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Ensure ES2016 engines construct Uint8Array (not Buffer) from Buffer.p… #97

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merged 1 commit into from Feb 16, 2016

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@littledan
Contributor

littledan commented Jan 14, 2016

…rototype.slice

In the ES2016 draft specification, TypedArray methods like
%TypedArray%.prototype.subarray() call out to a constructor for the result
based on the receiver. Ordinarily, the constructor is instance.constructor,
but subclasses can override this using the Symbol.species property on the
constructor.

Buffer.prototype.slice calls out to %TypedArray%.prototype.subarray, which
calls this calculated constructor with three arguments. The argument pattern
doesn't correspond to a constructor for Buffer, so without setting
Symbol.species appropriately, the wrong kind of result is created.

This patch sets Buffer[Symbol.species] to Uint8Array when appropriate, to
address the issue.

This address issue nodejs/node#4701

@littledan

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littledan commented Jan 14, 2016

This has been tested by running a simple test with Browserify in Chrome with @@species turned on, observing that slice generates something of the right length.

@dcousens

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dcousens commented Jan 15, 2016

@feross where is the PR travis report? OOI

@nolanlawson

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nolanlawson commented Jan 15, 2016

Thanks for the PR and excellent explanation! Could you please add a test to verify this functionality? Feel free to make the test exit early if the environment doesn't support Symbol.

As-is, Travis seems down, but I can guarantee that this PR will not pass in several browsers, because Symbol is not universally supported yet. So another good fix would be to have a test for Symbol (I recommend typeof Symbol !== 'undefined'.)

@dcousens dcousens assigned feross and unassigned feross Jan 15, 2016

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littledan commented Jan 15, 2016

I'm not sure if we need an extra test. I think browsers which encounter this issue would previously fail test/slice.js, and the test that I was using in development was basically a subset of this one.

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littledan commented Jan 15, 2016

Yeah, on my test version of Chrome with spec-compliant Symbol.species, without this patch, 4 tests fail, and 82 tests pass. With the patch, all tests pass. I pushed a new version which feature-tests for Symbol.

index.js Outdated
@@ -217,6 +217,11 @@ function fromJsonObject (that, object) {
if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
Buffer.prototype.__proto__ = Uint8Array.prototype
Buffer.__proto__ = Uint8Array
if (typeof global.Symbol !== 'undefined' && Symbol.species &&

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@nolanlawson

nolanlawson Jan 15, 2016

Collaborator

I would prefer typeof Symbol instead of typeof global.Symbol. Reason being: it might fail in odd environment like NW.js that have dual global objects.

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@littledan

littledan Jan 26, 2016

Contributor

What about browsers that don't support Symbol at all?

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@nolanlawson

nolanlawson Jan 28, 2016

Collaborator

typeof Symbol will return false for those browsers (and not throw an error)

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@littledan

littledan Jan 28, 2016

Contributor

Sorry for the delay; of course it does. Pushed a new version which is worded that way. What do you think?

@oskbor

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oskbor commented Jan 26, 2016

We tried this pull request and it solved #86 for us. So we are hoping this lands soon!
br Oskar

Ensure ES2016 engines construct Uint8Array (not Buffer) from Buffer.p…
…rototype.slice

In the ES2016 draft specification, TypedArray methods like
%TypedArray%.prototype.subarray() call out to a constructor for the result
based on the receiver. Ordinarily, the constructor is instance.constructor,
but subclasses can override this using the Symbol.species property on the
constructor.

Buffer.prototype.slice calls out to %TypedArray%.prototype.subarray, which
calls this calculated constructor with three arguments. The argument pattern
doesn't correspond to a constructor for Buffer, so without setting
Symbol.species appropriately, the wrong kind of result is created.

This patch sets Buffer[Symbol.species] to Uint8Array when appropriate, to
address the issue.
@oskbor

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oskbor commented Feb 8, 2016

@nolanlawson are you happy with the latest changes from @littledan?

feross added a commit that referenced this pull request Feb 16, 2016

Merge pull request #97 from littledan/master
Ensure ES2016 engines construct Uint8Array (not Buffer) from Buffer.p…

@feross feross merged commit 79f4a6c into feross:master Feb 16, 2016

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feross added a commit that referenced this pull request Feb 16, 2016

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feross commented Feb 16, 2016

@littledan Thanks for all the help! Seriously... Quickly reverting the Canary change, sending this excellent PR, and explaining the issue so well. It's all very appreciated. You're awesome!

This is released as buffer 4.5.0. It's automatically included in browserify 13.0.0 (the latest version) because of semver.

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littledan commented Feb 16, 2016

Thanks!

@alexlyp alexlyp referenced this pull request Sep 9, 2016

Closed

Cannot be used in Edge #6

davezuch added a commit to SanketSabnis/algo-basics-and-puzzles that referenced this pull request Mar 13, 2017

Forgot to add, but all the same, don't like my solution
diff --git a/Grokking/js/dist/dijkstra.spec.js b/Grokking/js/dist/dijkstra.spec.js
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b389fdf
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Grokking/js/dist/dijkstra.spec.js
@@ -0,0 +1,8034 @@
+/******/ (function(modules) { // webpackBootstrap
+/******/ 	// The module cache
+/******/ 	var installedModules = {};
+
+/******/ 	// The require function
+/******/ 	function __webpack_require__(moduleId) {
+
+/******/ 		// Check if module is in cache
+/******/ 		if(installedModules[moduleId])
+/******/ 			return installedModules[moduleId].exports;
+
+/******/ 		// Create a new module (and put it into the cache)
+/******/ 		var module = installedModules[moduleId] = {
+/******/ 			i: moduleId,
+/******/ 			l: false,
+/******/ 			exports: {}
+/******/ 		};
+
+/******/ 		// Execute the module function
+/******/ 		modules[moduleId].call(module.exports, module, module.exports, __webpack_require__);
+
+/******/ 		// Flag the module as loaded
+/******/ 		module.l = true;
+
+/******/ 		// Return the exports of the module
+/******/ 		return module.exports;
+/******/ 	}
+
+
+/******/ 	// expose the modules object (__webpack_modules__)
+/******/ 	__webpack_require__.m = modules;
+
+/******/ 	// expose the module cache
+/******/ 	__webpack_require__.c = installedModules;
+
+/******/ 	// identity function for calling harmony imports with the correct context
+/******/ 	__webpack_require__.i = function(value) { return value; };
+
+/******/ 	// define getter function for harmony exports
+/******/ 	__webpack_require__.d = function(exports, name, getter) {
+/******/ 		if(!__webpack_require__.o(exports, name)) {
+/******/ 			Object.defineProperty(exports, name, {
+/******/ 				configurable: false,
+/******/ 				enumerable: true,
+/******/ 				get: getter
+/******/ 			});
+/******/ 		}
+/******/ 	};
+
+/******/ 	// getDefaultExport function for compatibility with non-harmony modules
+/******/ 	__webpack_require__.n = function(module) {
+/******/ 		var getter = module && module.__esModule ?
+/******/ 			function getDefault() { return module['default']; } :
+/******/ 			function getModuleExports() { return module; };
+/******/ 		__webpack_require__.d(getter, 'a', getter);
+/******/ 		return getter;
+/******/ 	};
+
+/******/ 	// Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call
+/******/ 	__webpack_require__.o = function(object, property) { return Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(object, property); };
+
+/******/ 	// __webpack_public_path__
+/******/ 	__webpack_require__.p = "";
+
+/******/ 	// Load entry module and return exports
+/******/ 	return __webpack_require__(__webpack_require__.s = 63);
+/******/ })
+/************************************************************************/
+/******/ ([
+/* 0 */
+/***/ (function(module, exports) {
+
+// shim for using process in browser
+var process = module.exports = {};
+
+// cached from whatever global is present so that test runners that stub it
+// don't break things.  But we need to wrap it in a try catch in case it is
+// wrapped in strict mode code which doesn't define any globals.  It's inside a
+// function because try/catches deoptimize in certain engines.
+
+var cachedSetTimeout;
+var cachedClearTimeout;
+
+function defaultSetTimout() {
+    throw new Error('setTimeout has not been defined');
+}
+function defaultClearTimeout () {
+    throw new Error('clearTimeout has not been defined');
+}
+(function () {
+    try {
+        if (typeof setTimeout === 'function') {
+            cachedSetTimeout = setTimeout;
+        } else {
+            cachedSetTimeout = defaultSetTimout;
+        }
+    } catch (e) {
+        cachedSetTimeout = defaultSetTimout;
+    }
+    try {
+        if (typeof clearTimeout === 'function') {
+            cachedClearTimeout = clearTimeout;
+        } else {
+            cachedClearTimeout = defaultClearTimeout;
+        }
+    } catch (e) {
+        cachedClearTimeout = defaultClearTimeout;
+    }
+} ())
+function runTimeout(fun) {
+    if (cachedSetTimeout === setTimeout) {
+        //normal enviroments in sane situations
+        return setTimeout(fun, 0);
+    }
+    // if setTimeout wasn't available but was latter defined
+    if ((cachedSetTimeout === defaultSetTimout || !cachedSetTimeout) && setTimeout) {
+        cachedSetTimeout = setTimeout;
+        return setTimeout(fun, 0);
+    }
+    try {
+        // when when somebody has screwed with setTimeout but no I.E. maddness
+        return cachedSetTimeout(fun, 0);
+    } catch(e){
+        try {
+            // When we are in I.E. but the script has been evaled so I.E. doesn't trust the global object when called normally
+            return cachedSetTimeout.call(null, fun, 0);
+        } catch(e){
+            // same as above but when it's a version of I.E. that must have the global object for 'this', hopfully our context correct otherwise it will throw a global error
+            return cachedSetTimeout.call(this, fun, 0);
+        }
+    }
+
+
+}
+function runClearTimeout(marker) {
+    if (cachedClearTimeout === clearTimeout) {
+        //normal enviroments in sane situations
+        return clearTimeout(marker);
+    }
+    // if clearTimeout wasn't available but was latter defined
+    if ((cachedClearTimeout === defaultClearTimeout || !cachedClearTimeout) && clearTimeout) {
+        cachedClearTimeout = clearTimeout;
+        return clearTimeout(marker);
+    }
+    try {
+        // when when somebody has screwed with setTimeout but no I.E. maddness
+        return cachedClearTimeout(marker);
+    } catch (e){
+        try {
+            // When we are in I.E. but the script has been evaled so I.E. doesn't  trust the global object when called normally
+            return cachedClearTimeout.call(null, marker);
+        } catch (e){
+            // same as above but when it's a version of I.E. that must have the global object for 'this', hopfully our context correct otherwise it will throw a global error.
+            // Some versions of I.E. have different rules for clearTimeout vs setTimeout
+            return cachedClearTimeout.call(this, marker);
+        }
+    }
+
+
+
+}
+var queue = [];
+var draining = false;
+var currentQueue;
+var queueIndex = -1;
+
+function cleanUpNextTick() {
+    if (!draining || !currentQueue) {
+        return;
+    }
+    draining = false;
+    if (currentQueue.length) {
+        queue = currentQueue.concat(queue);
+    } else {
+        queueIndex = -1;
+    }
+    if (queue.length) {
+        drainQueue();
+    }
+}
+
+function drainQueue() {
+    if (draining) {
+        return;
+    }
+    var timeout = runTimeout(cleanUpNextTick);
+    draining = true;
+
+    var len = queue.length;
+    while(len) {
+        currentQueue = queue;
+        queue = [];
+        while (++queueIndex < len) {
+            if (currentQueue) {
+                currentQueue[queueIndex].run();
+            }
+        }
+        queueIndex = -1;
+        len = queue.length;
+    }
+    currentQueue = null;
+    draining = false;
+    runClearTimeout(timeout);
+}
+
+process.nextTick = function (fun) {
+    var args = new Array(arguments.length - 1);
+    if (arguments.length > 1) {
+        for (var i = 1; i < arguments.length; i++) {
+            args[i - 1] = arguments[i];
+        }
+    }
+    queue.push(new Item(fun, args));
+    if (queue.length === 1 && !draining) {
+        runTimeout(drainQueue);
+    }
+};
+
+// v8 likes predictible objects
+function Item(fun, array) {
+    this.fun = fun;
+    this.array = array;
+}
+Item.prototype.run = function () {
+    this.fun.apply(null, this.array);
+};
+process.title = 'browser';
+process.browser = true;
+process.env = {};
+process.argv = [];
+process.version = ''; // empty string to avoid regexp issues
+process.versions = {};
+
+function noop() {}
+
+process.on = noop;
+process.addListener = noop;
+process.once = noop;
+process.off = noop;
+process.removeListener = noop;
+process.removeAllListeners = noop;
+process.emit = noop;
+
+process.binding = function (name) {
+    throw new Error('process.binding is not supported');
+};
+
+process.cwd = function () { return '/' };
+process.chdir = function (dir) {
+    throw new Error('process.chdir is not supported');
+};
+process.umask = function() { return 0; };
+
+
+/***/ }),
+/* 1 */
+/***/ (function(module, exports) {
+
+if (typeof Object.create === 'function') {
+  // implementation from standard node.js 'util' module
+  module.exports = function inherits(ctor, superCtor) {
+    ctor.super_ = superCtor
+    ctor.prototype = Object.create(superCtor.prototype, {
+      constructor: {
+        value: ctor,
+        enumerable: false,
+        writable: true,
+        configurable: true
+      }
+    });
+  };
+} else {
+  // old school shim for old browsers
+  module.exports = function inherits(ctor, superCtor) {
+    ctor.super_ = superCtor
+    var TempCtor = function () {}
+    TempCtor.prototype = superCtor.prototype
+    ctor.prototype = new TempCtor()
+    ctor.prototype.constructor = ctor
+  }
+}
+
+
+/***/ }),
+/* 2 */
+/***/ (function(module, exports, __webpack_require__) {
+
+"use strict";
+// a duplex stream is just a stream that is both readable and writable.
+// Since JS doesn't have multiple prototypal inheritance, this class
+// prototypally inherits from Readable, and then parasitically from
+// Writable.
+
+
+
+/*<replacement>*/
+
+var objectKeys = Object.keys || function (obj) {
+  var keys = [];
+  for (var key in obj) {
+    keys.push(key);
+  }return keys;
+};
+/*</replacement>*/
+
+module.exports = Duplex;
+
+/*<replacement>*/
+var processNextTick = __webpack_require__(12);
+/*</replacement>*/
+
+/*<replacement>*/
+var util = __webpack_require__(5);
+util.inherits = __webpack_require__(1);
+/*</replacement>*/
+
+var Readable = __webpack_require__(21);
+var Writable = __webpack_require__(14);
+
+util.inherits(Duplex, Readable);
+
+var keys = objectKeys(Writable.prototype);
+for (var v = 0; v < keys.length; v++) {
+  var method = keys[v];
+  if (!Duplex.prototype[method]) Duplex.prototype[method] = Writable.prototype[method];
+}
+
+function Duplex(options) {
+  if (!(this instanceof Duplex)) return new Duplex(options);
+
+  Readable.call(this, options);
+  Writable.call(this, options);
+
+  if (options && options.readable === false) this.readable = false;
+
+  if (options && options.writable === false) this.writable = false;
+
+  this.allowHalfOpen = true;
+  if (options && options.allowHalfOpen === false) this.allowHalfOpen = false;
+
+  this.once('end', onend);
+}
+
+// the no-half-open enforcer
+function onend() {
+  // if we allow half-open state, or if the writable side ended,
+  // then we're ok.
+  if (this.allowHalfOpen || this._writableState.ended) return;
+
+  // no more data can be written.
+  // But allow more writes to happen in this tick.
+  processNextTick(onEndNT, this);
+}
+
+function onEndNT(self) {
+  self.end();
+}
+
+function forEach(xs, f) {
+  for (var i = 0, l = xs.length; i < l; i++) {
+    f(xs[i], i);
+  }
+}
+
+/***/ }),
+/* 3 */
+/***/ (function(module, exports, __webpack_require__) {
+
+"use strict";
+/* WEBPACK VAR INJECTION */(function(global) {/*!
+ * The buffer module from node.js, for the browser.
+ *
+ * @author   Feross Aboukhadijeh <feross@feross.org> <http://feross.org>
+ * @license  MIT
+ */
+/* eslint-disable no-proto */
+
+
+
+var base64 = __webpack_require__(27)
+var ieee754 = __webpack_require__(41)
+var isArray = __webpack_require__(19)
+
+exports.Buffer = Buffer
+exports.SlowBuffer = SlowBuffer
+exports.INSPECT_MAX_BYTES = 50
+
+/**
+ * If `Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT`:
+ *   === true    Use Uint8Array implementation (fastest)
+ *   === false   Use Object implementation (most compatible, even IE6)
+ *
+ * Browsers that support typed arrays are IE 10+, Firefox 4+, Chrome 7+, Safari 5.1+,
+ * Opera 11.6+, iOS 4.2+.
+ *
+ * Due to various browser bugs, sometimes the Object implementation will be used even
+ * when the browser supports typed arrays.
+ *
+ * Note:
+ *
+ *   - Firefox 4-29 lacks support for adding new properties to `Uint8Array` instances,
+ *     See: https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=695438.
+ *
+ *   - Chrome 9-10 is missing the `TypedArray.prototype.subarray` function.
+ *
+ *   - IE10 has a broken `TypedArray.prototype.subarray` function which returns arrays of
+ *     incorrect length in some situations.
+
+ * We detect these buggy browsers and set `Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT` to `false` so they
+ * get the Object implementation, which is slower but behaves correctly.
+ */
+Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT = global.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT !== undefined
+  ? global.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT
+  : typedArraySupport()
+
+/*
+ * Export kMaxLength after typed array support is determined.
+ */
+exports.kMaxLength = kMaxLength()
+
+function typedArraySupport () {
+  try {
+    var arr = new Uint8Array(1)
+    arr.__proto__ = {__proto__: Uint8Array.prototype, foo: function () { return 42 }}
+    return arr.foo() === 42 && // typed array instances can be augmented
+        typeof arr.subarray === 'function' && // chrome 9-10 lack `subarray`
+        arr.subarray(1, 1).byteLength === 0 // ie10 has broken `subarray`
+  } catch (e) {
+    return false
+  }
+}
+
+function kMaxLength () {
+  return Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT
+    ? 0x7fffffff
+    : 0x3fffffff
+}
+
+function createBuffer (that, length) {
+  if (kMaxLength() < length) {
+    throw new RangeError('Invalid typed array length')
+  }
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    // Return an augmented `Uint8Array` instance, for best performance
+    that = new Uint8Array(length)
+    that.__proto__ = Buffer.prototype
+  } else {
+    // Fallback: Return an object instance of the Buffer class
+    if (that === null) {
+      that = new Buffer(length)
+    }
+    that.length = length
+  }
+
+  return that
+}
+
+/**
+ * The Buffer constructor returns instances of `Uint8Array` that have their
+ * prototype changed to `Buffer.prototype`. Furthermore, `Buffer` is a subclass of
+ * `Uint8Array`, so the returned instances will have all the node `Buffer` methods
+ * and the `Uint8Array` methods. Square bracket notation works as expected -- it
+ * returns a single octet.
+ *
+ * The `Uint8Array` prototype remains unmodified.
+ */
+
+function Buffer (arg, encodingOrOffset, length) {
+  if (!Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT && !(this instanceof Buffer)) {
+    return new Buffer(arg, encodingOrOffset, length)
+  }
+
+  // Common case.
+  if (typeof arg === 'number') {
+    if (typeof encodingOrOffset === 'string') {
+      throw new Error(
+        'If encoding is specified then the first argument must be a string'
+      )
+    }
+    return allocUnsafe(this, arg)
+  }
+  return from(this, arg, encodingOrOffset, length)
+}
+
+Buffer.poolSize = 8192 // not used by this implementation
+
+// TODO: Legacy, not needed anymore. Remove in next major version.
+Buffer._augment = function (arr) {
+  arr.__proto__ = Buffer.prototype
+  return arr
+}
+
+function from (that, value, encodingOrOffset, length) {
+  if (typeof value === 'number') {
+    throw new TypeError('"value" argument must not be a number')
+  }
+
+  if (typeof ArrayBuffer !== 'undefined' && value instanceof ArrayBuffer) {
+    return fromArrayBuffer(that, value, encodingOrOffset, length)
+  }
+
+  if (typeof value === 'string') {
+    return fromString(that, value, encodingOrOffset)
+  }
+
+  return fromObject(that, value)
+}
+
+/**
+ * Functionally equivalent to Buffer(arg, encoding) but throws a TypeError
+ * if value is a number.
+ * Buffer.from(str[, encoding])
+ * Buffer.from(array)
+ * Buffer.from(buffer)
+ * Buffer.from(arrayBuffer[, byteOffset[, length]])
+ **/
+Buffer.from = function (value, encodingOrOffset, length) {
+  return from(null, value, encodingOrOffset, length)
+}
+
+if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+  Buffer.prototype.__proto__ = Uint8Array.prototype
+  Buffer.__proto__ = Uint8Array
+  if (typeof Symbol !== 'undefined' && Symbol.species &&
+      Buffer[Symbol.species] === Buffer) {
+    // Fix subarray() in ES2016. See: https://github.com/feross/buffer/pull/97
+    Object.defineProperty(Buffer, Symbol.species, {
+      value: null,
+      configurable: true
+    })
+  }
+}
+
+function assertSize (size) {
+  if (typeof size !== 'number') {
+    throw new TypeError('"size" argument must be a number')
+  } else if (size < 0) {
+    throw new RangeError('"size" argument must not be negative')
+  }
+}
+
+function alloc (that, size, fill, encoding) {
+  assertSize(size)
+  if (size <= 0) {
+    return createBuffer(that, size)
+  }
+  if (fill !== undefined) {
+    // Only pay attention to encoding if it's a string. This
+    // prevents accidentally sending in a number that would
+    // be interpretted as a start offset.
+    return typeof encoding === 'string'
+      ? createBuffer(that, size).fill(fill, encoding)
+      : createBuffer(that, size).fill(fill)
+  }
+  return createBuffer(that, size)
+}
+
+/**
+ * Creates a new filled Buffer instance.
+ * alloc(size[, fill[, encoding]])
+ **/
+Buffer.alloc = function (size, fill, encoding) {
+  return alloc(null, size, fill, encoding)
+}
+
+function allocUnsafe (that, size) {
+  assertSize(size)
+  that = createBuffer(that, size < 0 ? 0 : checked(size) | 0)
+  if (!Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    for (var i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
+      that[i] = 0
+    }
+  }
+  return that
+}
+
+/**
+ * Equivalent to Buffer(num), by default creates a non-zero-filled Buffer instance.
+ * */
+Buffer.allocUnsafe = function (size) {
+  return allocUnsafe(null, size)
+}
+/**
+ * Equivalent to SlowBuffer(num), by default creates a non-zero-filled Buffer instance.
+ */
+Buffer.allocUnsafeSlow = function (size) {
+  return allocUnsafe(null, size)
+}
+
+function fromString (that, string, encoding) {
+  if (typeof encoding !== 'string' || encoding === '') {
+    encoding = 'utf8'
+  }
+
+  if (!Buffer.isEncoding(encoding)) {
+    throw new TypeError('"encoding" must be a valid string encoding')
+  }
+
+  var length = byteLength(string, encoding) | 0
+  that = createBuffer(that, length)
+
+  var actual = that.write(string, encoding)
+
+  if (actual !== length) {
+    // Writing a hex string, for example, that contains invalid characters will
+    // cause everything after the first invalid character to be ignored. (e.g.
+    // 'abxxcd' will be treated as 'ab')
+    that = that.slice(0, actual)
+  }
+
+  return that
+}
+
+function fromArrayLike (that, array) {
+  var length = array.length < 0 ? 0 : checked(array.length) | 0
+  that = createBuffer(that, length)
+  for (var i = 0; i < length; i += 1) {
+    that[i] = array[i] & 255
+  }
+  return that
+}
+
+function fromArrayBuffer (that, array, byteOffset, length) {
+  array.byteLength // this throws if `array` is not a valid ArrayBuffer
+
+  if (byteOffset < 0 || array.byteLength < byteOffset) {
+    throw new RangeError('\'offset\' is out of bounds')
+  }
+
+  if (array.byteLength < byteOffset + (length || 0)) {
+    throw new RangeError('\'length\' is out of bounds')
+  }
+
+  if (byteOffset === undefined && length === undefined) {
+    array = new Uint8Array(array)
+  } else if (length === undefined) {
+    array = new Uint8Array(array, byteOffset)
+  } else {
+    array = new Uint8Array(array, byteOffset, length)
+  }
+
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    // Return an augmented `Uint8Array` instance, for best performance
+    that = array
+    that.__proto__ = Buffer.prototype
+  } else {
+    // Fallback: Return an object instance of the Buffer class
+    that = fromArrayLike(that, array)
+  }
+  return that
+}
+
+function fromObject (that, obj) {
+  if (Buffer.isBuffer(obj)) {
+    var len = checked(obj.length) | 0
+    that = createBuffer(that, len)
+
+    if (that.length === 0) {
+      return that
+    }
+
+    obj.copy(that, 0, 0, len)
+    return that
+  }
+
+  if (obj) {
+    if ((typeof ArrayBuffer !== 'undefined' &&
+        obj.buffer instanceof ArrayBuffer) || 'length' in obj) {
+      if (typeof obj.length !== 'number' || isnan(obj.length)) {
+        return createBuffer(that, 0)
+      }
+      return fromArrayLike(that, obj)
+    }
+
+    if (obj.type === 'Buffer' && isArray(obj.data)) {
+      return fromArrayLike(that, obj.data)
+    }
+  }
+
+  throw new TypeError('First argument must be a string, Buffer, ArrayBuffer, Array, or array-like object.')
+}
+
+function checked (length) {
+  // Note: cannot use `length < kMaxLength()` here because that fails when
+  // length is NaN (which is otherwise coerced to zero.)
+  if (length >= kMaxLength()) {
+    throw new RangeError('Attempt to allocate Buffer larger than maximum ' +
+                         'size: 0x' + kMaxLength().toString(16) + ' bytes')
+  }
+  return length | 0
+}
+
+function SlowBuffer (length) {
+  if (+length != length) { // eslint-disable-line eqeqeq
+    length = 0
+  }
+  return Buffer.alloc(+length)
+}
+
+Buffer.isBuffer = function isBuffer (b) {
+  return !!(b != null && b._isBuffer)
+}
+
+Buffer.compare = function compare (a, b) {
+  if (!Buffer.isBuffer(a) || !Buffer.isBuffer(b)) {
+    throw new TypeError('Arguments must be Buffers')
+  }
+
+  if (a === b) return 0
+
+  var x = a.length
+  var y = b.length
+
+  for (var i = 0, len = Math.min(x, y); i < len; ++i) {
+    if (a[i] !== b[i]) {
+      x = a[i]
+      y = b[i]
+      break
+    }
+  }
+
+  if (x < y) return -1
+  if (y < x) return 1
+  return 0
+}
+
+Buffer.isEncoding = function isEncoding (encoding) {
+  switch (String(encoding).toLowerCase()) {
+    case 'hex':
+    case 'utf8':
+    case 'utf-8':
+    case 'ascii':
+    case 'latin1':
+    case 'binary':
+    case 'base64':
+    case 'ucs2':
+    case 'ucs-2':
+    case 'utf16le':
+    case 'utf-16le':
+      return true
+    default:
+      return false
+  }
+}
+
+Buffer.concat = function concat (list, length) {
+  if (!isArray(list)) {
+    throw new TypeError('"list" argument must be an Array of Buffers')
+  }
+
+  if (list.length === 0) {
+    return Buffer.alloc(0)
+  }
+
+  var i
+  if (length === undefined) {
+    length = 0
+    for (i = 0; i < list.length; ++i) {
+      length += list[i].length
+    }
+  }
+
+  var buffer = Buffer.allocUnsafe(length)
+  var pos = 0
+  for (i = 0; i < list.length; ++i) {
+    var buf = list[i]
+    if (!Buffer.isBuffer(buf)) {
+      throw new TypeError('"list" argument must be an Array of Buffers')
+    }
+    buf.copy(buffer, pos)
+    pos += buf.length
+  }
+  return buffer
+}
+
+function byteLength (string, encoding) {
+  if (Buffer.isBuffer(string)) {
+    return string.length
+  }
+  if (typeof ArrayBuffer !== 'undefined' && typeof ArrayBuffer.isView === 'function' &&
+      (ArrayBuffer.isView(string) || string instanceof ArrayBuffer)) {
+    return string.byteLength
+  }
+  if (typeof string !== 'string') {
+    string = '' + string
+  }
+
+  var len = string.length
+  if (len === 0) return 0
+
+  // Use a for loop to avoid recursion
+  var loweredCase = false
+  for (;;) {
+    switch (encoding) {
+      case 'ascii':
+      case 'latin1':
+      case 'binary':
+        return len
+      case 'utf8':
+      case 'utf-8':
+      case undefined:
+        return utf8ToBytes(string).length
+      case 'ucs2':
+      case 'ucs-2':
+      case 'utf16le':
+      case 'utf-16le':
+        return len * 2
+      case 'hex':
+        return len >>> 1
+      case 'base64':
+        return base64ToBytes(string).length
+      default:
+        if (loweredCase) return utf8ToBytes(string).length // assume utf8
+        encoding = ('' + encoding).toLowerCase()
+        loweredCase = true
+    }
+  }
+}
+Buffer.byteLength = byteLength
+
+function slowToString (encoding, start, end) {
+  var loweredCase = false
+
+  // No need to verify that "this.length <= MAX_UINT32" since it's a read-only
+  // property of a typed array.
+
+  // This behaves neither like String nor Uint8Array in that we set start/end
+  // to their upper/lower bounds if the value passed is out of range.
+  // undefined is handled specially as per ECMA-262 6th Edition,
+  // Section 13.3.3.7 Runtime Semantics: KeyedBindingInitialization.
+  if (start === undefined || start < 0) {
+    start = 0
+  }
+  // Return early if start > this.length. Done here to prevent potential uint32
+  // coercion fail below.
+  if (start > this.length) {
+    return ''
+  }
+
+  if (end === undefined || end > this.length) {
+    end = this.length
+  }
+
+  if (end <= 0) {
+    return ''
+  }
+
+  // Force coersion to uint32. This will also coerce falsey/NaN values to 0.
+  end >>>= 0
+  start >>>= 0
+
+  if (end <= start) {
+    return ''
+  }
+
+  if (!encoding) encoding = 'utf8'
+
+  while (true) {
+    switch (encoding) {
+      case 'hex':
+        return hexSlice(this, start, end)
+
+      case 'utf8':
+      case 'utf-8':
+        return utf8Slice(this, start, end)
+
+      case 'ascii':
+        return asciiSlice(this, start, end)
+
+      case 'latin1':
+      case 'binary':
+        return latin1Slice(this, start, end)
+
+      case 'base64':
+        return base64Slice(this, start, end)
+
+      case 'ucs2':
+      case 'ucs-2':
+      case 'utf16le':
+      case 'utf-16le':
+        return utf16leSlice(this, start, end)
+
+      default:
+        if (loweredCase) throw new TypeError('Unknown encoding: ' + encoding)
+        encoding = (encoding + '').toLowerCase()
+        loweredCase = true
+    }
+  }
+}
+
+// The property is used by `Buffer.isBuffer` and `is-buffer` (in Safari 5-7) to detect
+// Buffer instances.
+Buffer.prototype._isBuffer = true
+
+function swap (b, n, m) {
+  var i = b[n]
+  b[n] = b[m]
+  b[m] = i
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.swap16 = function swap16 () {
+  var len = this.length
+  if (len % 2 !== 0) {
+    throw new RangeError('Buffer size must be a multiple of 16-bits')
+  }
+  for (var i = 0; i < len; i += 2) {
+    swap(this, i, i + 1)
+  }
+  return this
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.swap32 = function swap32 () {
+  var len = this.length
+  if (len % 4 !== 0) {
+    throw new RangeError('Buffer size must be a multiple of 32-bits')
+  }
+  for (var i = 0; i < len; i += 4) {
+    swap(this, i, i + 3)
+    swap(this, i + 1, i + 2)
+  }
+  return this
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.swap64 = function swap64 () {
+  var len = this.length
+  if (len % 8 !== 0) {
+    throw new RangeError('Buffer size must be a multiple of 64-bits')
+  }
+  for (var i = 0; i < len; i += 8) {
+    swap(this, i, i + 7)
+    swap(this, i + 1, i + 6)
+    swap(this, i + 2, i + 5)
+    swap(this, i + 3, i + 4)
+  }
+  return this
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.toString = function toString () {
+  var length = this.length | 0
+  if (length === 0) return ''
+  if (arguments.length === 0) return utf8Slice(this, 0, length)
+  return slowToString.apply(this, arguments)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.equals = function equals (b) {
+  if (!Buffer.isBuffer(b)) throw new TypeError('Argument must be a Buffer')
+  if (this === b) return true
+  return Buffer.compare(this, b) === 0
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.inspect = function inspect () {
+  var str = ''
+  var max = exports.INSPECT_MAX_BYTES
+  if (this.length > 0) {
+    str = this.toString('hex', 0, max).match(/.{2}/g).join(' ')
+    if (this.length > max) str += ' ... '
+  }
+  return '<Buffer ' + str + '>'
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.compare = function compare (target, start, end, thisStart, thisEnd) {
+  if (!Buffer.isBuffer(target)) {
+    throw new TypeError('Argument must be a Buffer')
+  }
+
+  if (start === undefined) {
+    start = 0
+  }
+  if (end === undefined) {
+    end = target ? target.length : 0
+  }
+  if (thisStart === undefined) {
+    thisStart = 0
+  }
+  if (thisEnd === undefined) {
+    thisEnd = this.length
+  }
+
+  if (start < 0 || end > target.length || thisStart < 0 || thisEnd > this.length) {
+    throw new RangeError('out of range index')
+  }
+
+  if (thisStart >= thisEnd && start >= end) {
+    return 0
+  }
+  if (thisStart >= thisEnd) {
+    return -1
+  }
+  if (start >= end) {
+    return 1
+  }
+
+  start >>>= 0
+  end >>>= 0
+  thisStart >>>= 0
+  thisEnd >>>= 0
+
+  if (this === target) return 0
+
+  var x = thisEnd - thisStart
+  var y = end - start
+  var len = Math.min(x, y)
+
+  var thisCopy = this.slice(thisStart, thisEnd)
+  var targetCopy = target.slice(start, end)
+
+  for (var i = 0; i < len; ++i) {
+    if (thisCopy[i] !== targetCopy[i]) {
+      x = thisCopy[i]
+      y = targetCopy[i]
+      break
+    }
+  }
+
+  if (x < y) return -1
+  if (y < x) return 1
+  return 0
+}
+
+// Finds either the first index of `val` in `buffer` at offset >= `byteOffset`,
+// OR the last index of `val` in `buffer` at offset <= `byteOffset`.
+//
+// Arguments:
+// - buffer - a Buffer to search
+// - val - a string, Buffer, or number
+// - byteOffset - an index into `buffer`; will be clamped to an int32
+// - encoding - an optional encoding, relevant is val is a string
+// - dir - true for indexOf, false for lastIndexOf
+function bidirectionalIndexOf (buffer, val, byteOffset, encoding, dir) {
+  // Empty buffer means no match
+  if (buffer.length === 0) return -1
+
+  // Normalize byteOffset
+  if (typeof byteOffset === 'string') {
+    encoding = byteOffset
+    byteOffset = 0
+  } else if (byteOffset > 0x7fffffff) {
+    byteOffset = 0x7fffffff
+  } else if (byteOffset < -0x80000000) {
+    byteOffset = -0x80000000
+  }
+  byteOffset = +byteOffset  // Coerce to Number.
+  if (isNaN(byteOffset)) {
+    // byteOffset: it it's undefined, null, NaN, "foo", etc, search whole buffer
+    byteOffset = dir ? 0 : (buffer.length - 1)
+  }
+
+  // Normalize byteOffset: negative offsets start from the end of the buffer
+  if (byteOffset < 0) byteOffset = buffer.length + byteOffset
+  if (byteOffset >= buffer.length) {
+    if (dir) return -1
+    else byteOffset = buffer.length - 1
+  } else if (byteOffset < 0) {
+    if (dir) byteOffset = 0
+    else return -1
+  }
+
+  // Normalize val
+  if (typeof val === 'string') {
+    val = Buffer.from(val, encoding)
+  }
+
+  // Finally, search either indexOf (if dir is true) or lastIndexOf
+  if (Buffer.isBuffer(val)) {
+    // Special case: looking for empty string/buffer always fails
+    if (val.length === 0) {
+      return -1
+    }
+    return arrayIndexOf(buffer, val, byteOffset, encoding, dir)
+  } else if (typeof val === 'number') {
+    val = val & 0xFF // Search for a byte value [0-255]
+    if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT &&
+        typeof Uint8Array.prototype.indexOf === 'function') {
+      if (dir) {
+        return Uint8Array.prototype.indexOf.call(buffer, val, byteOffset)
+      } else {
+        return Uint8Array.prototype.lastIndexOf.call(buffer, val, byteOffset)
+      }
+    }
+    return arrayIndexOf(buffer, [ val ], byteOffset, encoding, dir)
+  }
+
+  throw new TypeError('val must be string, number or Buffer')
+}
+
+function arrayIndexOf (arr, val, byteOffset, encoding, dir) {
+  var indexSize = 1
+  var arrLength = arr.length
+  var valLength = val.length
+
+  if (encoding !== undefined) {
+    encoding = String(encoding).toLowerCase()
+    if (encoding === 'ucs2' || encoding === 'ucs-2' ||
+        encoding === 'utf16le' || encoding === 'utf-16le') {
+      if (arr.length < 2 || val.length < 2) {
+        return -1
+      }
+      indexSize = 2
+      arrLength /= 2
+      valLength /= 2
+      byteOffset /= 2
+    }
+  }
+
+  function read (buf, i) {
+    if (indexSize === 1) {
+      return buf[i]
+    } else {
+      return buf.readUInt16BE(i * indexSize)
+    }
+  }
+
+  var i
+  if (dir) {
+    var foundIndex = -1
+    for (i = byteOffset; i < arrLength; i++) {
+      if (read(arr, i) === read(val, foundIndex === -1 ? 0 : i - foundIndex)) {
+        if (foundIndex === -1) foundIndex = i
+        if (i - foundIndex + 1 === valLength) return foundIndex * indexSize
+      } else {
+        if (foundIndex !== -1) i -= i - foundIndex
+        foundIndex = -1
+      }
+    }
+  } else {
+    if (byteOffset + valLength > arrLength) byteOffset = arrLength - valLength
+    for (i = byteOffset; i >= 0; i--) {
+      var found = true
+      for (var j = 0; j < valLength; j++) {
+        if (read(arr, i + j) !== read(val, j)) {
+          found = false
+          break
+        }
+      }
+      if (found) return i
+    }
+  }
+
+  return -1
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.includes = function includes (val, byteOffset, encoding) {
+  return this.indexOf(val, byteOffset, encoding) !== -1
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.indexOf = function indexOf (val, byteOffset, encoding) {
+  return bidirectionalIndexOf(this, val, byteOffset, encoding, true)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.lastIndexOf = function lastIndexOf (val, byteOffset, encoding) {
+  return bidirectionalIndexOf(this, val, byteOffset, encoding, false)
+}
+
+function hexWrite (buf, string, offset, length) {
+  offset = Number(offset) || 0
+  var remaining = buf.length - offset
+  if (!length) {
+    length = remaining
+  } else {
+    length = Number(length)
+    if (length > remaining) {
+      length = remaining
+    }
+  }
+
+  // must be an even number of digits
+  var strLen = string.length
+  if (strLen % 2 !== 0) throw new TypeError('Invalid hex string')
+
+  if (length > strLen / 2) {
+    length = strLen / 2
+  }
+  for (var i = 0; i < length; ++i) {
+    var parsed = parseInt(string.substr(i * 2, 2), 16)
+    if (isNaN(parsed)) return i
+    buf[offset + i] = parsed
+  }
+  return i
+}
+
+function utf8Write (buf, string, offset, length) {
+  return blitBuffer(utf8ToBytes(string, buf.length - offset), buf, offset, length)
+}
+
+function asciiWrite (buf, string, offset, length) {
+  return blitBuffer(asciiToBytes(string), buf, offset, length)
+}
+
+function latin1Write (buf, string, offset, length) {
+  return asciiWrite(buf, string, offset, length)
+}
+
+function base64Write (buf, string, offset, length) {
+  return blitBuffer(base64ToBytes(string), buf, offset, length)
+}
+
+function ucs2Write (buf, string, offset, length) {
+  return blitBuffer(utf16leToBytes(string, buf.length - offset), buf, offset, length)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.write = function write (string, offset, length, encoding) {
+  // Buffer#write(string)
+  if (offset === undefined) {
+    encoding = 'utf8'
+    length = this.length
+    offset = 0
+  // Buffer#write(string, encoding)
+  } else if (length === undefined && typeof offset === 'string') {
+    encoding = offset
+    length = this.length
+    offset = 0
+  // Buffer#write(string, offset[, length][, encoding])
+  } else if (isFinite(offset)) {
+    offset = offset | 0
+    if (isFinite(length)) {
+      length = length | 0
+      if (encoding === undefined) encoding = 'utf8'
+    } else {
+      encoding = length
+      length = undefined
+    }
+  // legacy write(string, encoding, offset, length) - remove in v0.13
+  } else {
+    throw new Error(
+      'Buffer.write(string, encoding, offset[, length]) is no longer supported'
+    )
+  }
+
+  var remaining = this.length - offset
+  if (length === undefined || length > remaining) length = remaining
+
+  if ((string.length > 0 && (length < 0 || offset < 0)) || offset > this.length) {
+    throw new RangeError('Attempt to write outside buffer bounds')
+  }
+
+  if (!encoding) encoding = 'utf8'
+
+  var loweredCase = false
+  for (;;) {
+    switch (encoding) {
+      case 'hex':
+        return hexWrite(this, string, offset, length)
+
+      case 'utf8':
+      case 'utf-8':
+        return utf8Write(this, string, offset, length)
+
+      case 'ascii':
+        return asciiWrite(this, string, offset, length)
+
+      case 'latin1':
+      case 'binary':
+        return latin1Write(this, string, offset, length)
+
+      case 'base64':
+        // Warning: maxLength not taken into account in base64Write
+        return base64Write(this, string, offset, length)
+
+      case 'ucs2':
+      case 'ucs-2':
+      case 'utf16le':
+      case 'utf-16le':
+        return ucs2Write(this, string, offset, length)
+
+      default:
+        if (loweredCase) throw new TypeError('Unknown encoding: ' + encoding)
+        encoding = ('' + encoding).toLowerCase()
+        loweredCase = true
+    }
+  }
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.toJSON = function toJSON () {
+  return {
+    type: 'Buffer',
+    data: Array.prototype.slice.call(this._arr || this, 0)
+  }
+}
+
+function base64Slice (buf, start, end) {
+  if (start === 0 && end === buf.length) {
+    return base64.fromByteArray(buf)
+  } else {
+    return base64.fromByteArray(buf.slice(start, end))
+  }
+}
+
+function utf8Slice (buf, start, end) {
+  end = Math.min(buf.length, end)
+  var res = []
+
+  var i = start
+  while (i < end) {
+    var firstByte = buf[i]
+    var codePoint = null
+    var bytesPerSequence = (firstByte > 0xEF) ? 4
+      : (firstByte > 0xDF) ? 3
+      : (firstByte > 0xBF) ? 2
+      : 1
+
+    if (i + bytesPerSequence <= end) {
+      var secondByte, thirdByte, fourthByte, tempCodePoint
+
+      switch (bytesPerSequence) {
+        case 1:
+          if (firstByte < 0x80) {
+            codePoint = firstByte
+          }
+          break
+        case 2:
+          secondByte = buf[i + 1]
+          if ((secondByte & 0xC0) === 0x80) {
+            tempCodePoint = (firstByte & 0x1F) << 0x6 | (secondByte & 0x3F)
+            if (tempCodePoint > 0x7F) {
+              codePoint = tempCodePoint
+            }
+          }
+          break
+        case 3:
+          secondByte = buf[i + 1]
+          thirdByte = buf[i + 2]
+          if ((secondByte & 0xC0) === 0x80 && (thirdByte & 0xC0) === 0x80) {
+            tempCodePoint = (firstByte & 0xF) << 0xC | (secondByte & 0x3F) << 0x6 | (thirdByte & 0x3F)
+            if (tempCodePoint > 0x7FF && (tempCodePoint < 0xD800 || tempCodePoint > 0xDFFF)) {
+              codePoint = tempCodePoint
+            }
+          }
+          break
+        case 4:
+          secondByte = buf[i + 1]
+          thirdByte = buf[i + 2]
+          fourthByte = buf[i + 3]
+          if ((secondByte & 0xC0) === 0x80 && (thirdByte & 0xC0) === 0x80 && (fourthByte & 0xC0) === 0x80) {
+            tempCodePoint = (firstByte & 0xF) << 0x12 | (secondByte & 0x3F) << 0xC | (thirdByte & 0x3F) << 0x6 | (fourthByte & 0x3F)
+            if (tempCodePoint > 0xFFFF && tempCodePoint < 0x110000) {
+              codePoint = tempCodePoint
+            }
+          }
+      }
+    }
+
+    if (codePoint === null) {
+      // we did not generate a valid codePoint so insert a
+      // replacement char (U+FFFD) and advance only 1 byte
+      codePoint = 0xFFFD
+      bytesPerSequence = 1
+    } else if (codePoint > 0xFFFF) {
+      // encode to utf16 (surrogate pair dance)
+      codePoint -= 0x10000
+      res.push(codePoint >>> 10 & 0x3FF | 0xD800)
+      codePoint = 0xDC00 | codePoint & 0x3FF
+    }
+
+    res.push(codePoint)
+    i += bytesPerSequence
+  }
+
+  return decodeCodePointsArray(res)
+}
+
+// Based on http://stackoverflow.com/a/22747272/680742, the browser with
+// the lowest limit is Chrome, with 0x10000 args.
+// We go 1 magnitude less, for safety
+var MAX_ARGUMENTS_LENGTH = 0x1000
+
+function decodeCodePointsArray (codePoints) {
+  var len = codePoints.length
+  if (len <= MAX_ARGUMENTS_LENGTH) {
+    return String.fromCharCode.apply(String, codePoints) // avoid extra slice()
+  }
+
+  // Decode in chunks to avoid "call stack size exceeded".
+  var res = ''
+  var i = 0
+  while (i < len) {
+    res += String.fromCharCode.apply(
+      String,
+      codePoints.slice(i, i += MAX_ARGUMENTS_LENGTH)
+    )
+  }
+  return res
+}
+
+function asciiSlice (buf, start, end) {
+  var ret = ''
+  end = Math.min(buf.length, end)
+
+  for (var i = start; i < end; ++i) {
+    ret += String.fromCharCode(buf[i] & 0x7F)
+  }
+  return ret
+}
+
+function latin1Slice (buf, start, end) {
+  var ret = ''
+  end = Math.min(buf.length, end)
+
+  for (var i = start; i < end; ++i) {
+    ret += String.fromCharCode(buf[i])
+  }
+  return ret
+}
+
+function hexSlice (buf, start, end) {
+  var len = buf.length
+
+  if (!start || start < 0) start = 0
+  if (!end || end < 0 || end > len) end = len
+
+  var out = ''
+  for (var i = start; i < end; ++i) {
+    out += toHex(buf[i])
+  }
+  return out
+}
+
+function utf16leSlice (buf, start, end) {
+  var bytes = buf.slice(start, end)
+  var res = ''
+  for (var i = 0; i < bytes.length; i += 2) {
+    res += String.fromCharCode(bytes[i] + bytes[i + 1] * 256)
+  }
+  return res
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.slice = function slice (start, end) {
+  var len = this.length
+  start = ~~start
+  end = end === undefined ? len : ~~end
+
+  if (start < 0) {
+    start += len
+    if (start < 0) start = 0
+  } else if (start > len) {
+    start = len
+  }
+
+  if (end < 0) {
+    end += len
+    if (end < 0) end = 0
+  } else if (end > len) {
+    end = len
+  }
+
+  if (end < start) end = start
+
+  var newBuf
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    newBuf = this.subarray(start, end)
+    newBuf.__proto__ = Buffer.prototype
+  } else {
+    var sliceLen = end - start
+    newBuf = new Buffer(sliceLen, undefined)
+    for (var i = 0; i < sliceLen; ++i) {
+      newBuf[i] = this[i + start]
+    }
+  }
+
+  return newBuf
+}
+
+/*
+ * Need to make sure that buffer isn't trying to write out of bounds.
+ */
+function checkOffset (offset, ext, length) {
+  if ((offset % 1) !== 0 || offset < 0) throw new RangeError('offset is not uint')
+  if (offset + ext > length) throw new RangeError('Trying to access beyond buffer length')
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readUIntLE = function readUIntLE (offset, byteLength, noAssert) {
+  offset = offset | 0
+  byteLength = byteLength | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, byteLength, this.length)
+
+  var val = this[offset]
+  var mul = 1
+  var i = 0
+  while (++i < byteLength && (mul *= 0x100)) {
+    val += this[offset + i] * mul
+  }
+
+  return val
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readUIntBE = function readUIntBE (offset, byteLength, noAssert) {
+  offset = offset | 0
+  byteLength = byteLength | 0
+  if (!noAssert) {
+    checkOffset(offset, byteLength, this.length)
+  }
+
+  var val = this[offset + --byteLength]
+  var mul = 1
+  while (byteLength > 0 && (mul *= 0x100)) {
+    val += this[offset + --byteLength] * mul
+  }
+
+  return val
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readUInt8 = function readUInt8 (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 1, this.length)
+  return this[offset]
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readUInt16LE = function readUInt16LE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 2, this.length)
+  return this[offset] | (this[offset + 1] << 8)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readUInt16BE = function readUInt16BE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 2, this.length)
+  return (this[offset] << 8) | this[offset + 1]
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readUInt32LE = function readUInt32LE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 4, this.length)
+
+  return ((this[offset]) |
+      (this[offset + 1] << 8) |
+      (this[offset + 2] << 16)) +
+      (this[offset + 3] * 0x1000000)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readUInt32BE = function readUInt32BE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 4, this.length)
+
+  return (this[offset] * 0x1000000) +
+    ((this[offset + 1] << 16) |
+    (this[offset + 2] << 8) |
+    this[offset + 3])
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readIntLE = function readIntLE (offset, byteLength, noAssert) {
+  offset = offset | 0
+  byteLength = byteLength | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, byteLength, this.length)
+
+  var val = this[offset]
+  var mul = 1
+  var i = 0
+  while (++i < byteLength && (mul *= 0x100)) {
+    val += this[offset + i] * mul
+  }
+  mul *= 0x80
+
+  if (val >= mul) val -= Math.pow(2, 8 * byteLength)
+
+  return val
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readIntBE = function readIntBE (offset, byteLength, noAssert) {
+  offset = offset | 0
+  byteLength = byteLength | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, byteLength, this.length)
+
+  var i = byteLength
+  var mul = 1
+  var val = this[offset + --i]
+  while (i > 0 && (mul *= 0x100)) {
+    val += this[offset + --i] * mul
+  }
+  mul *= 0x80
+
+  if (val >= mul) val -= Math.pow(2, 8 * byteLength)
+
+  return val
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readInt8 = function readInt8 (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 1, this.length)
+  if (!(this[offset] & 0x80)) return (this[offset])
+  return ((0xff - this[offset] + 1) * -1)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readInt16LE = function readInt16LE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 2, this.length)
+  var val = this[offset] | (this[offset + 1] << 8)
+  return (val & 0x8000) ? val | 0xFFFF0000 : val
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readInt16BE = function readInt16BE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 2, this.length)
+  var val = this[offset + 1] | (this[offset] << 8)
+  return (val & 0x8000) ? val | 0xFFFF0000 : val
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readInt32LE = function readInt32LE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 4, this.length)
+
+  return (this[offset]) |
+    (this[offset + 1] << 8) |
+    (this[offset + 2] << 16) |
+    (this[offset + 3] << 24)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readInt32BE = function readInt32BE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 4, this.length)
+
+  return (this[offset] << 24) |
+    (this[offset + 1] << 16) |
+    (this[offset + 2] << 8) |
+    (this[offset + 3])
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readFloatLE = function readFloatLE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 4, this.length)
+  return ieee754.read(this, offset, true, 23, 4)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readFloatBE = function readFloatBE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 4, this.length)
+  return ieee754.read(this, offset, false, 23, 4)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readDoubleLE = function readDoubleLE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 8, this.length)
+  return ieee754.read(this, offset, true, 52, 8)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readDoubleBE = function readDoubleBE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 8, this.length)
+  return ieee754.read(this, offset, false, 52, 8)
+}
+
+function checkInt (buf, value, offset, ext, max, min) {
+  if (!Buffer.isBuffer(buf)) throw new TypeError('"buffer" argument must be a Buffer instance')
+  if (value > max || value < min) throw new RangeError('"value" argument is out of bounds')
+  if (offset + ext > buf.length) throw new RangeError('Index out of range')
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeUIntLE = function writeUIntLE (value, offset, byteLength, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  byteLength = byteLength | 0
+  if (!noAssert) {
+    var maxBytes = Math.pow(2, 8 * byteLength) - 1
+    checkInt(this, value, offset, byteLength, maxBytes, 0)
+  }
+
+  var mul = 1
+  var i = 0
+  this[offset] = value & 0xFF
+  while (++i < byteLength && (mul *= 0x100)) {
+    this[offset + i] = (value / mul) & 0xFF
+  }
+
+  return offset + byteLength
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeUIntBE = function writeUIntBE (value, offset, byteLength, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  byteLength = byteLength | 0
+  if (!noAssert) {
+    var maxBytes = Math.pow(2, 8 * byteLength) - 1
+    checkInt(this, value, offset, byteLength, maxBytes, 0)
+  }
+
+  var i = byteLength - 1
+  var mul = 1
+  this[offset + i] = value & 0xFF
+  while (--i >= 0 && (mul *= 0x100)) {
+    this[offset + i] = (value / mul) & 0xFF
+  }
+
+  return offset + byteLength
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeUInt8 = function writeUInt8 (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 1, 0xff, 0)
+  if (!Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) value = Math.floor(value)
+  this[offset] = (value & 0xff)
+  return offset + 1
+}
+
+function objectWriteUInt16 (buf, value, offset, littleEndian) {
+  if (value < 0) value = 0xffff + value + 1
+  for (var i = 0, j = Math.min(buf.length - offset, 2); i < j; ++i) {
+    buf[offset + i] = (value & (0xff << (8 * (littleEndian ? i : 1 - i)))) >>>
+      (littleEndian ? i : 1 - i) * 8
+  }
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeUInt16LE = function writeUInt16LE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 2, 0xffff, 0)
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    this[offset] = (value & 0xff)
+    this[offset + 1] = (value >>> 8)
+  } else {
+    objectWriteUInt16(this, value, offset, true)
+  }
+  return offset + 2
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeUInt16BE = function writeUInt16BE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 2, 0xffff, 0)
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    this[offset] = (value >>> 8)
+    this[offset + 1] = (value & 0xff)
+  } else {
+    objectWriteUInt16(this, value, offset, false)
+  }
+  return offset + 2
+}
+
+function objectWriteUInt32 (buf, value, offset, littleEndian) {
+  if (value < 0) value = 0xffffffff + value + 1
+  for (var i = 0, j = Math.min(buf.length - offset, 4); i < j; ++i) {
+    buf[offset + i] = (value >>> (littleEndian ? i : 3 - i) * 8) & 0xff
+  }
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeUInt32LE = function writeUInt32LE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 4, 0xffffffff, 0)
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    this[offset + 3] = (value >>> 24)
+    this[offset + 2] = (value >>> 16)
+    this[offset + 1] = (value >>> 8)
+    this[offset] = (value & 0xff)
+  } else {
+    objectWriteUInt32(this, value, offset, true)
+  }
+  return offset + 4
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeUInt32BE = function writeUInt32BE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 4, 0xffffffff, 0)
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    this[offset] = (value >>> 24)
+    this[offset + 1] = (value >>> 16)
+    this[offset + 2] = (value >>> 8)
+    this[offset + 3] = (value & 0xff)
+  } else {
+    objectWriteUInt32(this, value, offset, false)
+  }
+  return offset + 4
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeIntLE = function writeIntLE (value, offset, byteLength, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) {
+    var limit = Math.pow(2, 8 * byteLength - 1)
+
+    checkInt(this, value, offset, byteLength, limit - 1, -limit)
+  }
+
+  var i = 0
+  var mul = 1
+  var sub = 0
+  this[offset] = value & 0xFF
+  while (++i < byteLength && (mul *= 0x100)) {
+    if (value < 0 && sub === 0 && this[offset + i - 1] !== 0) {
+      sub = 1
+    }
+    this[offset + i] = ((value / mul) >> 0) - sub & 0xFF
+  }
+
+  return offset + byteLength
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeIntBE = function writeIntBE (value, offset, byteLength, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) {
+    var limit = Math.pow(2, 8 * byteLength - 1)
+
+    checkInt(this, value, offset, byteLength, limit - 1, -limit)
+  }
+
+  var i = byteLength - 1
+  var mul = 1
+  var sub = 0
+  this[offset + i] = value & 0xFF
+  while (--i >= 0 && (mul *= 0x100)) {
+    if (value < 0 && sub === 0 && this[offset + i + 1] !== 0) {
+      sub = 1
+    }
+    this[offset + i] = ((value / mul) >> 0) - sub & 0xFF
+  }
+
+  return offset + byteLength
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeInt8 = function writeInt8 (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 1, 0x7f, -0x80)
+  if (!Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) value = Math.floor(value)
+  if (value < 0) value = 0xff + value + 1
+  this[offset] = (value & 0xff)
+  return offset + 1
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeInt16LE = function writeInt16LE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 2, 0x7fff, -0x8000)
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    this[offset] = (value & 0xff)
+    this[offset + 1] = (value >>> 8)
+  } else {
+    objectWriteUInt16(this, value, offset, true)
+  }
+  return offset + 2
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeInt16BE = function writeInt16BE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 2, 0x7fff, -0x8000)
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    this[offset] = (value >>> 8)
+    this[offset + 1] = (value & 0xff)
+  } else {
+    objectWriteUInt16(this, value, offset, false)
+  }
+  return offset + 2
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeInt32LE = function writeInt32LE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 4, 0x7fffffff, -0x80000000)
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    this[offset] = (value & 0xff)
+    this[offset + 1] = (value >>> 8)
+    this[offset + 2] = (value >>> 16)
+    this[offset + 3] = (value >>> 24)
+  } else {
+    objectWriteUInt32(this, value, offset, true)
+  }
+  return offset + 4
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeInt32BE = function writeInt32BE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 4, 0x7fffffff, -0x80000000)
+  if (value < 0) value = 0xffffffff + value + 1
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    this[offset] = (value >>> 24)
+    this[offset + 1] = (value >>> 16)
+    this[offset + 2] = (value >>> 8)
+    this[offset + 3] = (value & 0xff)
+  } else {
+    objectWriteUInt32(this, value, offset, false)
+  }
+  return offset + 4
+}
+
+function checkIEEE754 (buf, value, offset, ext, max, min) {
+  if (offset + ext > buf.length) throw new RangeError('Index out of range')
+  if (offset < 0) throw new RangeError('Index out of range')
+}
+
+function writeFloat (buf, value, offset, littleEndian, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) {
+    checkIEEE754(buf, value, offset, 4, 3.4028234663852886e+38, -3.4028234663852886e+38)
+  }
+  ieee754.write(buf, value, offset, littleEndian, 23, 4)
+  return offset + 4
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeFloatLE = function writeFloatLE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  return writeFloat(this, value, offset, true, noAssert)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeFloatBE = function writeFloatBE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  return writeFloat(this, value, offset, false, noAssert)
+}
+
+function writeDouble (buf, value, offset, littleEndian, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) {
+    checkIEEE754(buf, value, offset, 8, 1.7976931348623157E+308, -1.7976931348623157E+308)
+  }
+  ieee754.write(buf, value, offset, littleEndian, 52, 8)
+  return offset + 8
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeDoubleLE = function writeDoubleLE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  return writeDouble(this, value, offset, true, noAssert)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeDoubleBE = function writeDoubleBE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  return writeDouble(this, value, offset, false, noAssert)
+}
+
+// copy(targetBuffer, targetStart=0, sourceStart=0, sourceEnd=buffer.length)
+Buffer.prototype.copy = function copy (target, targetStart, start, end) {
+  if (!start) start = 0
+  if (!end && end !== 0) end = this.length
+  if (targetStart >= target.length) targetStart = target.length
+  if (!targetStart) targetStart = 0
+  if (end > 0 && end < start) end = start
+
+  // Copy 0 bytes; we're done
+  if (end === start) return 0
+  if (target.length === 0 || this.length === 0) return 0
+
+  // Fatal error conditions
+  if (targetStart < 0) {
+    throw new RangeError('targetStart out of bounds')
+  }
+  if (start < 0 || start >= this.length) throw new RangeError('sourceStart out of bounds')
+  if (end < 0) throw new RangeError('sourceEnd out of bounds')
+
+  // Are we oob?
+  if (end > this.length) end = this.length
+  if (target.length - targetStart < end - start) {
+    end = target.length - targetStart + start
+  }
+
+  var len = end - start
+  var i
+
+  if (this === target && start < targetStart && targetStart < end) {
+    // descending copy from end
+    for (i = len - 1; i >= 0; --i) {
+      target[i + targetStart] = this[i + start]
+    }
+  } else if (len < 1000 || !Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    // ascending copy from start
+    for (i = 0; i < len; ++i) {
+      target[i + targetStart] = this[i + start]
+    }
+  } else {
+    Uint8Array.prototype.set.call(
+      target,
+      this.subarray(start, start + len),
+      targetStart
+    )
+  }
+
+  return len
+}
+
+// Usage:
+//    buffer.fill(number[, offset[, end]])
+//    buffer.fill(buffer[, offset[, end]])
+//    buffer.fill(string[, offset[, end]][, encoding])
+Buffer.prototype.fill = function fill (val, start, end, encoding) {
+  // Handle string cases:
+  if (typeof val === 'string') {
+    if (typeof start === 'string') {
+      encoding = start
+      start = 0
+      end = this.length
+    } else if (typeof end === 'string') {
+      encoding = end
+      end = this.length
+    }
+    if (val.length === 1) {
+      var code = val.charCodeAt(0)
+      if (code < 256) {
+        val = code
+      }
+    }
+    if (encoding !== undefined && typeof encoding !== 'string') {
+      throw new TypeError('encoding must be a string')
+    }
+    if (typeof encoding === 'string' && !Buffer.isEncoding(encoding)) {
+      throw new TypeError('Unknown encoding: ' + encoding)
+    }
+  } else if (typeof val === 'number') {
+    val = val & 255
+  }
+
+  // Invalid ranges are not set to a default, so can range check early.
+  if (start < 0 || this.length < start || this.length < end) {
+    throw new RangeError('Out of range index')
+  }
+
+  if (end <= start) {
+    return this
+  }
+
+  start = start >>> 0
+  end = end === undefined ? this.length : end >>> 0
+
+  if (!val) val = 0
+
+  var i
+  if (typeof val === 'number') {
+    for (i = start; i < end; ++i) {
+      this[i] = val
+    }
+  } else {
+    var bytes = Buffer.isBuffer(val)
+      ? val
+      : utf8ToBytes(new Buffer(val, encoding).toString())
+    var len = bytes.length
+    for (i = 0; i < end - start; ++i) {
+      this[i + start] = bytes[i % len]
+    }
+  }
+
+  return this
+}
+
+// HELPER FUNCTIONS
+// ================
+
+var INVALID_BASE64_RE = /[^+\/0-9A-Za-z-_]/g
+
+function base64clean (str) {
+  // Node strips out invalid characters like \n and \t from the string, base64-js does not
+  str = stringtrim(str).replace(INVALID_BASE64_RE, '')
+  // Node converts strings with length < 2 to ''
+  if (str.length < 2) return ''
+  // Node allows for non-padded base64 strings (missing trailing ===), base64-js does not
+  while (str.length % 4 !== 0) {
+    str = str + '='
+  }
+  return str
+}
+
+function stringtrim (str) {
+  if (str.trim) return str.trim()
+  return str.replace(/^\s+|\s+$/g, '')
+}
+
+function toHex (n) {
+  if (n < 16) return '0' + n.toString(16)
+  return n.toString(16)
+}
+
+function utf8ToBytes (string, units) {
+  units = units || Infinity
+  var codePoint
+  var length = string.length
+  var leadSurrogate = null
+  var bytes = []
+
+  for (var i = 0; i < length; ++i) {
+    codePoint = string.charCodeAt(i)
+
+    // is surrogate component
+    if (codePoint > 0xD7FF && codePoint < 0xE000) {
+      // last char was a lead
+      if (!leadSurrogate) {
+        // no lead yet
+        if (codePoint > 0xDBFF) {
+          // unexpected trail
+          if ((units -= 3) > -1) bytes.push(0xEF, 0xBF, 0xBD)
+          continue
+        } else if (i + 1 === length) {
+          // unpaired lead
+          if ((units -= 3) > -1) bytes.push(0xEF, 0xBF, 0xBD)
+          continue
+        }
+
+        // valid lead
+        leadSurrogate = codePoint
+
+        continue
+      }
+
+      // 2 leads in a row
+      if (codePoint < 0xDC00) {
+        if ((units -= 3) > -1) bytes.push(0xEF, 0xBF, 0xBD)
+        leadSurrogate = codePoint
+        continue
+      }
+
+      // valid surrogate pair
+      codePoint = (leadSurrogate - 0xD800 << 10 | codePoint - 0xDC00) + 0x10000
+    } else if (leadSurrogate) {
+      // valid bmp char, but last char was a lead
+      if ((units -= 3) > -1) bytes.push(0xEF, 0xBF, 0xBD)
+    }
+
+    leadSurrogate = null
+
+    // encode utf8
+    if (codePoint < 0x80) {
+      if ((units -= 1) < 0) break
+      bytes.push(codePoint)
+    } else if (codePoint < 0x800) {
+      if ((units -= 2) < 0) break
+      bytes.push(
+        codePoint >> 0x6 | 0xC0,
+        codePoint & 0x3F | 0x80
+      )
+    } else if (codePoint < 0x10000) {
+      if ((units -= 3) < 0) break
+      bytes.push(
+        codePoint >> 0xC | 0xE0,
+        codePoint >> 0x6 & 0x3F | 0x80,
+        codePoint & 0x3F | 0x80
+      )
+    } else if (codePoint < 0x110000) {
+      if ((units -= 4) < 0) break
+      bytes.push(
+        codePoint >> 0x12 | 0xF0,
+        codePoint >> 0xC & 0x3F | 0x80,
+        codePoint >> 0x6 & 0x3F | 0x80,
+        codePoint & 0x3F | 0x80
+      )
+    } else {
+      throw new Error('Invalid code point')
+    }
+  }
+
+  return bytes
+}
+
+function asciiToBytes (str) {
+  var byteArray = []
+  for (var i = 0; i < str.length; ++i) {
+    // Node's code seems to be doing this and not & 0x7F..
+    byteArray.push(str.charCodeAt(i) & 0xFF)
+  }
+  return byteArray
+}
+
+function utf16leToBytes (str, units) {
+  var c, hi, lo
+  var byteArray = []
+  for (var i = 0; i < str.length; ++i) {
+    if ((units -= 2) < 0) break
+
+    c = str.charCodeAt(i)
+    hi = c >> 8
+    lo = c % 256
+    byteArray.push(lo)
+    byteArray.push(hi)
+  }
+
+  return byteArray
+}
+
+function base64ToBytes (str) {
+  return base64.toByteArray(base64clean(str))
+}
+
+function blitBuffer (src, dst, offset, length) {
+  for (var i = 0; i < length; ++i) {
+    if ((i + offset >= dst.length) || (i >= src.length)) break
+    dst[i + offset] = src[i]
+  }
+  return i
+}
+
+function isnan (val) {
+  return val !== val // eslint-disable-line no-self-compare
+}
+
+/* WEBPACK VAR INJECTION */}.call(exports, __webpack_require__(10)))
+
+/***/ }),
+/* 4 */
+/***/ (function(module, exports) {
+
+// Copyright Joyent, Inc. and other Node contributors.
+//
+// Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
+// copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
+// "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
+// without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
+// distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit
+// persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the
+// following conditions:
+//
+// The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
+// in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
+//
+// THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS
+// OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
+// MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN
+// NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM,
+// DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR
+// OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE
+// USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
+
+function EventEmitter() {
+  this._events = this._events || {};
+  this._maxListeners = this._maxListeners || undefined;
+}
+module.exports = EventEmitter;
+
+// Backwards-compat with node 0.10.x
+EventEmitter.EventEmitter = EventEmitter;
+
+EventEmitter.prototype._events = undefined;
+EventEmitter.prototype._maxListeners = undefined;
+
+// By default EventEmitters will print a warning if more than 10 listeners are
+// added to it. This is a useful default which helps finding memory leaks.
+EventEmitter.defaultMaxListeners = 10;
+
+// Obviously not all Emitters should be limited to 10. This function allows
+// that to be increased. Set to zero for unlimited.
+EventEmitter.prototype.setMaxListeners = function(n) {
+  if (!isNumber(n) || n < 0 || isNaN(n))
+    throw TypeError('n must be a positive number');
+  this._maxListeners = n;
+  return this;
+};
+
+EventEmitter.prototype.emit = function(type) {
+  var er, handler, len, args, i, listeners;
+
+  if (!this._events)
+    this._events = {};
+
+  // If there is no 'error' event listener then throw.
+  if (type === 'error') {
+    if (!this._events.error ||
+        (isObject(this._events.error) && !this._events.error.length)) {
+      er = arguments[1];
+      if (er instanceof Error) {
+        throw er; // Unhandled 'error' event
+      } else {
+        // At least give some kind of context to the user
+        var err = new Error('Uncaught, unspecified "error" event. (' + er + ')');
+        err.context = er;
+        throw err;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  handler = this._events[type];
+
+  if (isUndefined(handler))
+    return false;
+
+  if (isFunction(handler)) {
+    switch (arguments.length) {
+      // fast cases
+      case 1:
+        handler.call(this);
+        break;
+      case 2:
+        handler.call(this, arguments[1]);
+        break;
+      case 3:
+        handler.call(this, arguments[1], arguments[2]);
+        break;
+      // slower
+      default:
+        args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments, 1);
+        handler.apply(this, args);
+    }
+  } else if (isObject(handler)) {
+    args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments, 1);
+    listeners = handler.slice();
+    len = listeners.length;
+    for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
+      listeners[i].apply(this, args);
+  }
+
+  return true;
+};
+
+EventEmitter.prototype.addListener = function(type, listener) {
+  var m;
+
+  if (!isFunction(listener))
+    throw TypeError('listener must be a function');
+
+  if (!this._events)
+    this._events = {};
+
+  // To avoid recursion in the case that type === "newListener"! Before
+  // adding it to the listeners, first emit "newListener".
+  if (this.…

davezuch added a commit to SanketSabnis/algo-basics-and-puzzles that referenced this pull request Mar 26, 2017

Added dynamic algo
diff --git a/Grokking/js/dist/dynamic.spec.js b/Grokking/js/dist/dynamic.spec.js
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..72ca142
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Grokking/js/dist/dynamic.spec.js
@@ -0,0 +1,8023 @@
+/******/ (function(modules) { // webpackBootstrap
+/******/ 	// The module cache
+/******/ 	var installedModules = {};
+
+/******/ 	// The require function
+/******/ 	function __webpack_require__(moduleId) {
+
+/******/ 		// Check if module is in cache
+/******/ 		if(installedModules[moduleId])
+/******/ 			return installedModules[moduleId].exports;
+
+/******/ 		// Create a new module (and put it into the cache)
+/******/ 		var module = installedModules[moduleId] = {
+/******/ 			i: moduleId,
+/******/ 			l: false,
+/******/ 			exports: {}
+/******/ 		};
+
+/******/ 		// Execute the module function
+/******/ 		modules[moduleId].call(module.exports, module, module.exports, __webpack_require__);
+
+/******/ 		// Flag the module as loaded
+/******/ 		module.l = true;
+
+/******/ 		// Return the exports of the module
+/******/ 		return module.exports;
+/******/ 	}
+
+
+/******/ 	// expose the modules object (__webpack_modules__)
+/******/ 	__webpack_require__.m = modules;
+
+/******/ 	// expose the module cache
+/******/ 	__webpack_require__.c = installedModules;
+
+/******/ 	// identity function for calling harmony imports with the correct context
+/******/ 	__webpack_require__.i = function(value) { return value; };
+
+/******/ 	// define getter function for harmony exports
+/******/ 	__webpack_require__.d = function(exports, name, getter) {
+/******/ 		if(!__webpack_require__.o(exports, name)) {
+/******/ 			Object.defineProperty(exports, name, {
+/******/ 				configurable: false,
+/******/ 				enumerable: true,
+/******/ 				get: getter
+/******/ 			});
+/******/ 		}
+/******/ 	};
+
+/******/ 	// getDefaultExport function for compatibility with non-harmony modules
+/******/ 	__webpack_require__.n = function(module) {
+/******/ 		var getter = module && module.__esModule ?
+/******/ 			function getDefault() { return module['default']; } :
+/******/ 			function getModuleExports() { return module; };
+/******/ 		__webpack_require__.d(getter, 'a', getter);
+/******/ 		return getter;
+/******/ 	};
+
+/******/ 	// Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call
+/******/ 	__webpack_require__.o = function(object, property) { return Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(object, property); };
+
+/******/ 	// __webpack_public_path__
+/******/ 	__webpack_require__.p = "";
+
+/******/ 	// Load entry module and return exports
+/******/ 	return __webpack_require__(__webpack_require__.s = 63);
+/******/ })
+/************************************************************************/
+/******/ ([
+/* 0 */
+/***/ (function(module, exports) {
+
+// shim for using process in browser
+var process = module.exports = {};
+
+// cached from whatever global is present so that test runners that stub it
+// don't break things.  But we need to wrap it in a try catch in case it is
+// wrapped in strict mode code which doesn't define any globals.  It's inside a
+// function because try/catches deoptimize in certain engines.
+
+var cachedSetTimeout;
+var cachedClearTimeout;
+
+function defaultSetTimout() {
+    throw new Error('setTimeout has not been defined');
+}
+function defaultClearTimeout () {
+    throw new Error('clearTimeout has not been defined');
+}
+(function () {
+    try {
+        if (typeof setTimeout === 'function') {
+            cachedSetTimeout = setTimeout;
+        } else {
+            cachedSetTimeout = defaultSetTimout;
+        }
+    } catch (e) {
+        cachedSetTimeout = defaultSetTimout;
+    }
+    try {
+        if (typeof clearTimeout === 'function') {
+            cachedClearTimeout = clearTimeout;
+        } else {
+            cachedClearTimeout = defaultClearTimeout;
+        }
+    } catch (e) {
+        cachedClearTimeout = defaultClearTimeout;
+    }
+} ())
+function runTimeout(fun) {
+    if (cachedSetTimeout === setTimeout) {
+        //normal enviroments in sane situations
+        return setTimeout(fun, 0);
+    }
+    // if setTimeout wasn't available but was latter defined
+    if ((cachedSetTimeout === defaultSetTimout || !cachedSetTimeout) && setTimeout) {
+        cachedSetTimeout = setTimeout;
+        return setTimeout(fun, 0);
+    }
+    try {
+        // when when somebody has screwed with setTimeout but no I.E. maddness
+        return cachedSetTimeout(fun, 0);
+    } catch(e){
+        try {
+            // When we are in I.E. but the script has been evaled so I.E. doesn't trust the global object when called normally
+            return cachedSetTimeout.call(null, fun, 0);
+        } catch(e){
+            // same as above but when it's a version of I.E. that must have the global object for 'this', hopfully our context correct otherwise it will throw a global error
+            return cachedSetTimeout.call(this, fun, 0);
+        }
+    }
+
+
+}
+function runClearTimeout(marker) {
+    if (cachedClearTimeout === clearTimeout) {
+        //normal enviroments in sane situations
+        return clearTimeout(marker);
+    }
+    // if clearTimeout wasn't available but was latter defined
+    if ((cachedClearTimeout === defaultClearTimeout || !cachedClearTimeout) && clearTimeout) {
+        cachedClearTimeout = clearTimeout;
+        return clearTimeout(marker);
+    }
+    try {
+        // when when somebody has screwed with setTimeout but no I.E. maddness
+        return cachedClearTimeout(marker);
+    } catch (e){
+        try {
+            // When we are in I.E. but the script has been evaled so I.E. doesn't  trust the global object when called normally
+            return cachedClearTimeout.call(null, marker);
+        } catch (e){
+            // same as above but when it's a version of I.E. that must have the global object for 'this', hopfully our context correct otherwise it will throw a global error.
+            // Some versions of I.E. have different rules for clearTimeout vs setTimeout
+            return cachedClearTimeout.call(this, marker);
+        }
+    }
+
+
+
+}
+var queue = [];
+var draining = false;
+var currentQueue;
+var queueIndex = -1;
+
+function cleanUpNextTick() {
+    if (!draining || !currentQueue) {
+        return;
+    }
+    draining = false;
+    if (currentQueue.length) {
+        queue = currentQueue.concat(queue);
+    } else {
+        queueIndex = -1;
+    }
+    if (queue.length) {
+        drainQueue();
+    }
+}
+
+function drainQueue() {
+    if (draining) {
+        return;
+    }
+    var timeout = runTimeout(cleanUpNextTick);
+    draining = true;
+
+    var len = queue.length;
+    while(len) {
+        currentQueue = queue;
+        queue = [];
+        while (++queueIndex < len) {
+            if (currentQueue) {
+                currentQueue[queueIndex].run();
+            }
+        }
+        queueIndex = -1;
+        len = queue.length;
+    }
+    currentQueue = null;
+    draining = false;
+    runClearTimeout(timeout);
+}
+
+process.nextTick = function (fun) {
+    var args = new Array(arguments.length - 1);
+    if (arguments.length > 1) {
+        for (var i = 1; i < arguments.length; i++) {
+            args[i - 1] = arguments[i];
+        }
+    }
+    queue.push(new Item(fun, args));
+    if (queue.length === 1 && !draining) {
+        runTimeout(drainQueue);
+    }
+};
+
+// v8 likes predictible objects
+function Item(fun, array) {
+    this.fun = fun;
+    this.array = array;
+}
+Item.prototype.run = function () {
+    this.fun.apply(null, this.array);
+};
+process.title = 'browser';
+process.browser = true;
+process.env = {};
+process.argv = [];
+process.version = ''; // empty string to avoid regexp issues
+process.versions = {};
+
+function noop() {}
+
+process.on = noop;
+process.addListener = noop;
+process.once = noop;
+process.off = noop;
+process.removeListener = noop;
+process.removeAllListeners = noop;
+process.emit = noop;
+
+process.binding = function (name) {
+    throw new Error('process.binding is not supported');
+};
+
+process.cwd = function () { return '/' };
+process.chdir = function (dir) {
+    throw new Error('process.chdir is not supported');
+};
+process.umask = function() { return 0; };
+
+
+/***/ }),
+/* 1 */
+/***/ (function(module, exports) {
+
+if (typeof Object.create === 'function') {
+  // implementation from standard node.js 'util' module
+  module.exports = function inherits(ctor, superCtor) {
+    ctor.super_ = superCtor
+    ctor.prototype = Object.create(superCtor.prototype, {
+      constructor: {
+        value: ctor,
+        enumerable: false,
+        writable: true,
+        configurable: true
+      }
+    });
+  };
+} else {
+  // old school shim for old browsers
+  module.exports = function inherits(ctor, superCtor) {
+    ctor.super_ = superCtor
+    var TempCtor = function () {}
+    TempCtor.prototype = superCtor.prototype
+    ctor.prototype = new TempCtor()
+    ctor.prototype.constructor = ctor
+  }
+}
+
+
+/***/ }),
+/* 2 */
+/***/ (function(module, exports, __webpack_require__) {
+
+"use strict";
+// a duplex stream is just a stream that is both readable and writable.
+// Since JS doesn't have multiple prototypal inheritance, this class
+// prototypally inherits from Readable, and then parasitically from
+// Writable.
+
+
+
+/*<replacement>*/
+
+var objectKeys = Object.keys || function (obj) {
+  var keys = [];
+  for (var key in obj) {
+    keys.push(key);
+  }return keys;
+};
+/*</replacement>*/
+
+module.exports = Duplex;
+
+/*<replacement>*/
+var processNextTick = __webpack_require__(12);
+/*</replacement>*/
+
+/*<replacement>*/
+var util = __webpack_require__(5);
+util.inherits = __webpack_require__(1);
+/*</replacement>*/
+
+var Readable = __webpack_require__(21);
+var Writable = __webpack_require__(14);
+
+util.inherits(Duplex, Readable);
+
+var keys = objectKeys(Writable.prototype);
+for (var v = 0; v < keys.length; v++) {
+  var method = keys[v];
+  if (!Duplex.prototype[method]) Duplex.prototype[method] = Writable.prototype[method];
+}
+
+function Duplex(options) {
+  if (!(this instanceof Duplex)) return new Duplex(options);
+
+  Readable.call(this, options);
+  Writable.call(this, options);
+
+  if (options && options.readable === false) this.readable = false;
+
+  if (options && options.writable === false) this.writable = false;
+
+  this.allowHalfOpen = true;
+  if (options && options.allowHalfOpen === false) this.allowHalfOpen = false;
+
+  this.once('end', onend);
+}
+
+// the no-half-open enforcer
+function onend() {
+  // if we allow half-open state, or if the writable side ended,
+  // then we're ok.
+  if (this.allowHalfOpen || this._writableState.ended) return;
+
+  // no more data can be written.
+  // But allow more writes to happen in this tick.
+  processNextTick(onEndNT, this);
+}
+
+function onEndNT(self) {
+  self.end();
+}
+
+function forEach(xs, f) {
+  for (var i = 0, l = xs.length; i < l; i++) {
+    f(xs[i], i);
+  }
+}
+
+/***/ }),
+/* 3 */
+/***/ (function(module, exports, __webpack_require__) {
+
+"use strict";
+/* WEBPACK VAR INJECTION */(function(global) {/*!
+ * The buffer module from node.js, for the browser.
+ *
+ * @author   Feross Aboukhadijeh <feross@feross.org> <http://feross.org>
+ * @license  MIT
+ */
+/* eslint-disable no-proto */
+
+
+
+var base64 = __webpack_require__(27)
+var ieee754 = __webpack_require__(41)
+var isArray = __webpack_require__(19)
+
+exports.Buffer = Buffer
+exports.SlowBuffer = SlowBuffer
+exports.INSPECT_MAX_BYTES = 50
+
+/**
+ * If `Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT`:
+ *   === true    Use Uint8Array implementation (fastest)
+ *   === false   Use Object implementation (most compatible, even IE6)
+ *
+ * Browsers that support typed arrays are IE 10+, Firefox 4+, Chrome 7+, Safari 5.1+,
+ * Opera 11.6+, iOS 4.2+.
+ *
+ * Due to various browser bugs, sometimes the Object implementation will be used even
+ * when the browser supports typed arrays.
+ *
+ * Note:
+ *
+ *   - Firefox 4-29 lacks support for adding new properties to `Uint8Array` instances,
+ *     See: https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=695438.
+ *
+ *   - Chrome 9-10 is missing the `TypedArray.prototype.subarray` function.
+ *
+ *   - IE10 has a broken `TypedArray.prototype.subarray` function which returns arrays of
+ *     incorrect length in some situations.
+
+ * We detect these buggy browsers and set `Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT` to `false` so they
+ * get the Object implementation, which is slower but behaves correctly.
+ */
+Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT = global.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT !== undefined
+  ? global.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT
+  : typedArraySupport()
+
+/*
+ * Export kMaxLength after typed array support is determined.
+ */
+exports.kMaxLength = kMaxLength()
+
+function typedArraySupport () {
+  try {
+    var arr = new Uint8Array(1)
+    arr.__proto__ = {__proto__: Uint8Array.prototype, foo: function () { return 42 }}
+    return arr.foo() === 42 && // typed array instances can be augmented
+        typeof arr.subarray === 'function' && // chrome 9-10 lack `subarray`
+        arr.subarray(1, 1).byteLength === 0 // ie10 has broken `subarray`
+  } catch (e) {
+    return false
+  }
+}
+
+function kMaxLength () {
+  return Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT
+    ? 0x7fffffff
+    : 0x3fffffff
+}
+
+function createBuffer (that, length) {
+  if (kMaxLength() < length) {
+    throw new RangeError('Invalid typed array length')
+  }
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    // Return an augmented `Uint8Array` instance, for best performance
+    that = new Uint8Array(length)
+    that.__proto__ = Buffer.prototype
+  } else {
+    // Fallback: Return an object instance of the Buffer class
+    if (that === null) {
+      that = new Buffer(length)
+    }
+    that.length = length
+  }
+
+  return that
+}
+
+/**
+ * The Buffer constructor returns instances of `Uint8Array` that have their
+ * prototype changed to `Buffer.prototype`. Furthermore, `Buffer` is a subclass of
+ * `Uint8Array`, so the returned instances will have all the node `Buffer` methods
+ * and the `Uint8Array` methods. Square bracket notation works as expected -- it
+ * returns a single octet.
+ *
+ * The `Uint8Array` prototype remains unmodified.
+ */
+
+function Buffer (arg, encodingOrOffset, length) {
+  if (!Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT && !(this instanceof Buffer)) {
+    return new Buffer(arg, encodingOrOffset, length)
+  }
+
+  // Common case.
+  if (typeof arg === 'number') {
+    if (typeof encodingOrOffset === 'string') {
+      throw new Error(
+        'If encoding is specified then the first argument must be a string'
+      )
+    }
+    return allocUnsafe(this, arg)
+  }
+  return from(this, arg, encodingOrOffset, length)
+}
+
+Buffer.poolSize = 8192 // not used by this implementation
+
+// TODO: Legacy, not needed anymore. Remove in next major version.
+Buffer._augment = function (arr) {
+  arr.__proto__ = Buffer.prototype
+  return arr
+}
+
+function from (that, value, encodingOrOffset, length) {
+  if (typeof value === 'number') {
+    throw new TypeError('"value" argument must not be a number')
+  }
+
+  if (typeof ArrayBuffer !== 'undefined' && value instanceof ArrayBuffer) {
+    return fromArrayBuffer(that, value, encodingOrOffset, length)
+  }
+
+  if (typeof value === 'string') {
+    return fromString(that, value, encodingOrOffset)
+  }
+
+  return fromObject(that, value)
+}
+
+/**
+ * Functionally equivalent to Buffer(arg, encoding) but throws a TypeError
+ * if value is a number.
+ * Buffer.from(str[, encoding])
+ * Buffer.from(array)
+ * Buffer.from(buffer)
+ * Buffer.from(arrayBuffer[, byteOffset[, length]])
+ **/
+Buffer.from = function (value, encodingOrOffset, length) {
+  return from(null, value, encodingOrOffset, length)
+}
+
+if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+  Buffer.prototype.__proto__ = Uint8Array.prototype
+  Buffer.__proto__ = Uint8Array
+  if (typeof Symbol !== 'undefined' && Symbol.species &&
+      Buffer[Symbol.species] === Buffer) {
+    // Fix subarray() in ES2016. See: https://github.com/feross/buffer/pull/97
+    Object.defineProperty(Buffer, Symbol.species, {
+      value: null,
+      configurable: true
+    })
+  }
+}
+
+function assertSize (size) {
+  if (typeof size !== 'number') {
+    throw new TypeError('"size" argument must be a number')
+  } else if (size < 0) {
+    throw new RangeError('"size" argument must not be negative')
+  }
+}
+
+function alloc (that, size, fill, encoding) {
+  assertSize(size)
+  if (size <= 0) {
+    return createBuffer(that, size)
+  }
+  if (fill !== undefined) {
+    // Only pay attention to encoding if it's a string. This
+    // prevents accidentally sending in a number that would
+    // be interpretted as a start offset.
+    return typeof encoding === 'string'
+      ? createBuffer(that, size).fill(fill, encoding)
+      : createBuffer(that, size).fill(fill)
+  }
+  return createBuffer(that, size)
+}
+
+/**
+ * Creates a new filled Buffer instance.
+ * alloc(size[, fill[, encoding]])
+ **/
+Buffer.alloc = function (size, fill, encoding) {
+  return alloc(null, size, fill, encoding)
+}
+
+function allocUnsafe (that, size) {
+  assertSize(size)
+  that = createBuffer(that, size < 0 ? 0 : checked(size) | 0)
+  if (!Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    for (var i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
+      that[i] = 0
+    }
+  }
+  return that
+}
+
+/**
+ * Equivalent to Buffer(num), by default creates a non-zero-filled Buffer instance.
+ * */
+Buffer.allocUnsafe = function (size) {
+  return allocUnsafe(null, size)
+}
+/**
+ * Equivalent to SlowBuffer(num), by default creates a non-zero-filled Buffer instance.
+ */
+Buffer.allocUnsafeSlow = function (size) {
+  return allocUnsafe(null, size)
+}
+
+function fromString (that, string, encoding) {
+  if (typeof encoding !== 'string' || encoding === '') {
+    encoding = 'utf8'
+  }
+
+  if (!Buffer.isEncoding(encoding)) {
+    throw new TypeError('"encoding" must be a valid string encoding')
+  }
+
+  var length = byteLength(string, encoding) | 0
+  that = createBuffer(that, length)
+
+  var actual = that.write(string, encoding)
+
+  if (actual !== length) {
+    // Writing a hex string, for example, that contains invalid characters will
+    // cause everything after the first invalid character to be ignored. (e.g.
+    // 'abxxcd' will be treated as 'ab')
+    that = that.slice(0, actual)
+  }
+
+  return that
+}
+
+function fromArrayLike (that, array) {
+  var length = array.length < 0 ? 0 : checked(array.length) | 0
+  that = createBuffer(that, length)
+  for (var i = 0; i < length; i += 1) {
+    that[i] = array[i] & 255
+  }
+  return that
+}
+
+function fromArrayBuffer (that, array, byteOffset, length) {
+  array.byteLength // this throws if `array` is not a valid ArrayBuffer
+
+  if (byteOffset < 0 || array.byteLength < byteOffset) {
+    throw new RangeError('\'offset\' is out of bounds')
+  }
+
+  if (array.byteLength < byteOffset + (length || 0)) {
+    throw new RangeError('\'length\' is out of bounds')
+  }
+
+  if (byteOffset === undefined && length === undefined) {
+    array = new Uint8Array(array)
+  } else if (length === undefined) {
+    array = new Uint8Array(array, byteOffset)
+  } else {
+    array = new Uint8Array(array, byteOffset, length)
+  }
+
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    // Return an augmented `Uint8Array` instance, for best performance
+    that = array
+    that.__proto__ = Buffer.prototype
+  } else {
+    // Fallback: Return an object instance of the Buffer class
+    that = fromArrayLike(that, array)
+  }
+  return that
+}
+
+function fromObject (that, obj) {
+  if (Buffer.isBuffer(obj)) {
+    var len = checked(obj.length) | 0
+    that = createBuffer(that, len)
+
+    if (that.length === 0) {
+      return that
+    }
+
+    obj.copy(that, 0, 0, len)
+    return that
+  }
+
+  if (obj) {
+    if ((typeof ArrayBuffer !== 'undefined' &&
+        obj.buffer instanceof ArrayBuffer) || 'length' in obj) {
+      if (typeof obj.length !== 'number' || isnan(obj.length)) {
+        return createBuffer(that, 0)
+      }
+      return fromArrayLike(that, obj)
+    }
+
+    if (obj.type === 'Buffer' && isArray(obj.data)) {
+      return fromArrayLike(that, obj.data)
+    }
+  }
+
+  throw new TypeError('First argument must be a string, Buffer, ArrayBuffer, Array, or array-like object.')
+}
+
+function checked (length) {
+  // Note: cannot use `length < kMaxLength()` here because that fails when
+  // length is NaN (which is otherwise coerced to zero.)
+  if (length >= kMaxLength()) {
+    throw new RangeError('Attempt to allocate Buffer larger than maximum ' +
+                         'size: 0x' + kMaxLength().toString(16) + ' bytes')
+  }
+  return length | 0
+}
+
+function SlowBuffer (length) {
+  if (+length != length) { // eslint-disable-line eqeqeq
+    length = 0
+  }
+  return Buffer.alloc(+length)
+}
+
+Buffer.isBuffer = function isBuffer (b) {
+  return !!(b != null && b._isBuffer)
+}
+
+Buffer.compare = function compare (a, b) {
+  if (!Buffer.isBuffer(a) || !Buffer.isBuffer(b)) {
+    throw new TypeError('Arguments must be Buffers')
+  }
+
+  if (a === b) return 0
+
+  var x = a.length
+  var y = b.length
+
+  for (var i = 0, len = Math.min(x, y); i < len; ++i) {
+    if (a[i] !== b[i]) {
+      x = a[i]
+      y = b[i]
+      break
+    }
+  }
+
+  if (x < y) return -1
+  if (y < x) return 1
+  return 0
+}
+
+Buffer.isEncoding = function isEncoding (encoding) {
+  switch (String(encoding).toLowerCase()) {
+    case 'hex':
+    case 'utf8':
+    case 'utf-8':
+    case 'ascii':
+    case 'latin1':
+    case 'binary':
+    case 'base64':
+    case 'ucs2':
+    case 'ucs-2':
+    case 'utf16le':
+    case 'utf-16le':
+      return true
+    default:
+      return false
+  }
+}
+
+Buffer.concat = function concat (list, length) {
+  if (!isArray(list)) {
+    throw new TypeError('"list" argument must be an Array of Buffers')
+  }
+
+  if (list.length === 0) {
+    return Buffer.alloc(0)
+  }
+
+  var i
+  if (length === undefined) {
+    length = 0
+    for (i = 0; i < list.length; ++i) {
+      length += list[i].length
+    }
+  }
+
+  var buffer = Buffer.allocUnsafe(length)
+  var pos = 0
+  for (i = 0; i < list.length; ++i) {
+    var buf = list[i]
+    if (!Buffer.isBuffer(buf)) {
+      throw new TypeError('"list" argument must be an Array of Buffers')
+    }
+    buf.copy(buffer, pos)
+    pos += buf.length
+  }
+  return buffer
+}
+
+function byteLength (string, encoding) {
+  if (Buffer.isBuffer(string)) {
+    return string.length
+  }
+  if (typeof ArrayBuffer !== 'undefined' && typeof ArrayBuffer.isView === 'function' &&
+      (ArrayBuffer.isView(string) || string instanceof ArrayBuffer)) {
+    return string.byteLength
+  }
+  if (typeof string !== 'string') {
+    string = '' + string
+  }
+
+  var len = string.length
+  if (len === 0) return 0
+
+  // Use a for loop to avoid recursion
+  var loweredCase = false
+  for (;;) {
+    switch (encoding) {
+      case 'ascii':
+      case 'latin1':
+      case 'binary':
+        return len
+      case 'utf8':
+      case 'utf-8':
+      case undefined:
+        return utf8ToBytes(string).length
+      case 'ucs2':
+      case 'ucs-2':
+      case 'utf16le':
+      case 'utf-16le':
+        return len * 2
+      case 'hex':
+        return len >>> 1
+      case 'base64':
+        return base64ToBytes(string).length
+      default:
+        if (loweredCase) return utf8ToBytes(string).length // assume utf8
+        encoding = ('' + encoding).toLowerCase()
+        loweredCase = true
+    }
+  }
+}
+Buffer.byteLength = byteLength
+
+function slowToString (encoding, start, end) {
+  var loweredCase = false
+
+  // No need to verify that "this.length <= MAX_UINT32" since it's a read-only
+  // property of a typed array.
+
+  // This behaves neither like String nor Uint8Array in that we set start/end
+  // to their upper/lower bounds if the value passed is out of range.
+  // undefined is handled specially as per ECMA-262 6th Edition,
+  // Section 13.3.3.7 Runtime Semantics: KeyedBindingInitialization.
+  if (start === undefined || start < 0) {
+    start = 0
+  }
+  // Return early if start > this.length. Done here to prevent potential uint32
+  // coercion fail below.
+  if (start > this.length) {
+    return ''
+  }
+
+  if (end === undefined || end > this.length) {
+    end = this.length
+  }
+
+  if (end <= 0) {
+    return ''
+  }
+
+  // Force coersion to uint32. This will also coerce falsey/NaN values to 0.
+  end >>>= 0
+  start >>>= 0
+
+  if (end <= start) {
+    return ''
+  }
+
+  if (!encoding) encoding = 'utf8'
+
+  while (true) {
+    switch (encoding) {
+      case 'hex':
+        return hexSlice(this, start, end)
+
+      case 'utf8':
+      case 'utf-8':
+        return utf8Slice(this, start, end)
+
+      case 'ascii':
+        return asciiSlice(this, start, end)
+
+      case 'latin1':
+      case 'binary':
+        return latin1Slice(this, start, end)
+
+      case 'base64':
+        return base64Slice(this, start, end)
+
+      case 'ucs2':
+      case 'ucs-2':
+      case 'utf16le':
+      case 'utf-16le':
+        return utf16leSlice(this, start, end)
+
+      default:
+        if (loweredCase) throw new TypeError('Unknown encoding: ' + encoding)
+        encoding = (encoding + '').toLowerCase()
+        loweredCase = true
+    }
+  }
+}
+
+// The property is used by `Buffer.isBuffer` and `is-buffer` (in Safari 5-7) to detect
+// Buffer instances.
+Buffer.prototype._isBuffer = true
+
+function swap (b, n, m) {
+  var i = b[n]
+  b[n] = b[m]
+  b[m] = i
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.swap16 = function swap16 () {
+  var len = this.length
+  if (len % 2 !== 0) {
+    throw new RangeError('Buffer size must be a multiple of 16-bits')
+  }
+  for (var i = 0; i < len; i += 2) {
+    swap(this, i, i + 1)
+  }
+  return this
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.swap32 = function swap32 () {
+  var len = this.length
+  if (len % 4 !== 0) {
+    throw new RangeError('Buffer size must be a multiple of 32-bits')
+  }
+  for (var i = 0; i < len; i += 4) {
+    swap(this, i, i + 3)
+    swap(this, i + 1, i + 2)
+  }
+  return this
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.swap64 = function swap64 () {
+  var len = this.length
+  if (len % 8 !== 0) {
+    throw new RangeError('Buffer size must be a multiple of 64-bits')
+  }
+  for (var i = 0; i < len; i += 8) {
+    swap(this, i, i + 7)
+    swap(this, i + 1, i + 6)
+    swap(this, i + 2, i + 5)
+    swap(this, i + 3, i + 4)
+  }
+  return this
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.toString = function toString () {
+  var length = this.length | 0
+  if (length === 0) return ''
+  if (arguments.length === 0) return utf8Slice(this, 0, length)
+  return slowToString.apply(this, arguments)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.equals = function equals (b) {
+  if (!Buffer.isBuffer(b)) throw new TypeError('Argument must be a Buffer')
+  if (this === b) return true
+  return Buffer.compare(this, b) === 0
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.inspect = function inspect () {
+  var str = ''
+  var max = exports.INSPECT_MAX_BYTES
+  if (this.length > 0) {
+    str = this.toString('hex', 0, max).match(/.{2}/g).join(' ')
+    if (this.length > max) str += ' ... '
+  }
+  return '<Buffer ' + str + '>'
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.compare = function compare (target, start, end, thisStart, thisEnd) {
+  if (!Buffer.isBuffer(target)) {
+    throw new TypeError('Argument must be a Buffer')
+  }
+
+  if (start === undefined) {
+    start = 0
+  }
+  if (end === undefined) {
+    end = target ? target.length : 0
+  }
+  if (thisStart === undefined) {
+    thisStart = 0
+  }
+  if (thisEnd === undefined) {
+    thisEnd = this.length
+  }
+
+  if (start < 0 || end > target.length || thisStart < 0 || thisEnd > this.length) {
+    throw new RangeError('out of range index')
+  }
+
+  if (thisStart >= thisEnd && start >= end) {
+    return 0
+  }
+  if (thisStart >= thisEnd) {
+    return -1
+  }
+  if (start >= end) {
+    return 1
+  }
+
+  start >>>= 0
+  end >>>= 0
+  thisStart >>>= 0
+  thisEnd >>>= 0
+
+  if (this === target) return 0
+
+  var x = thisEnd - thisStart
+  var y = end - start
+  var len = Math.min(x, y)
+
+  var thisCopy = this.slice(thisStart, thisEnd)
+  var targetCopy = target.slice(start, end)
+
+  for (var i = 0; i < len; ++i) {
+    if (thisCopy[i] !== targetCopy[i]) {
+      x = thisCopy[i]
+      y = targetCopy[i]
+      break
+    }
+  }
+
+  if (x < y) return -1
+  if (y < x) return 1
+  return 0
+}
+
+// Finds either the first index of `val` in `buffer` at offset >= `byteOffset`,
+// OR the last index of `val` in `buffer` at offset <= `byteOffset`.
+//
+// Arguments:
+// - buffer - a Buffer to search
+// - val - a string, Buffer, or number
+// - byteOffset - an index into `buffer`; will be clamped to an int32
+// - encoding - an optional encoding, relevant is val is a string
+// - dir - true for indexOf, false for lastIndexOf
+function bidirectionalIndexOf (buffer, val, byteOffset, encoding, dir) {
+  // Empty buffer means no match
+  if (buffer.length === 0) return -1
+
+  // Normalize byteOffset
+  if (typeof byteOffset === 'string') {
+    encoding = byteOffset
+    byteOffset = 0
+  } else if (byteOffset > 0x7fffffff) {
+    byteOffset = 0x7fffffff
+  } else if (byteOffset < -0x80000000) {
+    byteOffset = -0x80000000
+  }
+  byteOffset = +byteOffset  // Coerce to Number.
+  if (isNaN(byteOffset)) {
+    // byteOffset: it it's undefined, null, NaN, "foo", etc, search whole buffer
+    byteOffset = dir ? 0 : (buffer.length - 1)
+  }
+
+  // Normalize byteOffset: negative offsets start from the end of the buffer
+  if (byteOffset < 0) byteOffset = buffer.length + byteOffset
+  if (byteOffset >= buffer.length) {
+    if (dir) return -1
+    else byteOffset = buffer.length - 1
+  } else if (byteOffset < 0) {
+    if (dir) byteOffset = 0
+    else return -1
+  }
+
+  // Normalize val
+  if (typeof val === 'string') {
+    val = Buffer.from(val, encoding)
+  }
+
+  // Finally, search either indexOf (if dir is true) or lastIndexOf
+  if (Buffer.isBuffer(val)) {
+    // Special case: looking for empty string/buffer always fails
+    if (val.length === 0) {
+      return -1
+    }
+    return arrayIndexOf(buffer, val, byteOffset, encoding, dir)
+  } else if (typeof val === 'number') {
+    val = val & 0xFF // Search for a byte value [0-255]
+    if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT &&
+        typeof Uint8Array.prototype.indexOf === 'function') {
+      if (dir) {
+        return Uint8Array.prototype.indexOf.call(buffer, val, byteOffset)
+      } else {
+        return Uint8Array.prototype.lastIndexOf.call(buffer, val, byteOffset)
+      }
+    }
+    return arrayIndexOf(buffer, [ val ], byteOffset, encoding, dir)
+  }
+
+  throw new TypeError('val must be string, number or Buffer')
+}
+
+function arrayIndexOf (arr, val, byteOffset, encoding, dir) {
+  var indexSize = 1
+  var arrLength = arr.length
+  var valLength = val.length
+
+  if (encoding !== undefined) {
+    encoding = String(encoding).toLowerCase()
+    if (encoding === 'ucs2' || encoding === 'ucs-2' ||
+        encoding === 'utf16le' || encoding === 'utf-16le') {
+      if (arr.length < 2 || val.length < 2) {
+        return -1
+      }
+      indexSize = 2
+      arrLength /= 2
+      valLength /= 2
+      byteOffset /= 2
+    }
+  }
+
+  function read (buf, i) {
+    if (indexSize === 1) {
+      return buf[i]
+    } else {
+      return buf.readUInt16BE(i * indexSize)
+    }
+  }
+
+  var i
+  if (dir) {
+    var foundIndex = -1
+    for (i = byteOffset; i < arrLength; i++) {
+      if (read(arr, i) === read(val, foundIndex === -1 ? 0 : i - foundIndex)) {
+        if (foundIndex === -1) foundIndex = i
+        if (i - foundIndex + 1 === valLength) return foundIndex * indexSize
+      } else {
+        if (foundIndex !== -1) i -= i - foundIndex
+        foundIndex = -1
+      }
+    }
+  } else {
+    if (byteOffset + valLength > arrLength) byteOffset = arrLength - valLength
+    for (i = byteOffset; i >= 0; i--) {
+      var found = true
+      for (var j = 0; j < valLength; j++) {
+        if (read(arr, i + j) !== read(val, j)) {
+          found = false
+          break
+        }
+      }
+      if (found) return i
+    }
+  }
+
+  return -1
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.includes = function includes (val, byteOffset, encoding) {
+  return this.indexOf(val, byteOffset, encoding) !== -1
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.indexOf = function indexOf (val, byteOffset, encoding) {
+  return bidirectionalIndexOf(this, val, byteOffset, encoding, true)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.lastIndexOf = function lastIndexOf (val, byteOffset, encoding) {
+  return bidirectionalIndexOf(this, val, byteOffset, encoding, false)
+}
+
+function hexWrite (buf, string, offset, length) {
+  offset = Number(offset) || 0
+  var remaining = buf.length - offset
+  if (!length) {
+    length = remaining
+  } else {
+    length = Number(length)
+    if (length > remaining) {
+      length = remaining
+    }
+  }
+
+  // must be an even number of digits
+  var strLen = string.length
+  if (strLen % 2 !== 0) throw new TypeError('Invalid hex string')
+
+  if (length > strLen / 2) {
+    length = strLen / 2
+  }
+  for (var i = 0; i < length; ++i) {
+    var parsed = parseInt(string.substr(i * 2, 2), 16)
+    if (isNaN(parsed)) return i
+    buf[offset + i] = parsed
+  }
+  return i
+}
+
+function utf8Write (buf, string, offset, length) {
+  return blitBuffer(utf8ToBytes(string, buf.length - offset), buf, offset, length)
+}
+
+function asciiWrite (buf, string, offset, length) {
+  return blitBuffer(asciiToBytes(string), buf, offset, length)
+}
+
+function latin1Write (buf, string, offset, length) {
+  return asciiWrite(buf, string, offset, length)
+}
+
+function base64Write (buf, string, offset, length) {
+  return blitBuffer(base64ToBytes(string), buf, offset, length)
+}
+
+function ucs2Write (buf, string, offset, length) {
+  return blitBuffer(utf16leToBytes(string, buf.length - offset), buf, offset, length)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.write = function write (string, offset, length, encoding) {
+  // Buffer#write(string)
+  if (offset === undefined) {
+    encoding = 'utf8'
+    length = this.length
+    offset = 0
+  // Buffer#write(string, encoding)
+  } else if (length === undefined && typeof offset === 'string') {
+    encoding = offset
+    length = this.length
+    offset = 0
+  // Buffer#write(string, offset[, length][, encoding])
+  } else if (isFinite(offset)) {
+    offset = offset | 0
+    if (isFinite(length)) {
+      length = length | 0
+      if (encoding === undefined) encoding = 'utf8'
+    } else {
+      encoding = length
+      length = undefined
+    }
+  // legacy write(string, encoding, offset, length) - remove in v0.13
+  } else {
+    throw new Error(
+      'Buffer.write(string, encoding, offset[, length]) is no longer supported'
+    )
+  }
+
+  var remaining = this.length - offset
+  if (length === undefined || length > remaining) length = remaining
+
+  if ((string.length > 0 && (length < 0 || offset < 0)) || offset > this.length) {
+    throw new RangeError('Attempt to write outside buffer bounds')
+  }
+
+  if (!encoding) encoding = 'utf8'
+
+  var loweredCase = false
+  for (;;) {
+    switch (encoding) {
+      case 'hex':
+        return hexWrite(this, string, offset, length)
+
+      case 'utf8':
+      case 'utf-8':
+        return utf8Write(this, string, offset, length)
+
+      case 'ascii':
+        return asciiWrite(this, string, offset, length)
+
+      case 'latin1':
+      case 'binary':
+        return latin1Write(this, string, offset, length)
+
+      case 'base64':
+        // Warning: maxLength not taken into account in base64Write
+        return base64Write(this, string, offset, length)
+
+      case 'ucs2':
+      case 'ucs-2':
+      case 'utf16le':
+      case 'utf-16le':
+        return ucs2Write(this, string, offset, length)
+
+      default:
+        if (loweredCase) throw new TypeError('Unknown encoding: ' + encoding)
+        encoding = ('' + encoding).toLowerCase()
+        loweredCase = true
+    }
+  }
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.toJSON = function toJSON () {
+  return {
+    type: 'Buffer',
+    data: Array.prototype.slice.call(this._arr || this, 0)
+  }
+}
+
+function base64Slice (buf, start, end) {
+  if (start === 0 && end === buf.length) {
+    return base64.fromByteArray(buf)
+  } else {
+    return base64.fromByteArray(buf.slice(start, end))
+  }
+}
+
+function utf8Slice (buf, start, end) {
+  end = Math.min(buf.length, end)
+  var res = []
+
+  var i = start
+  while (i < end) {
+    var firstByte = buf[i]
+    var codePoint = null
+    var bytesPerSequence = (firstByte > 0xEF) ? 4
+      : (firstByte > 0xDF) ? 3
+      : (firstByte > 0xBF) ? 2
+      : 1
+
+    if (i + bytesPerSequence <= end) {
+      var secondByte, thirdByte, fourthByte, tempCodePoint
+
+      switch (bytesPerSequence) {
+        case 1:
+          if (firstByte < 0x80) {
+            codePoint = firstByte
+          }
+          break
+        case 2:
+          secondByte = buf[i + 1]
+          if ((secondByte & 0xC0) === 0x80) {
+            tempCodePoint = (firstByte & 0x1F) << 0x6 | (secondByte & 0x3F)
+            if (tempCodePoint > 0x7F) {
+              codePoint = tempCodePoint
+            }
+          }
+          break
+        case 3:
+          secondByte = buf[i + 1]
+          thirdByte = buf[i + 2]
+          if ((secondByte & 0xC0) === 0x80 && (thirdByte & 0xC0) === 0x80) {
+            tempCodePoint = (firstByte & 0xF) << 0xC | (secondByte & 0x3F) << 0x6 | (thirdByte & 0x3F)
+            if (tempCodePoint > 0x7FF && (tempCodePoint < 0xD800 || tempCodePoint > 0xDFFF)) {
+              codePoint = tempCodePoint
+            }
+          }
+          break
+        case 4:
+          secondByte = buf[i + 1]
+          thirdByte = buf[i + 2]
+          fourthByte = buf[i + 3]
+          if ((secondByte & 0xC0) === 0x80 && (thirdByte & 0xC0) === 0x80 && (fourthByte & 0xC0) === 0x80) {
+            tempCodePoint = (firstByte & 0xF) << 0x12 | (secondByte & 0x3F) << 0xC | (thirdByte & 0x3F) << 0x6 | (fourthByte & 0x3F)
+            if (tempCodePoint > 0xFFFF && tempCodePoint < 0x110000) {
+              codePoint = tempCodePoint
+            }
+          }
+      }
+    }
+
+    if (codePoint === null) {
+      // we did not generate a valid codePoint so insert a
+      // replacement char (U+FFFD) and advance only 1 byte
+      codePoint = 0xFFFD
+      bytesPerSequence = 1
+    } else if (codePoint > 0xFFFF) {
+      // encode to utf16 (surrogate pair dance)
+      codePoint -= 0x10000
+      res.push(codePoint >>> 10 & 0x3FF | 0xD800)
+      codePoint = 0xDC00 | codePoint & 0x3FF
+    }
+
+    res.push(codePoint)
+    i += bytesPerSequence
+  }
+
+  return decodeCodePointsArray(res)
+}
+
+// Based on http://stackoverflow.com/a/22747272/680742, the browser with
+// the lowest limit is Chrome, with 0x10000 args.
+// We go 1 magnitude less, for safety
+var MAX_ARGUMENTS_LENGTH = 0x1000
+
+function decodeCodePointsArray (codePoints) {
+  var len = codePoints.length
+  if (len <= MAX_ARGUMENTS_LENGTH) {
+    return String.fromCharCode.apply(String, codePoints) // avoid extra slice()
+  }
+
+  // Decode in chunks to avoid "call stack size exceeded".
+  var res = ''
+  var i = 0
+  while (i < len) {
+    res += String.fromCharCode.apply(
+      String,
+      codePoints.slice(i, i += MAX_ARGUMENTS_LENGTH)
+    )
+  }
+  return res
+}
+
+function asciiSlice (buf, start, end) {
+  var ret = ''
+  end = Math.min(buf.length, end)
+
+  for (var i = start; i < end; ++i) {
+    ret += String.fromCharCode(buf[i] & 0x7F)
+  }
+  return ret
+}
+
+function latin1Slice (buf, start, end) {
+  var ret = ''
+  end = Math.min(buf.length, end)
+
+  for (var i = start; i < end; ++i) {
+    ret += String.fromCharCode(buf[i])
+  }
+  return ret
+}
+
+function hexSlice (buf, start, end) {
+  var len = buf.length
+
+  if (!start || start < 0) start = 0
+  if (!end || end < 0 || end > len) end = len
+
+  var out = ''
+  for (var i = start; i < end; ++i) {
+    out += toHex(buf[i])
+  }
+  return out
+}
+
+function utf16leSlice (buf, start, end) {
+  var bytes = buf.slice(start, end)
+  var res = ''
+  for (var i = 0; i < bytes.length; i += 2) {
+    res += String.fromCharCode(bytes[i] + bytes[i + 1] * 256)
+  }
+  return res
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.slice = function slice (start, end) {
+  var len = this.length
+  start = ~~start
+  end = end === undefined ? len : ~~end
+
+  if (start < 0) {
+    start += len
+    if (start < 0) start = 0
+  } else if (start > len) {
+    start = len
+  }
+
+  if (end < 0) {
+    end += len
+    if (end < 0) end = 0
+  } else if (end > len) {
+    end = len
+  }
+
+  if (end < start) end = start
+
+  var newBuf
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    newBuf = this.subarray(start, end)
+    newBuf.__proto__ = Buffer.prototype
+  } else {
+    var sliceLen = end - start
+    newBuf = new Buffer(sliceLen, undefined)
+    for (var i = 0; i < sliceLen; ++i) {
+      newBuf[i] = this[i + start]
+    }
+  }
+
+  return newBuf
+}
+
+/*
+ * Need to make sure that buffer isn't trying to write out of bounds.
+ */
+function checkOffset (offset, ext, length) {
+  if ((offset % 1) !== 0 || offset < 0) throw new RangeError('offset is not uint')
+  if (offset + ext > length) throw new RangeError('Trying to access beyond buffer length')
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readUIntLE = function readUIntLE (offset, byteLength, noAssert) {
+  offset = offset | 0
+  byteLength = byteLength | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, byteLength, this.length)
+
+  var val = this[offset]
+  var mul = 1
+  var i = 0
+  while (++i < byteLength && (mul *= 0x100)) {
+    val += this[offset + i] * mul
+  }
+
+  return val
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readUIntBE = function readUIntBE (offset, byteLength, noAssert) {
+  offset = offset | 0
+  byteLength = byteLength | 0
+  if (!noAssert) {
+    checkOffset(offset, byteLength, this.length)
+  }
+
+  var val = this[offset + --byteLength]
+  var mul = 1
+  while (byteLength > 0 && (mul *= 0x100)) {
+    val += this[offset + --byteLength] * mul
+  }
+
+  return val
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readUInt8 = function readUInt8 (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 1, this.length)
+  return this[offset]
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readUInt16LE = function readUInt16LE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 2, this.length)
+  return this[offset] | (this[offset + 1] << 8)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readUInt16BE = function readUInt16BE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 2, this.length)
+  return (this[offset] << 8) | this[offset + 1]
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readUInt32LE = function readUInt32LE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 4, this.length)
+
+  return ((this[offset]) |
+      (this[offset + 1] << 8) |
+      (this[offset + 2] << 16)) +
+      (this[offset + 3] * 0x1000000)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readUInt32BE = function readUInt32BE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 4, this.length)
+
+  return (this[offset] * 0x1000000) +
+    ((this[offset + 1] << 16) |
+    (this[offset + 2] << 8) |
+    this[offset + 3])
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readIntLE = function readIntLE (offset, byteLength, noAssert) {
+  offset = offset | 0
+  byteLength = byteLength | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, byteLength, this.length)
+
+  var val = this[offset]
+  var mul = 1
+  var i = 0
+  while (++i < byteLength && (mul *= 0x100)) {
+    val += this[offset + i] * mul
+  }
+  mul *= 0x80
+
+  if (val >= mul) val -= Math.pow(2, 8 * byteLength)
+
+  return val
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readIntBE = function readIntBE (offset, byteLength, noAssert) {
+  offset = offset | 0
+  byteLength = byteLength | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, byteLength, this.length)
+
+  var i = byteLength
+  var mul = 1
+  var val = this[offset + --i]
+  while (i > 0 && (mul *= 0x100)) {
+    val += this[offset + --i] * mul
+  }
+  mul *= 0x80
+
+  if (val >= mul) val -= Math.pow(2, 8 * byteLength)
+
+  return val
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readInt8 = function readInt8 (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 1, this.length)
+  if (!(this[offset] & 0x80)) return (this[offset])
+  return ((0xff - this[offset] + 1) * -1)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readInt16LE = function readInt16LE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 2, this.length)
+  var val = this[offset] | (this[offset + 1] << 8)
+  return (val & 0x8000) ? val | 0xFFFF0000 : val
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readInt16BE = function readInt16BE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 2, this.length)
+  var val = this[offset + 1] | (this[offset] << 8)
+  return (val & 0x8000) ? val | 0xFFFF0000 : val
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readInt32LE = function readInt32LE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 4, this.length)
+
+  return (this[offset]) |
+    (this[offset + 1] << 8) |
+    (this[offset + 2] << 16) |
+    (this[offset + 3] << 24)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readInt32BE = function readInt32BE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 4, this.length)
+
+  return (this[offset] << 24) |
+    (this[offset + 1] << 16) |
+    (this[offset + 2] << 8) |
+    (this[offset + 3])
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readFloatLE = function readFloatLE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 4, this.length)
+  return ieee754.read(this, offset, true, 23, 4)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readFloatBE = function readFloatBE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 4, this.length)
+  return ieee754.read(this, offset, false, 23, 4)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readDoubleLE = function readDoubleLE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 8, this.length)
+  return ieee754.read(this, offset, true, 52, 8)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.readDoubleBE = function readDoubleBE (offset, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) checkOffset(offset, 8, this.length)
+  return ieee754.read(this, offset, false, 52, 8)
+}
+
+function checkInt (buf, value, offset, ext, max, min) {
+  if (!Buffer.isBuffer(buf)) throw new TypeError('"buffer" argument must be a Buffer instance')
+  if (value > max || value < min) throw new RangeError('"value" argument is out of bounds')
+  if (offset + ext > buf.length) throw new RangeError('Index out of range')
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeUIntLE = function writeUIntLE (value, offset, byteLength, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  byteLength = byteLength | 0
+  if (!noAssert) {
+    var maxBytes = Math.pow(2, 8 * byteLength) - 1
+    checkInt(this, value, offset, byteLength, maxBytes, 0)
+  }
+
+  var mul = 1
+  var i = 0
+  this[offset] = value & 0xFF
+  while (++i < byteLength && (mul *= 0x100)) {
+    this[offset + i] = (value / mul) & 0xFF
+  }
+
+  return offset + byteLength
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeUIntBE = function writeUIntBE (value, offset, byteLength, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  byteLength = byteLength | 0
+  if (!noAssert) {
+    var maxBytes = Math.pow(2, 8 * byteLength) - 1
+    checkInt(this, value, offset, byteLength, maxBytes, 0)
+  }
+
+  var i = byteLength - 1
+  var mul = 1
+  this[offset + i] = value & 0xFF
+  while (--i >= 0 && (mul *= 0x100)) {
+    this[offset + i] = (value / mul) & 0xFF
+  }
+
+  return offset + byteLength
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeUInt8 = function writeUInt8 (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 1, 0xff, 0)
+  if (!Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) value = Math.floor(value)
+  this[offset] = (value & 0xff)
+  return offset + 1
+}
+
+function objectWriteUInt16 (buf, value, offset, littleEndian) {
+  if (value < 0) value = 0xffff + value + 1
+  for (var i = 0, j = Math.min(buf.length - offset, 2); i < j; ++i) {
+    buf[offset + i] = (value & (0xff << (8 * (littleEndian ? i : 1 - i)))) >>>
+      (littleEndian ? i : 1 - i) * 8
+  }
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeUInt16LE = function writeUInt16LE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 2, 0xffff, 0)
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    this[offset] = (value & 0xff)
+    this[offset + 1] = (value >>> 8)
+  } else {
+    objectWriteUInt16(this, value, offset, true)
+  }
+  return offset + 2
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeUInt16BE = function writeUInt16BE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 2, 0xffff, 0)
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    this[offset] = (value >>> 8)
+    this[offset + 1] = (value & 0xff)
+  } else {
+    objectWriteUInt16(this, value, offset, false)
+  }
+  return offset + 2
+}
+
+function objectWriteUInt32 (buf, value, offset, littleEndian) {
+  if (value < 0) value = 0xffffffff + value + 1
+  for (var i = 0, j = Math.min(buf.length - offset, 4); i < j; ++i) {
+    buf[offset + i] = (value >>> (littleEndian ? i : 3 - i) * 8) & 0xff
+  }
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeUInt32LE = function writeUInt32LE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 4, 0xffffffff, 0)
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    this[offset + 3] = (value >>> 24)
+    this[offset + 2] = (value >>> 16)
+    this[offset + 1] = (value >>> 8)
+    this[offset] = (value & 0xff)
+  } else {
+    objectWriteUInt32(this, value, offset, true)
+  }
+  return offset + 4
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeUInt32BE = function writeUInt32BE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 4, 0xffffffff, 0)
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    this[offset] = (value >>> 24)
+    this[offset + 1] = (value >>> 16)
+    this[offset + 2] = (value >>> 8)
+    this[offset + 3] = (value & 0xff)
+  } else {
+    objectWriteUInt32(this, value, offset, false)
+  }
+  return offset + 4
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeIntLE = function writeIntLE (value, offset, byteLength, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) {
+    var limit = Math.pow(2, 8 * byteLength - 1)
+
+    checkInt(this, value, offset, byteLength, limit - 1, -limit)
+  }
+
+  var i = 0
+  var mul = 1
+  var sub = 0
+  this[offset] = value & 0xFF
+  while (++i < byteLength && (mul *= 0x100)) {
+    if (value < 0 && sub === 0 && this[offset + i - 1] !== 0) {
+      sub = 1
+    }
+    this[offset + i] = ((value / mul) >> 0) - sub & 0xFF
+  }
+
+  return offset + byteLength
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeIntBE = function writeIntBE (value, offset, byteLength, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) {
+    var limit = Math.pow(2, 8 * byteLength - 1)
+
+    checkInt(this, value, offset, byteLength, limit - 1, -limit)
+  }
+
+  var i = byteLength - 1
+  var mul = 1
+  var sub = 0
+  this[offset + i] = value & 0xFF
+  while (--i >= 0 && (mul *= 0x100)) {
+    if (value < 0 && sub === 0 && this[offset + i + 1] !== 0) {
+      sub = 1
+    }
+    this[offset + i] = ((value / mul) >> 0) - sub & 0xFF
+  }
+
+  return offset + byteLength
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeInt8 = function writeInt8 (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 1, 0x7f, -0x80)
+  if (!Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) value = Math.floor(value)
+  if (value < 0) value = 0xff + value + 1
+  this[offset] = (value & 0xff)
+  return offset + 1
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeInt16LE = function writeInt16LE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 2, 0x7fff, -0x8000)
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    this[offset] = (value & 0xff)
+    this[offset + 1] = (value >>> 8)
+  } else {
+    objectWriteUInt16(this, value, offset, true)
+  }
+  return offset + 2
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeInt16BE = function writeInt16BE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 2, 0x7fff, -0x8000)
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    this[offset] = (value >>> 8)
+    this[offset + 1] = (value & 0xff)
+  } else {
+    objectWriteUInt16(this, value, offset, false)
+  }
+  return offset + 2
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeInt32LE = function writeInt32LE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 4, 0x7fffffff, -0x80000000)
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    this[offset] = (value & 0xff)
+    this[offset + 1] = (value >>> 8)
+    this[offset + 2] = (value >>> 16)
+    this[offset + 3] = (value >>> 24)
+  } else {
+    objectWriteUInt32(this, value, offset, true)
+  }
+  return offset + 4
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeInt32BE = function writeInt32BE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  value = +value
+  offset = offset | 0
+  if (!noAssert) checkInt(this, value, offset, 4, 0x7fffffff, -0x80000000)
+  if (value < 0) value = 0xffffffff + value + 1
+  if (Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    this[offset] = (value >>> 24)
+    this[offset + 1] = (value >>> 16)
+    this[offset + 2] = (value >>> 8)
+    this[offset + 3] = (value & 0xff)
+  } else {
+    objectWriteUInt32(this, value, offset, false)
+  }
+  return offset + 4
+}
+
+function checkIEEE754 (buf, value, offset, ext, max, min) {
+  if (offset + ext > buf.length) throw new RangeError('Index out of range')
+  if (offset < 0) throw new RangeError('Index out of range')
+}
+
+function writeFloat (buf, value, offset, littleEndian, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) {
+    checkIEEE754(buf, value, offset, 4, 3.4028234663852886e+38, -3.4028234663852886e+38)
+  }
+  ieee754.write(buf, value, offset, littleEndian, 23, 4)
+  return offset + 4
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeFloatLE = function writeFloatLE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  return writeFloat(this, value, offset, true, noAssert)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeFloatBE = function writeFloatBE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  return writeFloat(this, value, offset, false, noAssert)
+}
+
+function writeDouble (buf, value, offset, littleEndian, noAssert) {
+  if (!noAssert) {
+    checkIEEE754(buf, value, offset, 8, 1.7976931348623157E+308, -1.7976931348623157E+308)
+  }
+  ieee754.write(buf, value, offset, littleEndian, 52, 8)
+  return offset + 8
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeDoubleLE = function writeDoubleLE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  return writeDouble(this, value, offset, true, noAssert)
+}
+
+Buffer.prototype.writeDoubleBE = function writeDoubleBE (value, offset, noAssert) {
+  return writeDouble(this, value, offset, false, noAssert)
+}
+
+// copy(targetBuffer, targetStart=0, sourceStart=0, sourceEnd=buffer.length)
+Buffer.prototype.copy = function copy (target, targetStart, start, end) {
+  if (!start) start = 0
+  if (!end && end !== 0) end = this.length
+  if (targetStart >= target.length) targetStart = target.length
+  if (!targetStart) targetStart = 0
+  if (end > 0 && end < start) end = start
+
+  // Copy 0 bytes; we're done
+  if (end === start) return 0
+  if (target.length === 0 || this.length === 0) return 0
+
+  // Fatal error conditions
+  if (targetStart < 0) {
+    throw new RangeError('targetStart out of bounds')
+  }
+  if (start < 0 || start >= this.length) throw new RangeError('sourceStart out of bounds')
+  if (end < 0) throw new RangeError('sourceEnd out of bounds')
+
+  // Are we oob?
+  if (end > this.length) end = this.length
+  if (target.length - targetStart < end - start) {
+    end = target.length - targetStart + start
+  }
+
+  var len = end - start
+  var i
+
+  if (this === target && start < targetStart && targetStart < end) {
+    // descending copy from end
+    for (i = len - 1; i >= 0; --i) {
+      target[i + targetStart] = this[i + start]
+    }
+  } else if (len < 1000 || !Buffer.TYPED_ARRAY_SUPPORT) {
+    // ascending copy from start
+    for (i = 0; i < len; ++i) {
+      target[i + targetStart] = this[i + start]
+    }
+  } else {
+    Uint8Array.prototype.set.call(
+      target,
+      this.subarray(start, start + len),
+      targetStart
+    )
+  }
+
+  return len
+}
+
+// Usage:
+//    buffer.fill(number[, offset[, end]])
+//    buffer.fill(buffer[, offset[, end]])
+//    buffer.fill(string[, offset[, end]][, encoding])
+Buffer.prototype.fill = function fill (val, start, end, encoding) {
+  // Handle string cases:
+  if (typeof val === 'string') {
+    if (typeof start === 'string') {
+      encoding = start
+      start = 0
+      end = this.length
+    } else if (typeof end === 'string') {
+      encoding = end
+      end = this.length
+    }
+    if (val.length === 1) {
+      var code = val.charCodeAt(0)
+      if (code < 256) {
+        val = code
+      }
+    }
+    if (encoding !== undefined && typeof encoding !== 'string') {
+      throw new TypeError('encoding must be a string')
+    }
+    if (typeof encoding === 'string' && !Buffer.isEncoding(encoding)) {
+      throw new TypeError('Unknown encoding: ' + encoding)
+    }
+  } else if (typeof val === 'number') {
+    val = val & 255
+  }
+
+  // Invalid ranges are not set to a default, so can range check early.
+  if (start < 0 || this.length < start || this.length < end) {
+    throw new RangeError('Out of range index')
+  }
+
+  if (end <= start) {
+    return this
+  }
+
+  start = start >>> 0
+  end = end === undefined ? this.length : end >>> 0
+
+  if (!val) val = 0
+
+  var i
+  if (typeof val === 'number') {
+    for (i = start; i < end; ++i) {
+      this[i] = val
+    }
+  } else {
+    var bytes = Buffer.isBuffer(val)
+      ? val
+      : utf8ToBytes(new Buffer(val, encoding).toString())
+    var len = bytes.length
+    for (i = 0; i < end - start; ++i) {
+      this[i + start] = bytes[i % len]
+    }
+  }
+
+  return this
+}
+
+// HELPER FUNCTIONS
+// ================
+
+var INVALID_BASE64_RE = /[^+\/0-9A-Za-z-_]/g
+
+function base64clean (str) {
+  // Node strips out invalid characters like \n and \t from the string, base64-js does not
+  str = stringtrim(str).replace(INVALID_BASE64_RE, '')
+  // Node converts strings with length < 2 to ''
+  if (str.length < 2) return ''
+  // Node allows for non-padded base64 strings (missing trailing ===), base64-js does not
+  while (str.length % 4 !== 0) {
+    str = str + '='
+  }
+  return str
+}
+
+function stringtrim (str) {
+  if (str.trim) return str.trim()
+  return str.replace(/^\s+|\s+$/g, '')
+}
+
+function toHex (n) {
+  if (n < 16) return '0' + n.toString(16)
+  return n.toString(16)
+}
+
+function utf8ToBytes (string, units) {
+  units = units || Infinity
+  var codePoint
+  var length = string.length
+  var leadSurrogate = null
+  var bytes = []
+
+  for (var i = 0; i < length; ++i) {
+    codePoint = string.charCodeAt(i)
+
+    // is surrogate component
+    if (codePoint > 0xD7FF && codePoint < 0xE000) {
+      // last char was a lead
+      if (!leadSurrogate) {
+        // no lead yet
+        if (codePoint > 0xDBFF) {
+          // unexpected trail
+          if ((units -= 3) > -1) bytes.push(0xEF, 0xBF, 0xBD)
+          continue
+        } else if (i + 1 === length) {
+          // unpaired lead
+          if ((units -= 3) > -1) bytes.push(0xEF, 0xBF, 0xBD)
+          continue
+        }
+
+        // valid lead
+        leadSurrogate = codePoint
+
+        continue
+      }
+
+      // 2 leads in a row
+      if (codePoint < 0xDC00) {
+        if ((units -= 3) > -1) bytes.push(0xEF, 0xBF, 0xBD)
+        leadSurrogate = codePoint
+        continue
+      }
+
+      // valid surrogate pair
+      codePoint = (leadSurrogate - 0xD800 << 10 | codePoint - 0xDC00) + 0x10000
+    } else if (leadSurrogate) {
+      // valid bmp char, but last char was a lead
+      if ((units -= 3) > -1) bytes.push(0xEF, 0xBF, 0xBD)
+    }
+
+    leadSurrogate = null
+
+    // encode utf8
+    if (codePoint < 0x80) {
+      if ((units -= 1) < 0) break
+      bytes.push(codePoint)
+    } else if (codePoint < 0x800) {
+      if ((units -= 2) < 0) break
+      bytes.push(
+        codePoint >> 0x6 | 0xC0,
+        codePoint & 0x3F | 0x80
+      )
+    } else if (codePoint < 0x10000) {
+      if ((units -= 3) < 0) break
+      bytes.push(
+        codePoint >> 0xC | 0xE0,
+        codePoint >> 0x6 & 0x3F | 0x80,
+        codePoint & 0x3F | 0x80
+      )
+    } else if (codePoint < 0x110000) {
+      if ((units -= 4) < 0) break
+      bytes.push(
+        codePoint >> 0x12 | 0xF0,
+        codePoint >> 0xC & 0x3F | 0x80,
+        codePoint >> 0x6 & 0x3F | 0x80,
+        codePoint & 0x3F | 0x80
+      )
+    } else {
+      throw new Error('Invalid code point')
+    }
+  }
+
+  return bytes
+}
+
+function asciiToBytes (str) {
+  var byteArray = []
+  for (var i = 0; i < str.length; ++i) {
+    // Node's code seems to be doing this and not & 0x7F..
+    byteArray.push(str.charCodeAt(i) & 0xFF)
+  }
+  return byteArray
+}
+
+function utf16leToBytes (str, units) {
+  var c, hi, lo
+  var byteArray = []
+  for (var i = 0; i < str.length; ++i) {
+    if ((units -= 2) < 0) break
+
+    c = str.charCodeAt(i)
+    hi = c >> 8
+    lo = c % 256
+    byteArray.push(lo)
+    byteArray.push(hi)
+  }
+
+  return byteArray
+}
+
+function base64ToBytes (str) {
+  return base64.toByteArray(base64clean(str))
+}
+
+function blitBuffer (src, dst, offset, length) {
+  for (var i = 0; i < length; ++i) {
+    if ((i + offset >= dst.length) || (i >= src.length)) break
+    dst[i + offset] = src[i]
+  }
+  return i
+}
+
+function isnan (val) {
+  return val !== val // eslint-disable-line no-self-compare
+}
+
+/* WEBPACK VAR INJECTION */}.call(exports, __webpack_require__(10)))
+
+/***/ }),
+/* 4 */
+/***/ (function(module, exports) {
+
+// Copyright Joyent, Inc. and other Node contributors.
+//
+// Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
+// copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
+// "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
+// without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
+// distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit
+// persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the
+// following conditions:
+//
+// The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
+// in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
+//
+// THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS
+// OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
+// MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN
+// NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM,
+// DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR
+// OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE
+// USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
+
+function EventEmitter() {
+  this._events = this._events || {};
+  this._maxListeners = this._maxListeners || undefined;
+}
+module.exports = EventEmitter;
+
+// Backwards-compat with node 0.10.x
+EventEmitter.EventEmitter = EventEmitter;
+
+EventEmitter.prototype._events = undefined;
+EventEmitter.prototype._maxListeners = undefined;
+
+// By default EventEmitters will print a warning if more than 10 listeners are
+// added to it. This is a useful default which helps finding memory leaks.
+EventEmitter.defaultMaxListeners = 10;
+
+// Obviously not all Emitters should be limited to 10. This function allows
+// that to be increased. Set to zero for unlimited.
+EventEmitter.prototype.setMaxListeners = function(n) {
+  if (!isNumber(n) || n < 0 || isNaN(n))
+    throw TypeError('n must be a positive number');
+  this._maxListeners = n;
+  return this;
+};
+
+EventEmitter.prototype.emit = function(type) {
+  var er, handler, len, args, i, listeners;
+
+  if (!this._events)
+    this._events = {};
+
+  // If there is no 'error' event listener then throw.
+  if (type === 'error') {
+    if (!this._events.error ||
+        (isObject(this._events.error) && !this._events.error.length)) {
+      er = arguments[1];
+      if (er instanceof Error) {
+        throw er; // Unhandled 'error' event
+      } else {
+        // At least give some kind of context to the user
+        var err = new Error('Uncaught, unspecified "error" event. (' + er + ')');
+        err.context = er;
+        throw err;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  handler = this._events[type];
+
+  if (isUndefined(handler))
+    return false;
+
+  if (isFunction(handler)) {
+    switch (arguments.length) {
+      // fast cases
+      case 1:
+        handler.call(this);
+        break;
+      case 2:
+        handler.call(this, arguments[1]);
+        break;
+      case 3:
+        handler.call(this, arguments[1], arguments[2]);
+        break;
+      // slower
+      default:
+        args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments, 1);
+        handler.apply(this, args);
+    }
+  } else if (isObject(handler)) {
+    args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments, 1);
+    listeners = handler.slice();
+    len = listeners.length;
+    for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
+      listeners[i].apply(this, args);
+  }
+
+  return true;
+};
+
+EventEmitter.prototype.addListener = function(type, listener) {
+  var m;
+
+  if (!isFunction(listener))
+    throw TypeError('listener must be a function');
+
+  if (!this._events)
+    this._events = {};
+
+  // To avoid recursion in the case that type === "newListener"! Before
+  // adding it to the listeners, first emit "newListener".
+  if (this._events.newListener)
+    this.emit('new…
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