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Overview

MRHLP is an R package for flexible and user-friendly probabilistic joint segmentation of multivariate time series (or multivariate structured longitudinal data) with smooth and/or abrupt regime changes by a mixture model-based multiple regression approach with a hidden logistic process (Multiple Regression model with a Hidden Logistic Process (MRHLP)). The model is fitted by the EM algorithm.

Installation

You can install the MRHLP package from GitHub with:

# install.packages("devtools")
devtools::install_github("fchamroukhi/MRHLP")

To build vignettes for examples of usage, type the command below instead:

# install.packages("devtools")
devtools::install_github("fchamroukhi/MRHLP", 
                         build_opts = c("--no-resave-data", "--no-manual"), 
                         build_vignettes = TRUE)

Use the following command to display vignettes:

browseVignettes("MRHLP")

Usage

library(MRHLP)
# Application to a toy data set
data("toydataset")
x <- toydataset$x
y <- toydataset[,c("y1", "y2", "y3")]

K <- 5 # Number of regimes (mixture components)
p <- 1 # Dimension of beta (order of the polynomial regressors)
q <- 1 # Dimension of w (order of the logistic regression: to be set to 1 for segmentation)
variance_type <- "heteroskedastic" # "heteroskedastic" or "homoskedastic" model

n_tries <- 1
max_iter <- 1500
threshold <- 1e-6
verbose <- TRUE
verbose_IRLS <- FALSE

mrhlp <- emMRHLP(X = x, Y = y, K, p, q, variance_type, n_tries, 
                 max_iter, threshold, verbose, verbose_IRLS)
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 1 | log-likelihood: -4807.6644322901
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 2 | log-likelihood: -3314.25165556383
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 3 | log-likelihood: -3216.8871750704
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 4 | log-likelihood: -3126.33556053822
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 5 | log-likelihood: -2959.59933830667
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 6 | log-likelihood: -2895.65953485704
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 7 | log-likelihood: -2892.93263500326
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 8 | log-likelihood: -2889.34084959654
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 9 | log-likelihood: -2884.56422084139
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 10 | log-likelihood: -2878.29772085061
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 11 | log-likelihood: -2870.61242183846
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 12 | log-likelihood: -2862.86238149363
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 13 | log-likelihood: -2856.85351443338
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 14 | log-likelihood: -2851.74642203885
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 15 | log-likelihood: -2850.00381259526
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 16 | log-likelihood: -2849.86516522686
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 17 | log-likelihood: -2849.7354103643
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 18 | log-likelihood: -2849.56953544124
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 19 | log-likelihood: -2849.40322468732
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 20 | log-likelihood: -2849.40321381274

mrhlp$summary()
#> ----------------------
#> Fitted MRHLP model
#> ----------------------
#> 
#> MRHLP model with K = 5 regimes
#> 
#>  log-likelihood nu       AIC       BIC       ICL
#>       -2849.403 68 -2917.403 -3070.651 -3069.896
#> 
#> Clustering table:
#>   1   2   3   4   5 
#> 100 120 200 100 150 
#> 
#> 
#> ------------------
#> Regime 1 (k = 1):
#> 
#> Regression coefficients:
#> 
#>     Beta(d = 1) Beta(d = 2) Beta(d = 3)
#> 1    0.11943184   0.6087582   -2.038486
#> X^1 -0.08556857   4.1038126    2.540536
#> 
#> Covariance matrix:
#>                                    
#>  1.19063336  0.12765794  0.05537134
#>  0.12765794  0.87144062 -0.05213162
#>  0.05537134 -0.05213162  0.87885166
#> ------------------
#> Regime 2 (k = 2):
#> 
#> Regression coefficients:
#> 
#>     Beta(d = 1) Beta(d = 2) Beta(d = 3)
#> 1      6.924025   4.9368460   10.288339
#> X^1    1.118034   0.4726707   -1.409218
#> 
#> Covariance matrix:
#>                                   
#>   1.0690431 -0.18293369 0.12602459
#>  -0.1829337  1.05280632 0.01390041
#>   0.1260246  0.01390041 0.75995058
#> ------------------
#> Regime 3 (k = 3):
#> 
#> Regression coefficients:
#> 
#>     Beta(d = 1) Beta(d = 2) Beta(d = 3)
#> 1     3.6535241   6.3654379    8.488318
#> X^1   0.6233579  -0.8866887   -1.126692
#> 
#> Covariance matrix:
#>                                     
#>   1.02591553 -0.05445227 -0.02019896
#>  -0.05445227  1.18941700  0.01565240
#>  -0.02019896  0.01565240  1.00257195
#> ------------------
#> Regime 4 (k = 4):
#> 
#> Regression coefficients:
#> 
#>     Beta(d = 1) Beta(d = 2) Beta(d = 3)
#> 1     -1.439637   -4.463014    2.952470
#> X^1    0.703211    3.649717   -4.187703
#> 
#> Covariance matrix:
#>                                     
#>   0.88000190 -0.03249118 -0.03411075
#>  -0.03249118  1.12087583 -0.07881351
#>  -0.03411075 -0.07881351  0.86060127
#> ------------------
#> Regime 5 (k = 5):
#> 
#> Regression coefficients:
#> 
#>     Beta(d = 1) Beta(d = 2) Beta(d = 3)
#> 1     3.4982408   2.5357751    7.652113
#> X^1   0.0574791  -0.7286824   -3.005802
#> 
#> Covariance matrix:
#>                                  
#>  1.13330209 0.25869951 0.03163467
#>  0.25869951 1.21230741 0.04746018
#>  0.03163467 0.04746018 0.80241715

mrhlp$plot()

# Application to a real data set (human activity recogntion data)
data("realdataset")
x <- realdataset$x
y <- realdataset[,c("y1", "y2", "y3")]

K <- 5 # Number of regimes (mixture components)
p <- 3 # Dimension of beta (order of the polynomial regressors)
q <- 1 # Dimension of w (order of the logistic regression: to be set to 1 for segmentation)
variance_type <- "heteroskedastic" # "heteroskedastic" or "homoskedastic" model

n_tries <- 1
max_iter <- 1500
threshold <- 1e-6
verbose <- TRUE
verbose_IRLS <- FALSE

mrhlp <- emMRHLP(X = x, Y = y, K, p, q, variance_type, n_tries, 
                 max_iter, threshold, verbose, verbose_IRLS)
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 1 | log-likelihood: -792.888668727036
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 2 | log-likelihood: 6016.45835957306
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 3 | log-likelihood: 6362.81791662824
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 4 | log-likelihood: 6615.72233403002
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 5 | log-likelihood: 6768.32107943849
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 6 | log-likelihood: 6840.97339565987
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 7 | log-likelihood: 6860.97262839295
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 8 | log-likelihood: 6912.25605673784
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 9 | log-likelihood: 6945.96718258737
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 10 | log-likelihood: 6951.28584396645
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 11 | log-likelihood: 6952.37644678517
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 12 | log-likelihood: 6954.80510338749
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 13 | log-likelihood: 6958.99033092484
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 14 | log-likelihood: 6964.81099837456
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 15 | log-likelihood: 6999.90358068156
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 16 | log-likelihood: 7065.39327246318
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 17 | log-likelihood: 7166.23398344994
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 18 | log-likelihood: 7442.73330846285
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 19 | log-likelihood: 7522.65416438396
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 20 | log-likelihood: 7524.41524338024
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 21 | log-likelihood: 7524.57590110924
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 22 | log-likelihood: 7524.73808801417
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 23 | log-likelihood: 7524.88684996651
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 24 | log-likelihood: 7524.9753964817
#> EM - MRHLP: Iteration: 25 | log-likelihood: 7524.97701548847

mrhlp$summary()
#> ----------------------
#> Fitted MRHLP model
#> ----------------------
#> 
#> MRHLP model with K = 5 regimes
#> 
#>  log-likelihood nu      AIC      BIC      ICL
#>        7524.977 98 7426.977 7146.696 7147.535
#> 
#> Clustering table:
#>   1   2   3   4   5 
#> 413 344 588 423 485 
#> 
#> 
#> ------------------
#> Regime 1 (k = 1):
#> 
#> Regression coefficients:
#> 
#>     Beta(d = 1) Beta(d = 2) Beta(d = 3)
#> 1    1.64847721  2.33823068  9.40173242
#> X^1 -0.31396583  0.38235782 -0.10031616
#> X^2  0.23954454 -0.30105177  0.07812145
#> X^3 -0.04725267  0.06166899 -0.01586579
#> 
#> Covariance matrix:
#>                                          
#>   0.0200740364 -0.004238036  0.0004011388
#>  -0.0042380363  0.006082904 -0.0012973026
#>   0.0004011388 -0.001297303  0.0013201963
#> ------------------
#> Regime 2 (k = 2):
#> 
#> Regression coefficients:
#> 
#>      Beta(d = 1) Beta(d = 2)  Beta(d = 3)
#> 1   -106.0250571 -31.4671946 -107.9697464
#> X^1   45.2035210  21.2126134   72.0220177
#> X^2   -5.7330338  -4.1285514  -13.9857795
#> X^3    0.2343552   0.2485377    0.8374817
#> 
#> Covariance matrix:
#>                                     
#>   0.11899225 -0.03866052 -0.06693441
#>  -0.03866052  0.17730401  0.04036629
#>  -0.06693441  0.04036629  0.11983979
#> ------------------
#> Regime 3 (k = 3):
#> 
#> Regression coefficients:
#> 
#>       Beta(d = 1)  Beta(d = 2)  Beta(d = 3)
#> 1    9.0042249443 -1.247752962 -2.492119515
#> X^1  0.2191555621  0.418071041  0.310449523
#> X^2 -0.0242080660 -0.043802827 -0.039012607
#> X^3  0.0008494208  0.001474635  0.001427627
#> 
#> Covariance matrix:
#>                                          
#>   4.103351e-04 -0.0001330363 5.289199e-05
#>  -1.330363e-04  0.0006297205 2.027763e-04
#>   5.289199e-05  0.0002027763 1.374405e-03
#> ------------------
#> Regime 4 (k = 4):
#> 
#> Regression coefficients:
#> 
#>       Beta(d = 1) Beta(d = 2)  Beta(d = 3)
#> 1   -1029.9071752 334.4975068  466.0981076
#> X^1   199.9531885 -68.7252041 -105.6436899
#> X^2   -12.6550086   4.6489685    7.6555642
#> X^3     0.2626998  -0.1032161   -0.1777453
#> 
#> Covariance matrix:
#>                                       
#>   0.058674116 -0.017661572 0.002139975
#>  -0.017661572  0.047588713 0.007867532
#>   0.002139975  0.007867532 0.067150809
#> ------------------
#> Regime 5 (k = 5):
#> 
#> Regression coefficients:
#> 
#>      Beta(d = 1)   Beta(d = 2)  Beta(d = 3)
#> 1   27.247199195 -14.393798357 19.741283724
#> X^1 -3.530625667   2.282492947 -1.511225702
#> X^2  0.161234880  -0.101613670  0.073003292
#> X^3 -0.002446104   0.001490288 -0.001171127
#> 
#> Covariance matrix:
#>                                          
#>   6.900384e-03 -0.001176838  2.966199e-05
#>  -1.176838e-03  0.003596238 -2.395420e-04
#>   2.966199e-05 -0.000239542  5.573451e-04

mrhlp$plot()

Model selection

In this package, it is possible to select models based on information criteria such as BIC, AIC and ICL.

The selection can be done for the two following parameters:

  • K: The number of regimes;
  • p: The order of the polynomial regression.

Let’s select a MRHLP model for the following multivariate time series Y:

data("toydataset")
x <- toydataset$x
y <- toydataset[, c("y1", "y2", "y3")]
matplot(x, y, type = "l", xlab = "x", ylab = "Y", lty = 1)

selectedmrhlp <- selectMRHLP(X = x, Y = y, Kmin = 2, Kmax = 6, pmin = 0, pmax = 3)
#> Warning in emMRHLP(X = X1, Y = Y1, K, p): EM log-likelihood is decreasing
#> from -3105.78591044952to -3105.78627830471!
#> The MRHLP model selected via the "BIC" has K = 5 regimes 
#>  and the order of the polynomial regression is p = 0.
#> BIC = -3033.20042397111
#> AIC = -2913.75756459291

selectedmrhlp$plot(what = "estimatedsignal")

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Joint segmentation of multivariate time series with a Multiple Regression model with a Hidden Logistic Process (MRHLP).

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