, 2);
+ return bound = function() {
+ if (!(this instanceof bound)) return func.apply(context, args.concat(slice.call(arguments)));
+ ctor.prototype = func.prototype;
+ var self = new ctor;
+ var result = func.apply(self, args.concat(slice.call(arguments)));
+ if (Object(result) === result) return result;
+ return self;
+ };
+ };
+
+ // Bind all of an object's methods to that object. Useful for ensuring that
+ // all callbacks defined on an object belong to it.
+ _.bindAll = function(obj) {
+ var funcs = slice.call(arguments, 1);
+ if (funcs.length == 0) funcs = _.functions(obj);
+ each(funcs, function(f) { obj[f] = _.bind(obj[f], obj); });
+ return obj;
+ };
+
+ // Memoize an expensive function by storing its results.
+ _.memoize = function(func, hasher) {
+ var memo = {};
+ hasher || (hasher = _.identity);
+ return function() {
+ var key = hasher.apply(this, arguments);
+ return _.has(memo, key) ? memo[key] : (memo[key] = func.apply(this, arguments));
+ };
+ };
+
+ // Delays a function for the given number of milliseconds, and then calls
+ // it with the arguments supplied.
+ _.delay = function(func, wait) {
+ var args = slice.call(arguments, 2);
+ return setTimeout(function(){ return func.apply(null, args); }, wait);
+ };
+
+ // Defers a function, scheduling it to run after the current call stack has
+ // cleared.
+ _.defer = function(func) {
+ return _.delay.apply(_, [func, 1].concat(slice.call(arguments, 1)));
+ };
+
+ // Returns a function, that, when invoked, will only be triggered at most once
+ // during a given window of time.
+ _.throttle = function(func, wait) {
+ var context, args, timeout, throttling, more, result;
+ var whenDone = _.debounce(function(){ more = throttling = false; }, wait);
+ return function() {
+ context = this; args = arguments;
+ var later = function() {
+ timeout = null;
+ if (more) func.apply(context, args);
+ whenDone();
+ };
+ if (!timeout) timeout = setTimeout(later, wait);
+ if (throttling) {
+ more = true;
+ } else {
+ result = func.apply(context, args);
+ }
+ whenDone();
+ throttling = true;
+ return result;
+ };
+ };
+
+ // Returns a function, that, as long as it continues to be invoked, will not
+ // be triggered. The function will be called after it stops being called for
+ // N milliseconds. If `immediate` is passed, trigger the function on the
+ // leading edge, instead of the trailing.
+ _.debounce = function(func, wait, immediate) {
+ var timeout;
+ return function() {
+ var context = this, args = arguments;
+ var later = function() {
+ timeout = null;
+ if (!immediate) func.apply(context, args);
+ };
+ if (immediate && !timeout) func.apply(context, args);
+ clearTimeout(timeout);
+ timeout = setTimeout(later, wait);
+ };
+ };
+
+ // Returns a function that will be executed at most one time, no matter how
+ // often you call it. Useful for lazy initialization.
+ _.once = function(func) {
+ var ran = false, memo;
+ return function() {
+ if (ran) return memo;
+ ran = true;
+ return memo = func.apply(this, arguments);
+ };
+ };
+
+ // Returns the first function passed as an argument to the second,
+ // allowing you to adjust arguments, run code before and after, and
+ // conditionally execute the original function.
+ _.wrap = function(func, wrapper) {
+ return function() {
+ var args = [func].concat(slice.call(arguments, 0));
+ return wrapper.apply(this, args);
+ };
+ };
+
+ // Returns a function that is the composition of a list of functions, each
+ // consuming the return value of the function that follows.
+ _.compose = function() {
+ var funcs = arguments;
+ return function() {
+ var args = arguments;
+ for (var i = funcs.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
+ args = [funcs[i].apply(this, args)];
+ }
+ return args[0];
+ };
+ };
+
+ // Returns a function that will only be executed after being called N times.
+ _.after = function(times, func) {
+ if (times <= 0) return func();
+ return function() {
+ if (--times < 1) { return func.apply(this, arguments); }
+ };
+ };
+
+ // Object Functions
+ // ----------------
+
+ // Retrieve the names of an object's properties.
+ // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `Object.keys`
+ _.keys = nativeKeys || function(obj) {
+ if (obj !== Object(obj)) throw new TypeError('Invalid object');
+ var keys = [];
+ for (var key in obj) if (_.has(obj, key)) keys[keys.length] = key;
+ return keys;
+ };
+
+ // Retrieve the values of an object's properties.
+ _.values = function(obj) {
+ return _.map(obj, _.identity);
+ };
+
+ // Return a sorted list of the function names available on the object.
+ // Aliased as `methods`
+ _.functions = _.methods = function(obj) {
+ var names = [];
+ for (var key in obj) {
+ if (_.isFunction(obj[key])) names.push(key);
+ }
+ return names.sort();
+ };
+
+ // Extend a given object with all the properties in passed-in object(s).
+ _.extend = function(obj) {
+ each(slice.call(arguments, 1), function(source) {
+ for (var prop in source) {
+ obj[prop] = source[prop];
+ }
+ });
+ return obj;
+ };
+
+ // Return a copy of the object only containing the whitelisted properties.
+ _.pick = function(obj) {
+ var result = {};
+ each(_.flatten(slice.call(arguments, 1)), function(key) {
+ if (key in obj) result[key] = obj[key];
+ });
+ return result;
+ };
+
+ // Fill in a given object with default properties.
+ _.defaults = function(obj) {
+ each(slice.call(arguments, 1), function(source) {
+ for (var prop in source) {
+ if (obj[prop] == null) obj[prop] = source[prop];
+ }
+ });
+ return obj;
+ };
+
+ // Create a (shallow-cloned) duplicate of an object.
+ _.clone = function(obj) {
+ if (!_.isObject(obj)) return obj;
+ return _.isArray(obj) ? obj.slice() : _.extend({}, obj);
+ };
+
+ // Invokes interceptor with the obj, and then returns obj.
+ // The primary purpose of this method is to "tap into" a method chain, in
+ // order to perform operations on intermediate results within the chain.
+ _.tap = function(obj, interceptor) {
+ interceptor(obj);
+ return obj;
+ };
+
+ // Internal recursive comparison function.
+ function eq(a, b, stack) {
+ // Identical objects are equal. `0 === -0`, but they aren't identical.
+ // See the Harmony `egal` proposal: http://wiki.ecmascript.org/doku.php?id=harmony:egal.
+ if (a === b) return a !== 0 || 1 / a == 1 / b;
+ // A strict comparison is necessary because `null == undefined`.
+ if (a == null || b == null) return a === b;
+ // Unwrap any wrapped objects.
+ if (a._chain) a = a._wrapped;
+ if (b._chain) b = b._wrapped;
+ // Invoke a custom `isEqual` method if one is provided.
+ if (a.isEqual && _.isFunction(a.isEqual)) return a.isEqual(b);
+ if (b.isEqual && _.isFunction(b.isEqual)) return b.isEqual(a);
+ // Compare `[[Class]]` names.
+ var className = toString.call(a);
+ if (className != toString.call(b)) return false;
+ switch (className) {
+ // Strings, numbers, dates, and booleans are compared by value.
+ case '[object String]':
+ // Primitives and their corresponding object wrappers are equivalent; thus, `"5"` is
+ // equivalent to `new String("5")`.
+ return a == String(b);
+ case '[object Number]':
+ // `NaN`s are equivalent, but non-reflexive. An `egal` comparison is performed for
+ // other numeric values.
+ return a != +a ? b != +b : (a == 0 ? 1 / a == 1 / b : a == +b);
+ case '[object Date]':
+ case '[object Boolean]':
+ // Coerce dates and booleans to numeric primitive values. Dates are compared by their
+ // millisecond representations. Note that invalid dates with millisecond representations
+ // of `NaN` are not equivalent.
+ return +a == +b;
+ // RegExps are compared by their source patterns and flags.
+ case '[object RegExp]':
+ return a.source == b.source &&
+ a.global == b.global &&
+ a.multiline == b.multiline &&
+ a.ignoreCase == b.ignoreCase;
+ }
+ if (typeof a != 'object' || typeof b != 'object') return false;
+ // Assume equality for cyclic structures. The algorithm for detecting cyclic
+ // structures is adapted from ES 5.1 section 15.12.3, abstract operation `JO`.
+ var length = stack.length;
+ while (length--) {
+ // Linear search. Performance is inversely proportional to the number of
+ // unique nested structures.
+ if (stack[length] == a) return true;
+ }
+ // Add the first object to the stack of traversed objects.
+ stack.push(a);
+ var size = 0, result = true;
+ // Recursively compare objects and arrays.
+ if (className == '[object Array]') {
+ // Compare array lengths to determine if a deep comparison is necessary.
+ size = a.length;
+ result = size == b.length;
+ if (result) {
+ // Deep compare the contents, ignoring non-numeric properties.
+ while (size--) {
+ // Ensure commutative equality for sparse arrays.
+ if (!(result = size in a == size in b && eq(a[size], b[size], stack))) break;
+ }
+ }
+ } else {
+ // Objects with different constructors are not equivalent.
+ if ('constructor' in a != 'constructor' in b || a.constructor != b.constructor) return false;
+ // Deep compare objects.
+ for (var key in a) {
+ if (_.has(a, key)) {
+ // Count the expected number of properties.
+ size++;
+ // Deep compare each member.
+ if (!(result = _.has(b, key) && eq(a[key], b[key], stack))) break;
+ }
+ }
+ // Ensure that both objects contain the same number of properties.
+ if (result) {
+ for (key in b) {
+ if (_.has(b, key) && !(size--)) break;
+ }
+ result = !size;
+ }
+ }
+ // Remove the first object from the stack of traversed objects.
+ stack.pop();
+ return result;
+ }
+
+ // Perform a deep comparison to check if two objects are equal.
+ _.isEqual = function(a, b) {
+ return eq(a, b, []);
+ };
+
+ // Is a given array, string, or object empty?
+ // An "empty" object has no enumerable own-properties.
+ _.isEmpty = function(obj) {
+ if (obj == null) return true;
+ if (_.isArray(obj) || _.isString(obj)) return obj.length === 0;
+ for (var key in obj) if (_.has(obj, key)) return false;
+ return true;
+ };
+
+ // Is a given value a DOM element?
+ _.isElement = function(obj) {
+ return !!(obj && obj.nodeType == 1);
+ };
+
+ // Is a given value an array?
+ // Delegates to ECMA5's native Array.isArray
+ _.isArray = nativeIsArray || function(obj) {
+ return toString.call(obj) == '[object Array]';
+ };
+
+ // Is a given variable an object?
+ _.isObject = function(obj) {
+ return obj === Object(obj);
+ };
+
+ // Is a given variable an arguments object?
+ _.isArguments = function(obj) {
+ return toString.call(obj) == '[object Arguments]';
+ };
+ if (!_.isArguments(arguments)) {
+ _.isArguments = function(obj) {
+ return !!(obj && _.has(obj, 'callee'));
+ };
+ }
+
+ // Is a given value a function?
+ _.isFunction = function(obj) {
+ return toString.call(obj) == '[object Function]';
+ };
+
+ // Is a given value a string?
+ _.isString = function(obj) {
+ return toString.call(obj) == '[object String]';
+ };
+
+ // Is a given value a number?
+ _.isNumber = function(obj) {
+ return toString.call(obj) == '[object Number]';
+ };
+
+ // Is a given object a finite number?
+ _.isFinite = function(obj) {
+ return _.isNumber(obj) && isFinite(obj);
+ };
+
+ // Is the given value `NaN`?
+ _.isNaN = function(obj) {
+ // `NaN` is the only value for which `===` is not reflexive.
+ return obj !== obj;
+ };
+
+ // Is a given value a boolean?
+ _.isBoolean = function(obj) {
+ return obj === true || obj === false || toString.call(obj) == '[object Boolean]';
+ };
+
+ // Is a given value a date?
+ _.isDate = function(obj) {
+ return toString.call(obj) == '[object Date]';
+ };
+
+ // Is the given value a regular expression?
+ _.isRegExp = function(obj) {
+ return toString.call(obj) == '[object RegExp]';
+ };
+
+ // Is a given value equal to null?
+ _.isNull = function(obj) {
+ return obj === null;
+ };
+
+ // Is a given variable undefined?
+ _.isUndefined = function(obj) {
+ return obj === void 0;
+ };
+
+ // Has own property?
+ _.has = function(obj, key) {
+ return hasOwnProperty.call(obj, key);
+ };
+
+ // Utility Functions
+ // -----------------
+
+ // Run Underscore.js in *noConflict* mode, returning the `_` variable to its
+ // previous owner. Returns a reference to the Underscore object.
+ _.noConflict = function() {
+ root._ = previousUnderscore;
+ return this;
+ };
+
+ // Keep the identity function around for default iterators.
+ _.identity = function(value) {
+ return value;
+ };
+
+ // Run a function **n** times.
+ _.times = function (n, iterator, context) {
+ for (var i = 0; i < n; i++) iterator.call(context, i);
+ };
+
+ // Escape a string for HTML interpolation.
+ _.escape = function(string) {
+ return (''+string).replace(/&/g, '&amp;').replace(/</g, '&lt;').replace(/>/g, '&gt;').replace(/"/g, '&quot;').replace(/'/g, '&#x27;').replace(/\//g,'&#x2F;');
+ };
+
+ // If the value of the named property is a function then invoke it;
+ // otherwise, return it.
+ _.result = function(object, property) {
+ if (object == null) return null;
+ var value = object[property];
+ return _.isFunction(value) ? value.call(object) : value;
+ };
+
+ // Add your own custom functions to the Underscore object, ensuring that
+ // they're correctly added to the OOP wrapper as well.
+ _.mixin = function(obj) {
+ each(_.functions(obj), function(name){
+ addToWrapper(name, _[name] = obj[name]);
+ });
+ };
+
+ // Generate a unique integer id (unique within the entire client session).
+ // Useful for temporary DOM ids.
+ var idCounter = 0;
+ _.uniqueId = function(prefix) {
+ var id = idCounter++;
+ return prefix ? prefix + id : id;
+ };
+
+ // By default, Underscore uses ERB-style template delimiters, change the
+ // following template settings to use alternative delimiters.
+ _.templateSettings = {
+ evaluate : /<%([\s\S]+?)%>/g,
+ interpolate : /<%=([\s\S]+?)%>/g,
+ escape : /<%-([\s\S]+?)%>/g
+ };
+
+ // When customizing `templateSettings`, if you don't want to define an
+ // interpolation, evaluation or escaping regex, we need one that is
+ // guaranteed not to match.
+ var noMatch = /.^/;
+
+ // Certain characters need to be escaped so that they can be put into a
+ // string literal.
+ var escapes = {
+ '\\': '\\',
+ "'": "'",
+ 'r': '\r',
+ 'n': '\n',
+ 't': '\t',
+ 'u2028': '\u2028',
+ 'u2029': '\u2029'
+ };
+
+ for (var p in escapes) escapes[escapes[p]] = p;
+ var escaper = /\\|'|\r|\n|\t|\u2028|\u2029/g;
+ var unescaper = /\\(\\|'|r|n|t|u2028|u2029)/g;
+
+ // Within an interpolation, evaluation, or escaping, remove HTML escaping
+ // that had been previously added.
+ var unescape = function(code) {
+ return code.replace(unescaper, function(match, escape) {
+ return escapes[escape];
+ });
+ };
+
+ // JavaScript micro-templating, similar to John Resig's implementation.
+ // Underscore templating handles arbitrary delimiters, preserves whitespace,
+ // and correctly escapes quotes within interpolated code.
+ _.template = function(text, data, settings) {
+ settings = _.defaults(settings || {}, _.templateSettings);
+
+ // Compile the template source, taking care to escape characters that
+ // cannot be included in a string literal and then unescape them in code
+ // blocks.
+ var source = "__p+='" + text
+ .replace(escaper, function(match) {
+ return '\\' + escapes[match];
+ })
+ .replace(settings.escape || noMatch, function(match, code) {
+ return "'+\n_.escape(" + unescape(code) + ")+\n'";
+ })
+ .replace(settings.interpolate || noMatch, function(match, code) {
+ return "'+\n(" + unescape(code) + ")+\n'";
+ })
+ .replace(settings.evaluate || noMatch, function(match, code) {
+ return "';\n" + unescape(code) + "\n;__p+='";
+ }) + "';\n";
+
+ // If a variable is not specified, place data values in local scope.
+ if (!settings.variable) source = 'with(obj||{}){\n' + source + '}\n';
+
+ source = "var __p='';" +
+ "var print=function(){__p+=Array.prototype.join.call(arguments, '')};\n" +
+ source + "return __p;\n";
+
+ var render = new Function(settings.variable || 'obj', '_', source);
+ if (data) return render(data, _);
+ var template = function(data) {
+ return render.call(this, data, _);
+ };
+
+ // Provide the compiled function source as a convenience for build time
+ // precompilation.
+ template.source = 'function(' + (settings.variable || 'obj') + '){\n' +
+ source + '}';
+
+ return template;
+ };
+
+ // Add a "chain" function, which will delegate to the wrapper.
+ _.chain = function(obj) {
+ return _(obj).chain();
+ };
+
+ // The OOP Wrapper
+ // ---------------
+
+ // If Underscore is called as a function, it returns a wrapped object that
+ // can be used OO-style. This wrapper holds altered versions of all the
+ // underscore functions. Wrapped objects may be chained.
+ var wrapper = function(obj) { this._wrapped = obj; };
+
+ // Expose `wrapper.prototype` as `_.prototype`
+ _.prototype = wrapper.prototype;
+
+ // Helper function to continue chaining intermediate results.
+ var result = function(obj, chain) {
+ return chain ? _(obj).chain() : obj;
+ };
+
+ // A method to easily add functions to the OOP wrapper.
+ var addToWrapper = function(name, func) {
+ wrapper.prototype[name] = function() {
+ var args = slice.call(arguments);
+ unshift.call(args, this._wrapped);
+ return result(func.apply(_, args), this._chain);
+ };
+ };
+
+ // Add all of the Underscore functions to the wrapper object.
+ _.mixin(_);
+
+ // Add all mutator Array functions to the wrapper.
+ each(['pop', 'push', 'reverse', 'shift', 'sort', 'splice', 'unshift'], function(name) {
+ var method = ArrayProto[name];
+ wrapper.prototype[name] = function() {
+ var wrapped = this._wrapped;
+ method.apply(wrapped, arguments);
+ var length = wrapped.length;
+ if ((name == 'shift' || name == 'splice') && length === 0) delete wrapped[0];
+ return result(wrapped, this._chain);
+ };
+ });
+
+ // Add all accessor Array functions to the wrapper.
+ each(['concat', 'join', 'slice'], function(name) {
+ var method = ArrayProto[name];
+ wrapper.prototype[name] = function() {
+ return result(method.apply(this._wrapped, arguments), this._chain);
+ };
+ });
+
+ // Start chaining a wrapped Underscore object.
+ wrapper.prototype.chain = function() {
+ this._chain = true;
+ return this;
+ };
+
+ // Extracts the result from a wrapped and chained object.
+ wrapper.prototype.value = function() {
+ return this._wrapped;
+ };
+
+}).call(this);
View
2  snaplet-fay.cabal
@@ -43,6 +43,7 @@ library
Snap.Snaplet.Fay.Internal, Paths_snaplet_fay
build-depends:
+ aeson == 0.6.*,
base == 4.5.*,
bytestring == 0.9.*,
configurator == 0.2.*,
@@ -64,6 +65,7 @@ Executable test
main-is: Test.hs
build-depends:
+ aeson == 0.6.*,
base == 4.5.*,
bytestring == 0.9.*,
configurator == 0.2.*,
View
84 src/Snap/Snaplet/Fay.hs
@@ -1,11 +1,14 @@
-{-# LANGUAGE OverloadedStrings #-}
-{-# LANGUAGE ScopedTypeVariables #-}
+{-# LANGUAGE OverloadedStrings #-}
+{-# LANGUAGE ScopedTypeVariables #-}
{-# OPTIONS -fno-warn-name-shadowing #-}
module Snap.Snaplet.Fay (
Fay
, initFay
, fayServe
+ , fayax
+ , toFayax
+ , fromFayax
) where
import Control.Applicative
@@ -13,11 +16,16 @@ import Control.Monad
import Control.Monad.Reader
import Control.Monad.State.Class
import Control.Monad.Trans.Writer
-import qualified Data.ByteString.Char8 as BS
-import qualified Data.Configurator as C
+import qualified Data.Aeson as A
+import Data.ByteString (ByteString)
+import qualified Data.ByteString.Char8 as BS
+import qualified Data.ByteString.Lazy as BL
+import qualified Data.Configurator as C
+import Data.Data
import Data.List
import Data.Maybe
import Data.String
+import Language.Fay.Convert
import Snap.Core
import Snap.Snaplet
import Snap.Util.FileServe
@@ -82,27 +90,67 @@ initFay = makeSnaplet "fay" description datadir $ do
-- | Serves the compiled Fay scripts using the chosen compile method.
fayServe :: Handler b Fay ()
-fayServe = do
- cfg <- get
- compileWithMethod (compileMethod cfg)
-
+fayServe = get >>= compileWithMethod . compileMethod
+
+-- | Send and receive JSON.
+-- | Automatically decodes a JSON request into a Fay record which is
+-- | passed to `g`. The handler `g` should then return a Fay record (of
+-- | a possibly separate type) which is encoded and passed back as a
+-- | JSON response.
+-- | If you only want to send JSON and handle input manually, use toFayax.
+-- | If you want to receive JSON and handle the response manually, use fromFayax
+fayax :: (Data f1, Read f1, Show f2) => (f1 -> Handler h1 h2 f2) -> Handler h1 h2 ()
+fayax g = do
+ res <- decode
+ case res of
+ Left body -> send500 $ Just body
+ Right res -> toFayax . g $ res
+
+-- | fayax only sending JSON.
+toFayax :: Show f2 => Handler h1 h2 f2 -> Handler h1 h2 ()
+toFayax g = do
+ modifyResponse . setContentType $ "text/json;charset=utf-8"
+ writeLBS . A.encode . showToFay =<< g
+
+-- | fayax only recieving JSON.
+fromFayax :: (Data f1, Read f1) => (f1 -> Handler h1 h2 ()) -> Handler h1 h2 ()
+fromFayax g = do
+ res <- decode
+ case res of
+ Left body -> send500 $ Just body
+ Right res -> g res
+
+decode :: (Data f1, Read f1) => Handler h1 h2 (Either ByteString f1)
+decode = do
+ body <- readRequestBody 1024 -- Nothing will break by abusing this :)!
+ res <- return $ A.decode body >>= readFromFay
+ return $ case res of
+ Nothing -> Left. BS.concat . BL.toChunks $ "Could not decode " `BL.append` body
+ Just x -> Right x
+
+-- | Compiles according to the specified method.
compileWithMethod :: CompileMethod -> Handler b Fay ()
compileWithMethod CompileOnDemand = do
cfg <- get
uri <- (srcDir cfg </>) . toHsName . filename . BS.unpack . rqURI <$> getRequest
res <- liftIO (compileFile cfg uri)
case res of
- Success s -> writeLBS $ fromString s
- NotFound -> do
- modifyResponse $ setResponseStatus 404 "Not Found"
- writeBS "File not found."
- finishWith =<< getResponse
- Error err -> do
- modifyResponse $ setResponseStatus 500 "Internal Server Error"
- writeBS . BS.pack $ err
- finishWith =<< getResponse
-
+ Success s -> writeBS $ fromString s
+ NotFound -> send404 Nothing
+ Error err -> send500 . Just . BS.pack $ err
compileWithMethod CompileAll = do
cfg <- get
liftIO (compileAll cfg)
serveDirectory (destDir cfg)
+
+send404 :: Maybe ByteString -> Handler a b ()
+send404 msg = do
+ modifyResponse $ setResponseStatus 404 "Not Found"
+ writeBS $ fromMaybe "Not Found" msg
+ finishWith =<< getResponse
+
+send500 :: Maybe ByteString -> Handler a b ()
+send500 msg = do
+ modifyResponse $ setResponseStatus 500 "Internal Server Error"
+ writeBS $ fromMaybe "Internal Server Error" msg
+ finishWith =<< getResponse
View
1  src/Snap/Snaplet/Fay/Internal.hs
@@ -138,3 +138,4 @@ hsRelativePath f = "snaplets/fay/src" </> filename f
-- | Helper for printing messages when the verbose flag is set
verbosePut :: Fay -> String -> IO ()
verbosePut config = when (verbose config) . putStrLn . ("snaplet-fay: " ++ )
+
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