Several tools exist to automate as much of the porting as possible, and to check for common errors. Here is a survey of tools we recommend.
.. index:: single: six
When porting a large piece of software, it is desirable to support both Python 2 and Python 3 in the same codebase. Many projects will need this dual support for a long time, but even those that can drop Python 2 support as soon as the port is done, will typically go through a period of adding Python 3 support, in which the software should continue to work on Python 2.
six module makes it practical to write such
version-straddling code by offering compatibility wrappers over
For example, the Python 3 syntax for specifying metaclasses is not valid
Python 2, and the Python 2 way does nothing in Python 3,
six provides an
add_metaclass decorator for this purpose.
It also provides stable names for standard library modules that were
moved or reorganized in Python 3.
Six is a run-time dependency, albeit a very small one.
If your project is unfriendly to third-party dependencies, push for this
one as hard as possible.
If you do not use
six, you will most likely end up reimplementing it
or outright copying relevant pieces of it into your code.
.. index:: single: modernize single: python-modernize
Some steps of the porting process are quite mechanical, and can be automated.
These are best handled by the
python-modernize tool – a code-to-code
translator that takes a Python 2 codebase and updates it to be compatible
with both Python 2 and 3.
The tool builds on top of
2to3, a library that comes with Python.
was once intended as the main porting tool. It turned out inadequate for that
python-modernize (among others) successfully reuses its general
Assuming code is in version control, you'll generally want to run
python-modernize with the
-w flag causes the tool to
actually change the affected files, and
-n suppresses creating backups.
The tool operates by applying individual fixers – one for each type of
change needed. You can select individual fixers to run using the
We've found that running a single fixer at a time results in changes that
are easier to review and more likely to be accepted, so that is what this
guide will recommend.
The order of fixers matters sometimes. This guide will present them in order,
but if you skip around, you will need to pay a bit more attention.
The tool always needs a directory (or individual files) to operate on; usually
you'll use the current directory (
Combining all that, the recommended invocation is:
python-modernize -wnf <fixer-name> .
python-modernize is useful, it is not perfect.
Some changes it makes might not make sense at all times, and in many cases.
It is necessary to know what and why is changed, and to review the result
as closely as if a human wrote it.
This guide will provide the necessary background for each fixer as we
.. index:: single: py3c
Compatibility headers and guide for C extensions:
Some projects involve extension modules written in C/C++, or embed Python in
a C/C++-based application.
An easy way to find these is to search your codebase for
For these, we have two pieces of advice:
Even though this is a conservative guide, we encourage you to try porting C extensions away from the Python C API. For wrappers to external libraries we recommend CFFI; for code that needs to be fast there's Cython.
While this is relatively disruptive, the result will very likely be more maintainable and less buggy, as well as more portable to alternative Python implementations.
If you decide to keep your C extension, follow a dedicated porting guide similar to this one, which also comes with a
six-like library for C extensions: py3c.
.. index:: single: pylint --py3k
Pylint is a static code analyzer that can catch mistakes such as initialized variables, unused imports, and duplicated code. It also has a mode that flags code incompatible with Python 3.
If you are already using Pylint, you can run the tool with the
--py3k option on any code that is already ported. This will prevent
You can also run
pylint --py3k on unported code to get an idea of
what will need to change, though
python-modernize is usually a better