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md5 2.2

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+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
+<package xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/packaging/2010/07/nuspec.xsd">
+ <metadata>
+ <id>md5</id>
+ <title>MD5</title>
+ <version>2.2</version>
+ <authors>Colin Plumb, Ron Rivest</authors>
+ <owners>Rob Reynolds</owners>
+ <summary>md5</summary>
+ <description>MD5 - Command Line Message Digest Utility
+SYNOPSIS
+
+md5 [ -csignature ] [ -l ] [ -n ] [ -u ] [ -v ] [ -dinput_text | infile… ]
+
+OPTIONS
+
+-csignature
+Computes the signature of the specified infile or the string supplied by the -d option and compares it against the specified signature. If the two signatures match, the exit status will be zero, otherwise the exit status will be 1. No signature is written; only the exit status is set. The signature to be checked must be specified as 32 hexadecimal digits.
+-dinput_text
+A signature is computed for the given input_text (which must be quoted if it contains white space characters) instead of input from infile or standard input. If input is specified with the -d option, no infile should be specified.
+-l
+Use lower case letters for hexadecimal digits "a" through "f". By default, upper case letters are used. Note that the signature argument to the -c option may use upper or lower case hexadecimal digits (or a mix) regardless of the setting of this option.
+-n
+Suppress printing the file name (or "-" for standard input) after the hexadecimal signature.
+-ofname
+Write output to fname. If fname is "-", output is written to standard output, which is the default is no -o option is specified.
+-u
+Print how-to-call information.
+-v
+Print version information.
+FILES
+
+If no infile or -d option is specified or infile is a single "-", md5 reads from standard input. A single "-" on the command line causes all subsequent arguments to be treated as file names even if they begin with "-". If no -o option is specified or the fname is a single "-", output is sent to standard output. Input and output are processed strictly serially; consequently md5 may be used in pipelines.
+</description>
+ <projectUrl>http://www.fourmilab.ch/md5/</projectUrl>
+ <tags>md5 checksum</tags>
+ <copyright></copyright>
+ <licenseUrl>http://www.fourmilab.ch/md5/</licenseUrl>
+ <requireLicenseAcceptance>false</requireLicenseAcceptance>
+ <iconUrl>https://raw.github.com/ferventcoder/nugetpackages/master/md5/md5.png</iconUrl>
+ </metadata>
+ <files>
+ <file src="tools\**" target="tools" />
+ </files>
+</package>
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+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
+ "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
+<head>
+<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
+<title>MD5: Command Line Message Digest Utility</title>
+<meta name="author" content="John Walker" />
+<meta name="description" content="MD5: Command Line Message Digest Utility" />
+<meta name="keywords" content="md5, message, digest, signature, command, line, utility" />
+<meta name="robots" content="index" />
+<link rel="stylesheet" href="/documents/styles/standard_screen.css" type="text/css" />
+<style type="text/css">
+ dd {
+ text-align: justify;
+ }
+
+ dt {
+ margin-top: 1ex;
+ }
+</style>
+</head>
+
+<body class="standard">
+<center>
+<h1><img src="md5.png" width="208" height="109" alt="MD5" /></h1>
+<h2>
+Command Line Message Digest Utility
+</h2>
+</center>
+
+<hr />
+
+<p class="j">
+This page describes <b>md5</b>, a command line utility usable on
+either Unix or MS-DOS/Windows, which generates and verifies
+message digests (digital signatures) using the MD5 algorithm.
+This program can be useful when developing shell scripts or Perl
+programs for software installation, file comparison, and
+detection of file corruption and tampering.
+</p>
+
+
+<h3>NAME</h3>
+ <b>md5</b> - generate / check MD5 message digest
+
+<h3>SYNOPSIS</h3>
+ <b>md5</b> [ <b>-c</b><i>signature</i> ]
+ [ <b>-l</b> ] [ <b>-n</b> ]
+ [ <b>-u</b> ] [ <b>-v</b> ]
+ [ <b>-d</b><i>input_text</i> | <em>infile</em>&hellip; ]
+
+<h3>DESCRIPTION</h3>
+
+<p class="j">
+A <em>message digest</em> is a compact digital signature for an
+arbitrarily long stream of binary data. An ideal message digest
+algorithm would never generate the same signature for two
+different sets of input, but achieving such theoretical
+perfection would require a message digest as long as the input
+file. Practical message digest algorithms compromise in favour
+of a digital signature of modest size created with an algorithm
+designed to make preparation of input text with a given
+signature computationally infeasible. Message digest algorithms
+have much in common with techniques used in encryption, but to a
+different end; verification that data have not been altered
+since the signature was published.
+</p>
+
+<p class="j">
+Many older programs requiring digital signatures employed 16 or
+32 bit <em>cyclical redundancy codes</em> (CRC) originally
+developed to verify correct transmission in data communication
+protocols, but these short codes, while adequate to detect the
+kind of transmission errors for which they were intended, are
+insufficiently secure for applications such as electronic
+commerce and verification of security related software
+distributions.
+</p>
+
+<p class="j">
+The most commonly used present-day message digest algorithm is
+the 128 bit MD5 algorithm, developed by Ron Rivest of the
+<a href="http://web.mit.edu/" target="_blank">MIT</a>
+<a href="http://www.lcs.mit.edu/" target="_blank">Laboratory for Computer Science</a> and
+<a href="http://www.rsa.com/" target="_blank">RSA Data Security,
+Inc.</a> The algorithm, with a reference implementation, was
+published as Internet <a href="rfc1321.html">RFC 1321</a> in April 1992, and was
+placed into the public domain at that time. Message
+digest algorithms such as MD5 are not deemed
+&ldquo;encryption technology&rdquo; and are not subject to the
+export controls some governments impose on
+other data security products. (Obviously, the
+responsibility for obeying the laws in the jurisdiction
+in which you reside is entirely your own, but many
+common Web and Mail utilities use MD5, and I am unaware
+of any restrictions on their distribution and use.)
+</p>
+
+<p class="j">
+The MD5 algorithm has been implemented in numerous
+computer languages including C,
+<a href="http://www.perl.org/" target="_blank">Perl</a>, and
+<a href="http://java.sun.com/" target="_blank">Java</a>; if you're
+writing a program in such a language, track down a suitable
+subroutine and incorporate it into your program. The
+program described on this page is a <em>command line</em>
+implementation of MD5, intended for use in shell scripts
+and Perl programs (it is much faster than computing
+an MD5 signature directly in Perl). This <b>md5</b>
+program was originally developed as part of a suite of tools
+intended to monitor large collections of files (for example,
+the contents of a Web site) to detect corruption of
+files and inadvertent (or perhaps malicious) changes. That
+task is now best accomplished with more comprehensive
+packages such as
+<a href="http://www.tripwire.com/" target="_blank">Tripwire</a>,
+but the command line <b>md5</b> component continues to prove useful
+for verifying correct delivery and installation of software packages,
+comparing the contents of two different systems, and checking for
+changes in specific files.
+</p>
+
+<h3>OPTIONS</h3>
+<dl>
+<dt><b>-c</b><i>signature</i></dt> <dd>Computes the signature of the
+ specified <em>infile</em> or the string supplied by the <b>-d</b>
+ option and compares it against the specified <i>signature</i>.
+ If the two signatures match, the exit status will be zero,
+ otherwise the exit status will be 1. No signature is written;
+ only the exit
+ status is set. The signature to be checked must be specified
+ as 32 hexadecimal digits.</dd>
+
+<dt><b>-d</b><i>input_text</i></dt> <dd>A signature is computed for the
+ given <i>input_text</i> (which must be quoted if it contains white space
+ characters) instead of input from <i>infile</i> or standard
+ input. If input is specified with the <b>-d</b> option, no
+ <i>infile</i> should be specified.</dd>
+
+<dt><b>-l</b></dt> <dd>Use lower case letters for hexadecimal
+ digits &ldquo;a&rdquo; through &ldquo;f&rdquo;. By default, upper case letters are
+ used. Note that the <i>signature</i> argument to the
+ <b>-c</b> option may use upper or lower case hexadecimal
+ digits (or a mix) regardless of the setting of this option.</dd>
+
+<dt><b>-n</b></dt> <dd>Suppress printing the file name (or
+ &ldquo;<tt>-</tt>&rdquo; for standard input) after the hexadecimal
+ signature.</dd>
+
+<dt><b>-o</b><i>fname</i></dt> <dd>Write output to <i>fname</i>.
+ If <i>fname</i> is &ldquo;<tt>-</tt>&rdquo;, output is written
+ to standard output, which is the default is no
+ <b>-o</b> option is specified.</dd>
+
+<dt><b>-u</b></dt> <dd>Print how-to-call information.</dd>
+
+<dt><b>-v</b></dt> <dd>Print version information.</dd>
+</dl>
+
+<h3>FILES</h3>
+<p class="j">
+ If no <em>infile</em> or <b>-d</b> option is specified or
+ <em>infile</em> is a single &ldquo;<tt>-</tt>&rdquo;, <b>md5</b>
+ reads from standard input. A single &ldquo;<tt>-</tt>&rdquo; on
+ the command line causes all subsequent arguments to be treated as
+ file names even if they begin with &ldquo;<tt>-</tt>&rdquo;. If
+ no <b>-o</b> option is specified or the <em>fname</em> is a
+ single &ldquo;<tt>-</tt>&rdquo;, output is sent to standard
+ output. Input and output are processed strictly serially;
+ consequently <b>md5</b> may be used in pipelines.
+</p>
+
+<h3>BUGS</h3>
+
+<p class="j">
+The mechanism used to set standard input to binary mode may be
+specific to Microsoft C; if you rebuild the DOS/Windows version
+of the program from source using another compiler, be sure to verify
+binary files work properly when read via redirection or a pipe.
+</p>
+
+<p class="j">
+This program has not been tested on a machine on which <tt>int</tt>
+and/or <tt>long</tt> are longer than 32 bits.
+</p>
+
+<h2><img src="/images/icons/file.png" alt="" align="middle" width="40" height="40" />
+ Download <a href="md5.zip">md5.zip</a> (Zipped)
+ or <a href="md5.tar.gz">md5.tar.gz</a> (tar/gzip)</h2>
+
+<p class="j">
+ The program is provided as either <a href="md5.zip">md5.zip</a>, a
+ <a href="http://www.info-zip.org/" target="_blank">Zipped</a> archive, or
+ <a href="md5.tar.gz">md5.tar.gz</a>, a <tt>gzip</tt>ped
+ <tt>tar</tt> archive. The two archive formats have identical
+ contents; both include a
+ ready-to-run Win32 command-line executable program, <code>md5.exe</code>
+ (compiled using Microsoft Visual C++ .NET),
+ and source code along with a
+ <code>Makefile</code> to build the program under Unix.
+</p>
+
+<h3>SEE ALSO</h3>
+ <b>sum</b>(1)
+
+<h3>EXIT STATUS</h3>
+<p class="j">
+ <b>md5</b> returns status 0 if processing was
+ completed without errors, 1 if the <b>-c</b> option was
+ specified and the given signature does not match that of the input,
+ and 2 if processing could not be performed at
+ all due, for example, to a nonexistent input file.
+</p>
+
+<h3>COPYING</h3>
+
+<blockquote>
+<p class="j">
+ This software is in the public domain. Permission to use, copy,
+ modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for
+ any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, without any
+ conditions or restrictions. This software is provided &ldquo;as is&rdquo;
+ without express or implied warranty.
+</p>
+</blockquote>
+
+<h3>ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS</h3>
+
+<p class="j">
+The MD5 algorithm was developed by Ron Rivest. The public
+domain C language implementation used in this program was
+written by Colin Plumb in 1993.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a href="/">Fourmilab home page</a></h3>
+<hr />
+<address>
+<a href="/">by John Walker</a><br />
+September 29th, 2012
+</address>
+</body>
+</html>
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+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
+ "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
+<head>
+<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
+<title>The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm</title>
+<meta name="author" content="John Walker" />
+<meta name="description" content="RFC 1321: The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm" />
+<meta name="keywords" content="md5, message, digest" />
+<meta name="robots" content="noindex" />
+<link rel="stylesheet" href="/documents/styles/standard_screen.css" type="text/css" />
+</head>
+
+<body class="standard">
+<table>
+<tr>
+<td width="10%" valign="top">
+<a href="./"><img src="md5s.png" width="95" height="50" alt="MD5 Main Page" border="0" /></a></td>
+<td width="80%">
+<center>
+<h1>The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm</h1>
+<h4>
+Network Working Group<br />
+Request for Comments: 1321<br />
+<br />
+R. Rivest<br />
+<a href="http://web.mit.edu/">MIT</a> <a href="http://www.lcs.mit.edu/">Laboratory for Computer Science</a><br />
+and <a href="http://www.rsa.com/">RSA Data Security, Inc.</a><br />
+April 1992
+</h4>
+</center>
+</td>
+<td width="10%">&nbsp;</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+
+<hr />
+
+<h3>Status of this Memo</h3>
+
+ This memo provides information for the Internet community. It does
+ not specify an Internet standard. Distribution of this memo is
+ unlimited.
+
+<h3>Acknowlegements</h3>
+
+ We would like to thank Don Coppersmith, Burt Kaliski, Ralph Merkle,
+ David Chaum, and Noam Nisan for numerous helpful comments and
+ suggestions.
+
+<h3>Table of Contents</h3>
+
+<dl>
+<dt></dt> <dd><a href="#1">1. Executive Summary</a></dd>
+<dt></dt> <dd><a href="#2">2. Terminology and Notation</a></dd>
+<dt></dt> <dd><a href="#3">3. MD5 Algorithm Description</a></dd>
+<dt></dt> <dd><a href="#4">4. Summary</a></dd>
+<dt></dt> <dd><a href="#5">5. Differences Between MD4 and MD5</a></dd>
+<dt></dt> <dd><a href="#References">References</a></dd>
+<dt></dt> <dd><a href="#AppendixA">APPENDIX A - Reference Implementation</a></dd>
+<dt></dt> <dd><a href="#Security">Security Considerations</a></dd>
+<dt></dt> <dd><a href="#Author">Author's Address</a></dd>
+</dl>
+
+<h3><a class="i" name="1">1. Executive Summary</a></h3>
+
+ This document describes the MD5 message-digest algorithm. The
+ algorithm takes as input a message of arbitrary length and produces
+ as output a 128-bit "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input.
+ It is conjectured that it is computationally infeasible to produce
+ two messages having the same message digest, or to produce any
+ message having a given prespecified target message digest. The MD5
+ algorithm is intended for digital signature applications, where a
+ large file must be "compressed" in a secure manner before being
+ encrypted with a private (secret) key under a public-key cryptosystem
+ such as RSA.
+<p />
+
+ The MD5 algorithm is designed to be quite fast on 32-bit machines. In
+ addition, the MD5 algorithm does not require any large substitution
+ tables; the algorithm can be coded quite compactly.
+
+<p />
+
+ The MD5 algorithm is an extension of the MD4 message-digest algorithm
+ [1,2]. MD5 is slightly slower than MD4, but is more "conservative" in
+ design. MD5 was designed because it was felt that MD4 was perhaps
+ being adopted for use more quickly than justified by the existing
+ critical review; because MD4 was designed to be exceptionally fast,
+ it is "at the edge" in terms of risking successful cryptanalytic
+ attack. MD5 backs off a bit, giving up a little in speed for a much
+ greater likelihood of ultimate security. It incorporates some
+ suggestions made by various reviewers, and contains additional
+ optimizations. The MD5 algorithm is being placed in the public domain
+ for review and possible adoption as a standard.
+
+<p />
+
+ For OSI-based applications, MD5's object identifier is
+
+<blockquote>
+
+ md5 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=<br />
+ &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;iso(1) member-body(2) US(840) rsadsi(113549) digestAlgorithm(2) 5}
+</blockquote>
+
+
+ In the X.509 type AlgorithmIdentifier [3], the parameters for MD5
+ should have type NULL.
+
+<h3><a class="i" name="2">2. Terminology and Notation</a></h3>
+
+ In this document a "word" is a 32-bit quantity and a "byte" is an
+ eight-bit quantity. A sequence of bits can be interpreted in a
+ natural manner as a sequence of bytes, where each consecutive group
+ of eight bits is interpreted as a byte with the high-order (most
+ significant) bit of each byte listed first. Similarly, a sequence of
+ bytes can be interpreted as a sequence of 32-bit words, where each
+ consecutive group of four bytes is interpreted as a word with the
+ low-order (least significant) byte given first.
+
+<p />
+
+ Let x_i denote "x sub i". If the subscript is an expression, we
+ surround it in braces, as in x_{i+1}. Similarly, we use ^ for
+ superscripts (exponentiation), so that x^i denotes x to the i-th
+ power.
+
+<p />
+
+ Let the symbol "+" denote addition of words (i.e., modulo-2^32
+ addition). Let X &lt;&lt;&lt; s denote the 32-bit value obtained by circularly
+ shifting (rotating) X left by s bit positions. Let not(X) denote the
+ bit-wise complement of X, and let X v Y denote the bit-wise OR of X
+ and Y. Let X xor Y denote the bit-wise XOR of X and Y, and let XY
+ denote the bit-wise AND of X and Y.
+
+<h3><a class="i" name="3">3. MD5 Algorithm Description</a></h3>
+
+ We begin by supposing that we have a b-bit message as input, and that
+ we wish to find its message digest. Here b is an arbitrary
+ nonnegative integer; b may be zero, it need not be a multiple of
+ eight, and it may be arbitrarily large. We imagine the bits of the
+ message written down as follows:
+
+<blockquote>
+ m_0 m_1 ... m_{b-1}
+</blockquote>
+
+ The following five steps are performed to compute the message digest
+ of the message.
+
+<h4>3.1 Step 1. Append Padding Bits</h4>
+
+ The message is "padded" (extended) so that its length (in bits) is
+ congruent to 448, modulo 512. That is, the message is extended so
+ that it is just 64 bits shy of being a multiple of 512 bits long.
+ Padding is always performed, even if the length of the message is
+ already congruent to 448, modulo 512.
+
+<p />
+
+ Padding is performed as follows: a single "1" bit is appended to the
+ message, and then "0" bits are appended so that the length in bits of
+ the padded message becomes congruent to 448, modulo 512. In all, at
+ least one bit and at most 512 bits are appended.
+
+<h4>3.2 Step 2. Append Length</h4>
+
+ A 64-bit representation of b (the length of the message before the
+ padding bits were added) is appended to the result of the previous
+ step. In the unlikely event that b is greater than 2^64, then only
+ the low-order 64 bits of b are used. (These bits are appended as two
+ 32-bit words and appended low-order word first in accordance with the
+ previous conventions.)
+
+<p />
+
+ At this point the resulting message (after padding with bits and with
+ b) has a length that is an exact multiple of 512 bits. Equivalently,
+ this message has a length that is an exact multiple of 16 (32-bit)
+ words. Let M[0 ... N-1] denote the words of the resulting message,
+ where N is a multiple of 16.
+
+<h4>3.3 Step 3. Initialize MD Buffer</h4>
+
+ A four-word buffer (A,B,C,D) is used to compute the message digest.
+ Here each of A, B, C, D is a 32-bit register. These registers are
+ initialized to the following values in hexadecimal, low-order bytes
+ first):
+
+<blockquote>
+ word A: 01 23 45 67<br />
+ word B: 89 ab cd ef<br />
+ word C: fe dc ba 98<br />
+ word D: 76 54 32 10
+</blockquote>
+
+<h4>3.4 Step 4. Process Message in 16-Word Blocks</h4>
+
+ We first define four auxiliary functions that each take as input
+ three 32-bit words and produce as output one 32-bit word.
+
+<blockquote>
+ F(X,Y,Z) = XY v not(X) Z<br />
+ G(X,Y,Z) = XZ v Y not(Z)<br />
+ H(X,Y,Z) = X xor Y xor Z<br />
+ I(X,Y,Z) = Y xor (X v not(Z))
+</blockquote>
+
+ In each bit position F acts as a conditional: if X then Y else Z.
+ The function F could have been defined using + instead of v since XY
+ and not(X)Z will never have 1's in the same bit position.) It is
+ interesting to note that if the bits of X, Y, and Z are independent
+ and unbiased, the each bit of F(X,Y,Z) will be independent and
+ unbiased.
+
+<p />
+
+ The functions G, H, and I are similar to the function F, in that they
+ act in "bitwise parallel" to produce their output from the bits of X,
+ Y, and Z, in such a manner that if the corresponding bits of X, Y,
+ and Z are independent and unbiased, then each bit of G(X,Y,Z),
+ H(X,Y,Z), and I(X,Y,Z) will be independent and unbiased. Note that
+ the function H is the bit-wise "xor" or "parity" function of its
+ inputs.
+
+<p />
+
+ This step uses a 64-element table T[1 ... 64] constructed from the
+ sine function. Let T[i] denote the i-th element of the table, which
+ is equal to the integer part of 4294967296 times abs(sin(i)), where i
+ is in radians. The elements of the table are given in the <a href="#AppendixA">appendix</a>.
+
+<p />
+
+ Do the following:
+
+<p />
+
+<pre>
+ /* Process each 16-word block. */
+ For i = 0 to N/16-1 do
+
+ /* Copy block i into X. */
+ For j = 0 to 15 do
+ Set X[j] to M[i*16+j].
+ end /* of loop on j */
+
+ /* Save A as AA, B as BB, C as CC, and D as DD. */
+ AA = A
+ BB = B
+ CC = C
+ DD = D
+
+ /* Round 1. */
+ /* Let [abcd k s i] denote the operation
+ a = b + ((a + F(b,c,d) + X[k] + T[i]) &lt;&lt;&lt; s). */
+ /* Do the following 16 operations. */
+ [ABCD 0 7 1] [DABC 1 12 2] [CDAB 2 17 3] [BCDA 3 22 4]
+ [ABCD 4 7 5] [DABC 5 12 6] [CDAB 6 17 7] [BCDA 7 22 8]
+ [ABCD 8 7 9] [DABC 9 12 10] [CDAB 10 17 11] [BCDA 11 22 12]
+ [ABCD 12 7 13] [DABC 13 12 14] [CDAB 14 17 15] [BCDA 15 22 16]
+
+ /* Round 2. */
+ /* Let [abcd k s i] denote the operation
+ a = b + ((a + G(b,c,d) + X[k] + T[i]) &lt;&lt;&lt; s). */
+ /* Do the following 16 operations. */
+ [ABCD 1 5 17] [DABC 6 9 18] [CDAB 11 14 19] [BCDA 0 20 20]
+ [ABCD 5 5 21] [DABC 10 9 22] [CDAB 15 14 23] [BCDA 4 20 24]
+ [ABCD 9 5 25] [DABC 14 9 26] [CDAB 3 14 27] [BCDA 8 20 28]
+ [ABCD 13 5 29] [DABC 2 9 30] [CDAB 7 14 31] [BCDA 12 20 32]
+
+ /* Round 3. */
+ /* Let [abcd k s t] denote the operation
+ a = b + ((a + H(b,c,d) + X[k] + T[i]) &lt;&lt;&lt; s). */
+ /* Do the following 16 operations. */
+ [ABCD 5 4 33] [DABC 8 11 34] [CDAB 11 16 35] [BCDA 14 23 36]
+ [ABCD 1 4 37] [DABC 4 11 38] [CDAB 7 16 39] [BCDA 10 23 40]
+ [ABCD 13 4 41] [DABC 0 11 42] [CDAB 3 16 43] [BCDA 6 23 44]
+ [ABCD 9 4 45] [DABC 12 11 46] [CDAB 15 16 47] [BCDA 2 23 48]
+
+ /* Round 4. */
+ /* Let [abcd k s t] denote the operation
+ a = b + ((a + I(b,c,d) + X[k] + T[i]) &lt;&lt;&lt; s). */
+ /* Do the following 16 operations. */
+ [ABCD 0 6 49] [DABC 7 10 50] [CDAB 14 15 51] [BCDA 5 21 52]
+ [ABCD 12 6 53] [DABC 3 10 54] [CDAB 10 15 55] [BCDA 1 21 56]
+ [ABCD 8 6 57] [DABC 15 10 58] [CDAB 6 15 59] [BCDA 13 21 60]
+ [ABCD 4 6 61] [DABC 11 10 62] [CDAB 2 15 63] [BCDA 9 21 64]
+
+ /* Then perform the following additions. (That is increment each
+ of the four registers by the value it had before this block
+ was started.) */
+ A = A + AA
+ B = B + BB
+ C = C + CC
+ D = D + DD
+
+ end /* of loop on i */
+</pre>
+
+<h4>3.5 Step 5. Output</h4>
+
+ The message digest produced as output is A, B, C, D. That is, we
+ begin with the low-order byte of A, and end with the high-order byte
+ of D.
+
+<p />
+
+ This completes the description of MD5. A reference implementation in
+ C is given in the appendix.
+
+<h3><a class="i" name="4">4. Summary</a></h3>
+
+ The MD5 message-digest algorithm is simple to implement, and provides
+ a "fingerprint" or message digest of a message of arbitrary length.
+ It is conjectured that the difficulty of coming up with two messages
+ having the same message digest is on the order of 2^64 operations,
+ and that the difficulty of coming up with any message having a given
+ message digest is on the order of 2^128 operations. The MD5 algorithm
+ has been carefully scrutinized for weaknesses. It is, however, a
+ relatively new algorithm and further security analysis is of course
+ justified, as is the case with any new proposal of this sort.
+
+<h3><a class="i" name="5">5. Differences Between MD4 and MD5</a></h3>
+
+ The following are the differences between MD4 and MD5:
+
+<p />
+
+<ol>
+<li> A fourth round has been added.</li>
+
+<li> Each step now has a unique additive constant.</li>
+
+<li> The function g in round 2 was changed from (XY v XZ v YZ) to
+ (XZ v Y not(Z)) to make g less symmetric.</li>
+
+<li> Each step now adds in the result of the previous step. This
+ promotes a faster "avalanche effect".</li>
+
+<li> The order in which input words are accessed in rounds 2 and
+ 3 is changed, to make these patterns less like each other.</li>
+
+<li> The shift amounts in each round have been approximately
+ optimized, to yield a faster "avalanche effect." The shifts in
+ different rounds are distinct.</li>
+</ol>
+
+<h3><a class="i" name="References">References</a></h3>
+
+<dl>
+<dt>[1]</dt> <dd>Rivest, R., "The MD4 Message Digest Algorithm", RFC 1320, MIT and
+ RSA Data Security, Inc., April 1992.</dd>
+
+<dt>[2]</dt> <dd>Rivest, R., "The MD4 message digest algorithm", in A.J. Menezes
+ and S.A. Vanstone, editors, Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO '90
+ Proceedings, pages 303-311, Springer-Verlag, 1991.</dd>
+
+<dt>[3]</dt> <dd>CCITT Recommendation X.509 (1988), "The Directory -
+ Authentication Framework."</dd>
+</dl>
+
+<h3><a class="i" name="AppendixA">APPENDIX A - Reference Implementation</a></h3>
+
+ This appendix contains the following files taken from RSAREF: A
+ Cryptographic Toolkit for Privacy-Enhanced Mail:
+
+<blockquote>
+ <a href="#A.1">global.h</a> -- global header file<br />
+ <a href="#A.2">md5.h</a> -- header file for MD5<br />
+ <a href="#A.3">md5c.c</a> -- source code for MD5
+</blockquote>
+
+ For more information on RSAREF, send email
+ to &lt;<a href="mailto:rsaref@rsa.com">rsaref@rsa.com</a>&gt;.
+
+<p />
+
+ The appendix also includes the following file:
+
+<blockquote>
+ <a href="#A.4">mddriver.c</a> -- test driver for MD2, MD4 and MD5
+</blockquote>
+
+ The driver compiles for MD5 by default but can compile for MD2 or MD4
+ if the symbol MD is defined on the C compiler command line as 2 or 4.
+
+<p />
+
+ The implementation is portable and should work on many different
+ plaforms. However, it is not difficult to optimize the
+ implementation on particular platforms, an exercise left to the
+ reader. For example, on "little-endian" platforms where the
+ lowest-addressed byte in a 32-bit word is the least significant and
+ there are no alignment restrictions, the call to Decode in
+ MD5Transform can be replaced with a typecast.
+
+<h4><a class="i" name="A.1">A.1 global.h</a></h4>
+
+<pre>
+/* GLOBAL.H - RSAREF types and constants
+ */
+
+/* PROTOTYPES should be set to one if and only if the compiler supports
+ function argument prototyping.
+The following makes PROTOTYPES default to 0 if it has not already
+ been defined with C compiler flags.
+ */
+#ifndef PROTOTYPES
+#define PROTOTYPES 0
+#endif
+
+/* POINTER defines a generic pointer type */
+typedef unsigned char *POINTER;
+
+/* UINT2 defines a two byte word */
+typedef unsigned short int UINT2;
+
+/* UINT4 defines a four byte word */
+typedef unsigned long int UINT4;
+
+/* PROTO_LIST is defined depending on how PROTOTYPES is defined above.
+If using PROTOTYPES, then PROTO_LIST returns the list, otherwise it
+ returns an empty list.
+ */
+#if PROTOTYPES
+#define PROTO_LIST(list) list
+#else
+#define PROTO_LIST(list) ()
+#endif
+</pre>
+
+<h4><a class="i" name="A.2">A.2 md5.h</a></h4>
+
+<pre>
+/* MD5.H - header file for MD5C.C
+ */
+
+/* Copyright (C) 1991-2, RSA Data Security, Inc. Created 1991. All
+rights reserved.
+
+License to copy and use this software is granted provided that it
+is identified as the "RSA Data Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest
+Algorithm" in all material mentioning or referencing this software
+or this function.
+
+License is also granted to make and use derivative works provided
+that such works are identified as "derived from the RSA Data
+Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm" in all material
+mentioning or referencing the derived work.
+
+RSA Data Security, Inc. makes no representations concerning either
+the merchantability of this software or the suitability of this
+software for any particular purpose. It is provided "as is"
+without express or implied warranty of any kind.
+
+These notices must be retained in any copies of any part of this
+documentation and/or software.
+ */
+
+/* MD5 context. */
+typedef struct {
+ UINT4 state[4]; /* state (ABCD) */
+ UINT4 count[2]; /* number of bits, modulo 2^64 (lsb first) */
+ unsigned char buffer[64]; /* input buffer */
+} MD5_CTX;
+
+void MD5Init PROTO_LIST ((MD5_CTX *));
+void MD5Update PROTO_LIST
+ ((MD5_CTX *, unsigned char *, unsigned int));
+void MD5Final PROTO_LIST ((unsigned char [16], MD5_CTX *));
+</pre>
+
+<h4><a class="i" name="A.3">A.3 md5c.c</a></h4>
+
+<pre>
+
+/* MD5C.C - RSA Data Security, Inc., MD5 message-digest algorithm
+ */
+
+/* Copyright (C) 1991-2, RSA Data Security, Inc. Created 1991. All
+rights reserved.
+
+License to copy and use this software is granted provided that it
+is identified as the "RSA Data Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest
+Algorithm" in all material mentioning or referencing this software
+or this function.
+
+License is also granted to make and use derivative works provided
+that such works are identified as "derived from the RSA Data
+Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm" in all material
+mentioning or referencing the derived work.
+
+RSA Data Security, Inc. makes no representations concerning either
+the merchantability of this software or the suitability of this
+software for any particular purpose. It is provided "as is"
+without express or implied warranty of any kind.
+
+These notices must be retained in any copies of any part of this
+documentation and/or software.
+ */
+
+#include "global.h"
+#include "md5.h"
+
+/* Constants for MD5Transform routine.
+ */
+
+#define S11 7
+#define S12 12
+#define S13 17
+#define S14 22
+#define S21 5
+#define S22 9
+#define S23 14
+#define S24 20
+#define S31 4
+#define S32 11
+#define S33 16
+#define S34 23
+#define S41 6
+#define S42 10
+#define S43 15
+#define S44 21
+
+static void MD5Transform PROTO_LIST ((UINT4 [4], unsigned char [64]));
+static void Encode PROTO_LIST
+ ((unsigned char *, UINT4 *, unsigned int));
+static void Decode PROTO_LIST
+ ((UINT4 *, unsigned char *, unsigned int));
+static void MD5_memcpy PROTO_LIST ((POINTER, POINTER, unsigned int));
+static void MD5_memset PROTO_LIST ((POINTER, int, unsigned int));
+
+static unsigned char PADDING[64] = {
+ 0x80, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
+ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
+ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
+};
+
+/* F, G, H and I are basic MD5 functions.
+ */
+#define F(x, y, z) (((x) &amp; (y)) | ((~x) &amp; (z)))
+#define G(x, y, z) (((x) &amp; (z)) | ((y) &amp; (~z)))
+#define H(x, y, z) ((x) ^ (y) ^ (z))
+#define I(x, y, z) ((y) ^ ((x) | (~z)))
+
+/* ROTATE_LEFT rotates x left n bits.
+ */
+#define ROTATE_LEFT(x, n) (((x) &lt;&lt; (n)) | ((x) &gt;&gt; (32-(n))))
+
+/* FF, GG, HH, and II transformations for rounds 1, 2, 3, and 4.
+Rotation is separate from addition to prevent recomputation.
+ */
+#define FF(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
+ (a) += F ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + (UINT4)(ac); \
+ (a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
+ (a) += (b); \
+ }
+#define GG(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
+ (a) += G ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + (UINT4)(ac); \
+ (a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
+ (a) += (b); \
+ }
+#define HH(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
+ (a) += H ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + (UINT4)(ac); \
+ (a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
+ (a) += (b); \
+ }
+#define II(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
+ (a) += I ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + (UINT4)(ac); \
+ (a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
+ (a) += (b); \
+ }
+
+/* MD5 initialization. Begins an MD5 operation, writing a new context.
+ */
+void MD5Init (context)
+MD5_CTX *context; /* context */
+{
+ context-&gt;count[0] = context-&gt;count[1] = 0;
+ /* Load magic initialization constants.
+*/
+ context-&gt;state[0] = 0x67452301;
+ context-&gt;state[1] = 0xefcdab89;
+ context-&gt;state[2] = 0x98badcfe;
+ context-&gt;state[3] = 0x10325476;
+}
+
+/* MD5 block update operation. Continues an MD5 message-digest
+ operation, processing another message block, and updating the
+ context.
+ */
+void MD5Update (context, input, inputLen)
+MD5_CTX *context; /* context */
+unsigned char *input; /* input block */
+unsigned int inputLen; /* length of input block */
+{
+ unsigned int i, index, partLen;
+
+ /* Compute number of bytes mod 64 */
+ index = (unsigned int)((context-&gt;count[0] &gt;&gt; 3) &amp; 0x3F);
+
+ /* Update number of bits */
+ if ((context-&gt;count[0] += ((UINT4)inputLen &lt;&lt; 3))
+ &lt; ((UINT4)inputLen &lt;&lt; 3))
+ context-&gt;count[1]++;
+ context-&gt;count[1] += ((UINT4)inputLen &gt;&gt; 29);
+
+ partLen = 64 - index;
+
+ /* Transform as many times as possible.
+*/
+ if (inputLen &gt;= partLen) {
+ MD5_memcpy
+ ((POINTER)&amp;context-&gt;buffer[index], (POINTER)input, partLen);
+ MD5Transform (context-&gt;state, context-&gt;buffer);
+
+ for (i = partLen; i + 63 &lt; inputLen; i += 64)
+ MD5Transform (context-&gt;state, &amp;input[i]);
+
+ index = 0;
+ }
+ else
+ i = 0;
+
+ /* Buffer remaining input */
+ MD5_memcpy
+ ((POINTER)&amp;context-&gt;buffer[index], (POINTER)&amp;input[i],
+ inputLen-i);
+}
+
+/* MD5 finalization. Ends an MD5 message-digest operation, writing the
+ the message digest and zeroizing the context.
+ */
+void MD5Final (digest, context)
+unsigned char digest[16]; /* message digest */
+MD5_CTX *context; /* context */
+{
+ unsigned char bits[8];
+ unsigned int index, padLen;
+
+ /* Save number of bits */
+ Encode (bits, context-&gt;count, 8);
+
+ /* Pad out to 56 mod 64.
+*/
+ index = (unsigned int)((context-&gt;count[0] &gt;&gt; 3) &amp; 0x3f);
+ padLen = (index &lt; 56) ? (56 - index) : (120 - index);
+ MD5Update (context, PADDING, padLen);
+
+ /* Append length (before padding) */
+ MD5Update (context, bits, 8);
+
+ /* Store state in digest */
+ Encode (digest, context-&gt;state, 16);
+
+ /* Zeroize sensitive information.
+*/
+ MD5_memset ((POINTER)context, 0, sizeof (*context));
+}
+
+/* MD5 basic transformation. Transforms state based on block.
+ */
+static void MD5Transform (state, block)
+UINT4 state[4];
+unsigned char block[64];
+{
+ UINT4 a = state[0], b = state[1], c = state[2], d = state[3], x[16];
+
+ Decode (x, block, 64);
+
+ /* Round 1 */
+ FF (a, b, c, d, x[ 0], S11, 0xd76aa478); /* 1 */
+ FF (d, a, b, c, x[ 1], S12, 0xe8c7b756); /* 2 */
+ FF (c, d, a, b, x[ 2], S13, 0x242070db); /* 3 */
+ FF (b, c, d, a, x[ 3], S14, 0xc1bdceee); /* 4 */
+ FF (a, b, c, d, x[ 4], S11, 0xf57c0faf); /* 5 */
+ FF (d, a, b, c, x[ 5], S12, 0x4787c62a); /* 6 */
+ FF (c, d, a, b, x[ 6], S13, 0xa8304613); /* 7 */
+ FF (b, c, d, a, x[ 7], S14, 0xfd469501); /* 8 */
+ FF (a, b, c, d, x[ 8], S11, 0x698098d8); /* 9 */
+ FF (d, a, b, c, x[ 9], S12, 0x8b44f7af); /* 10 */
+ FF (c, d, a, b, x[10], S13, 0xffff5bb1); /* 11 */
+ FF (b, c, d, a, x[11], S14, 0x895cd7be); /* 12 */
+ FF (a, b, c, d, x[12], S11, 0x6b901122); /* 13 */
+ FF (d, a, b, c, x[13], S12, 0xfd987193); /* 14 */
+ FF (c, d, a, b, x[14], S13, 0xa679438e); /* 15 */
+ FF (b, c, d, a, x[15], S14, 0x49b40821); /* 16 */
+
+ /* Round 2 */
+ GG (a, b, c, d, x[ 1], S21, 0xf61e2562); /* 17 */
+ GG (d, a, b, c, x[ 6], S22, 0xc040b340); /* 18 */
+ GG (c, d, a, b, x[11], S23, 0x265e5a51); /* 19 */
+ GG (b, c, d, a, x[ 0], S24, 0xe9b6c7aa); /* 20 */
+ GG (a, b, c, d, x[ 5], S21, 0xd62f105d); /* 21 */
+ GG (d, a, b, c, x[10], S22, 0x2441453); /* 22 */
+ GG (c, d, a, b, x[15], S23, 0xd8a1e681); /* 23 */
+ GG (b, c, d, a, x[ 4], S24, 0xe7d3fbc8); /* 24 */
+ GG (a, b, c, d, x[ 9], S21, 0x21e1cde6); /* 25 */
+ GG (d, a, b, c, x[14], S22, 0xc33707d6); /* 26 */
+ GG (c, d, a, b, x[ 3], S23, 0xf4d50d87); /* 27 */
+ GG (b, c, d, a, x[ 8], S24, 0x455a14ed); /* 28 */
+ GG (a, b, c, d, x[13], S21, 0xa9e3e905); /* 29 */
+ GG (d, a, b, c, x[ 2], S22, 0xfcefa3f8); /* 30 */
+ GG (c, d, a, b, x[ 7], S23, 0x676f02d9); /* 31 */
+ GG (b, c, d, a, x[12], S24, 0x8d2a4c8a); /* 32 */
+
+ /* Round 3 */
+ HH (a, b, c, d, x[ 5], S31, 0xfffa3942); /* 33 */
+ HH (d, a, b, c, x[ 8], S32, 0x8771f681); /* 34 */
+ HH (c, d, a, b, x[11], S33, 0x6d9d6122); /* 35 */
+ HH (b, c, d, a, x[14], S34, 0xfde5380c); /* 36 */
+ HH (a, b, c, d, x[ 1], S31, 0xa4beea44); /* 37 */
+ HH (d, a, b, c, x[ 4], S32, 0x4bdecfa9); /* 38 */
+ HH (c, d, a, b, x[ 7], S33, 0xf6bb4b60); /* 39 */
+ HH (b, c, d, a, x[10], S34, 0xbebfbc70); /* 40 */
+ HH (a, b, c, d, x[13], S31, 0x289b7ec6); /* 41 */
+ HH (d, a, b, c, x[ 0], S32, 0xeaa127fa); /* 42 */
+ HH (c, d, a, b, x[ 3], S33, 0xd4ef3085); /* 43 */
+ HH (b, c, d, a, x[ 6], S34, 0x4881d05); /* 44 */
+ HH (a, b, c, d, x[ 9], S31, 0xd9d4d039); /* 45 */
+ HH (d, a, b, c, x[12], S32, 0xe6db99e5); /* 46 */
+ HH (c, d, a, b, x[15], S33, 0x1fa27cf8); /* 47 */
+ HH (b, c, d, a, x[ 2], S34, 0xc4ac5665); /* 48 */
+
+ /* Round 4 */
+ II (a, b, c, d, x[ 0], S41, 0xf4292244); /* 49 */
+ II (d, a, b, c, x[ 7], S42, 0x432aff97); /* 50 */
+ II (c, d, a, b, x[14], S43, 0xab9423a7); /* 51 */
+ II (b, c, d, a, x[ 5], S44, 0xfc93a039); /* 52 */
+ II (a, b, c, d, x[12], S41, 0x655b59c3); /* 53 */
+ II (d, a, b, c, x[ 3], S42, 0x8f0ccc92); /* 54 */
+ II (c, d, a, b, x[10], S43, 0xffeff47d); /* 55 */
+ II (b, c, d, a, x[ 1], S44, 0x85845dd1); /* 56 */
+ II (a, b, c, d, x[ 8], S41, 0x6fa87e4f); /* 57 */
+ II (d, a, b, c, x[15], S42, 0xfe2ce6e0); /* 58 */
+ II (c, d, a, b, x[ 6], S43, 0xa3014314); /* 59 */
+ II (b, c, d, a, x[13], S44, 0x4e0811a1); /* 60 */
+ II (a, b, c, d, x[ 4], S41, 0xf7537e82); /* 61 */
+ II (d, a, b, c, x[11], S42, 0xbd3af235); /* 62 */
+ II (c, d, a, b, x[ 2], S43, 0x2ad7d2bb); /* 63 */
+ II (b, c, d, a, x[ 9], S44, 0xeb86d391); /* 64 */
+
+ state[0] += a;
+ state[1] += b;
+ state[2] += c;
+ state[3] += d;
+
+ /* Zeroize sensitive information.
+ */
+ MD5_memset ((POINTER)x, 0, sizeof (x));
+}
+
+/* Encodes input (UINT4) into output (unsigned char). Assumes len is
+ a multiple of 4.
+ */
+static void Encode (output, input, len)
+unsigned char *output;
+UINT4 *input;
+unsigned int len;
+{
+ unsigned int i, j;
+
+ for (i = 0, j = 0; j &lt; len; i++, j += 4) {
+ output[j] = (unsigned char)(input[i] &amp; 0xff);
+ output[j+1] = (unsigned char)((input[i] &gt;&gt; 8) &amp; 0xff);
+ output[j+2] = (unsigned char)((input[i] &gt;&gt; 16) &amp; 0xff);
+ output[j+3] = (unsigned char)((input[i] &gt;&gt; 24) &amp; 0xff);
+ }
+}
+
+/* Decodes input (unsigned char) into output (UINT4). Assumes len is
+ a multiple of 4.
+ */
+static void Decode (output, input, len)
+UINT4 *output;
+unsigned char *input;
+unsigned int len;
+{
+ unsigned int i, j;
+
+ for (i = 0, j = 0; j &lt; len; i++, j += 4)
+ output[i] = ((UINT4)input[j]) | (((UINT4)input[j+1]) &lt;&lt; 8) |
+ (((UINT4)input[j+2]) &lt;&lt; 16) | (((UINT4)input[j+3]) &lt;&lt; 24);
+}
+
+/* Note: Replace "for loop" with standard memcpy if possible.
+ */
+
+static void MD5_memcpy (output, input, len)
+POINTER output;
+POINTER input;
+unsigned int len;
+{
+ unsigned int i;
+
+ for (i = 0; i &lt; len; i++)
+ output[i] = input[i];
+}
+
+/* Note: Replace "for loop" with standard memset if possible.
+ */
+static void MD5_memset (output, value, len)
+POINTER output;
+int value;
+unsigned int len;
+{
+ unsigned int i;
+
+ for (i = 0; i &lt; len; i++)
+ ((char *)output)[i] = (char)value;
+}
+</pre>
+
+<h4><a class="i" name="A.4">A.4 mddriver.c</a></h4>
+
+<pre>
+/* MDDRIVER.C - test driver for MD2, MD4 and MD5
+ */
+
+/* Copyright (C) 1990-2, RSA Data Security, Inc. Created 1990. All
+rights reserved.
+
+RSA Data Security, Inc. makes no representations concerning either
+the merchantability of this software or the suitability of this
+software for any particular purpose. It is provided "as is"
+without express or implied warranty of any kind.
+
+These notices must be retained in any copies of any part of this
+documentation and/or software.
+ */
+
+/* The following makes MD default to MD5 if it has not already been
+ defined with C compiler flags.
+ */
+#ifndef MD
+#define MD MD5
+#endif
+
+#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;
+#include &lt;time.h&gt;
+#include &lt;string.h&gt;
+#include "global.h"
+#if MD == 2
+#include "md2.h"
+#endif
+#if MD == 4
+#include "md4.h"
+#endif
+#if MD == 5
+#include "md5.h"
+#endif
+
+/* Length of test block, number of test blocks.
+ */
+#define TEST_BLOCK_LEN 1000
+#define TEST_BLOCK_COUNT 1000
+
+static void MDString PROTO_LIST ((char *));
+static void MDTimeTrial PROTO_LIST ((void));
+static void MDTestSuite PROTO_LIST ((void));
+static void MDFile PROTO_LIST ((char *));
+static void MDFilter PROTO_LIST ((void));
+static void MDPrint PROTO_LIST ((unsigned char [16]));
+
+#if MD == 2
+#define MD_CTX MD2_CTX
+#define MDInit MD2Init
+#define MDUpdate MD2Update
+#define MDFinal MD2Final
+#endif
+#if MD == 4
+#define MD_CTX MD4_CTX
+#define MDInit MD4Init
+#define MDUpdate MD4Update
+#define MDFinal MD4Final
+#endif
+#if MD == 5
+#define MD_CTX MD5_CTX
+#define MDInit MD5Init
+#define MDUpdate MD5Update
+#define MDFinal MD5Final
+#endif
+
+/* Main driver.
+
+Arguments (may be any combination):
+ -sstring - digests string
+ -t - runs time trial
+ -x - runs test script
+ filename - digests file
+ (none) - digests standard input
+ */
+int main (argc, argv)
+int argc;
+char *argv[];
+{
+ int i;
+
+ if (argc &gt; 1)
+ for (i = 1; i &lt; argc; i++)
+ if (argv[i][0] == '-' &amp;&amp; argv[i][1] == 's')
+ MDString (argv[i] + 2);
+ else if (strcmp (argv[i], "-t") == 0)
+ MDTimeTrial ();
+ else if (strcmp (argv[i], "-x") == 0)
+ MDTestSuite ();
+ else
+ MDFile (argv[i]);
+ else
+ MDFilter ();
+
+ return (0);
+}
+
+/* Digests a string and prints the result.
+ */
+static void MDString (string)
+char *string;
+{
+ MD_CTX context;
+ unsigned char digest[16];
+ unsigned int len = strlen (string);
+
+ MDInit (&amp;context);
+ MDUpdate (&amp;context, string, len);
+ MDFinal (digest, &amp;context);
+
+ printf ("MD%d (\"%s\") = ", MD, string);
+ MDPrint (digest);
+ printf ("\n");
+}
+
+/* Measures the time to digest TEST_BLOCK_COUNT TEST_BLOCK_LEN-byte
+ blocks.
+ */
+static void MDTimeTrial ()
+{
+ MD_CTX context;
+ time_t endTime, startTime;
+ unsigned char block[TEST_BLOCK_LEN], digest[16];
+ unsigned int i;
+
+ printf
+ ("MD%d time trial. Digesting %d %d-byte blocks ...", MD,
+ TEST_BLOCK_LEN, TEST_BLOCK_COUNT);
+
+ /* Initialize block */
+ for (i = 0; i &lt; TEST_BLOCK_LEN; i++)
+ block[i] = (unsigned char)(i &amp; 0xff);
+
+ /* Start timer */
+ time (&amp;startTime);
+
+ /* Digest blocks */
+ MDInit (&amp;context);
+ for (i = 0; i &lt; TEST_BLOCK_COUNT; i++)
+ MDUpdate (&amp;context, block, TEST_BLOCK_LEN);
+ MDFinal (digest, &amp;context);
+
+ /* Stop timer */
+ time (&amp;endTime);
+
+ printf (" done\n");
+ printf ("Digest = ");
+ MDPrint (digest);
+ printf ("\nTime = %ld seconds\n", (long)(endTime-startTime));
+ printf
+ ("Speed = %ld bytes/second\n",
+ (long)TEST_BLOCK_LEN * (long)TEST_BLOCK_COUNT/(endTime-startTime));
+}
+
+/* Digests a reference suite of strings and prints the results.
+ */
+static void MDTestSuite ()
+{
+ printf ("MD%d test suite:\n", MD);
+
+ MDString ("");
+ MDString ("a");
+ MDString ("abc");
+ MDString ("message digest");
+ MDString ("abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz");
+ MDString
+ ("ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789");
+ MDString
+ ("1234567890123456789012345678901234567890\
+1234567890123456789012345678901234567890");
+}
+
+/* Digests a file and prints the result.
+ */
+static void MDFile (filename)
+char *filename;
+{
+ FILE *file;
+ MD_CTX context;
+ int len;
+ unsigned char buffer[1024], digest[16];
+
+ if ((file = fopen (filename, "rb")) == NULL)
+ printf ("%s can't be opened\n", filename);
+
+ else {
+ MDInit (&amp;context);
+ while (len = fread (buffer, 1, 1024, file))
+ MDUpdate (&amp;context, buffer, len);
+ MDFinal (digest, &amp;context);
+
+ fclose (file);
+
+ printf ("MD%d (%s) = ", MD, filename);
+ MDPrint (digest);
+ printf ("\n");
+ }
+}
+
+/* Digests the standard input and prints the result.
+ */
+static void MDFilter ()
+{
+ MD_CTX context;
+ int len;
+ unsigned char buffer[16], digest[16];
+
+ MDInit (&amp;context);
+ while (len = fread (buffer, 1, 16, stdin))
+ MDUpdate (&amp;context, buffer, len);
+ MDFinal (digest, &amp;context);
+
+ MDPrint (digest);
+ printf ("\n");
+}
+
+/* Prints a message digest in hexadecimal.
+ */
+static void MDPrint (digest)
+unsigned char digest[16];
+{
+ unsigned int i;
+
+ for (i = 0; i &lt; 16; i++)
+ printf ("%02x", digest[i]);
+}
+</pre>
+
+<h4><a class="i" name="A.5">A.5 Test suite</a></h4>
+
+ The MD5 test suite (driver option "-x") should print the following
+ results:
+
+<p />
+<pre>
+MD5 test suite:
+MD5 ("") = d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e
+MD5 ("a") = 0cc175b9c0f1b6a831c399e269772661
+MD5 ("abc") = 900150983cd24fb0d6963f7d28e17f72
+MD5 ("message digest") = f96b697d7cb7938d525a2f31aaf161d0
+MD5 ("abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz") = c3fcd3d76192e4007dfb496cca67e13b
+MD5 ("ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789") =
+d174ab98d277d9f5a5611c2c9f419d9f
+MD5 ("12345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890") = 57edf4a22be3c955ac49da2e2107b67a
+</pre>
+
+<h3><a class="i" name="Security">Security Considerations</a></h3>
+
+ The level of security discussed in this memo is considered to be
+ sufficient for implementing very high security hybrid
+ digital-signature schemes based on MD5 and a public-key
+ cryptosystem.
+
+<h3><a class="i" name="Author">Author's Address</a></h3>
+
+<blockquote>
+ Ronald L. Rivest<br />
+ Massachusetts Institute of Technology<br />
+ Laboratory for Computer Science<br />
+ NE43-324<br />
+ 545 Technology Square<br />
+ Cambridge, MA 02139-1986<p />
+
+ Phone: (617) 253-5880<br />
+ EMail: rivest@theory.lcs.mit.edu
+</blockquote>
+
+<p />
+<hr />
+<h3 class="nav"><a href="./">Back to MD5 main page</a></h3>
+<h3 class="nav"><a href="/">Fourmilab home page</a></h3>
+</body>
+</html>
View
1,179 md5/tools/rfc1321.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,1179 @@
+
+
+
+
+
+
+Network Working Group R. Rivest
+Request for Comments: 1321 MIT Laboratory for Computer Science
+ and RSA Data Security, Inc.
+ April 1992
+
+
+ The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm
+
+Status of this Memo
+
+ This memo provides information for the Internet community. It does
+ not specify an Internet standard. Distribution of this memo is
+ unlimited.
+
+Acknowlegements
+
+ We would like to thank Don Coppersmith, Burt Kaliski, Ralph Merkle,
+ David Chaum, and Noam Nisan for numerous helpful comments and
+ suggestions.
+
+Table of Contents
+
+ 1. Executive Summary 1
+ 2. Terminology and Notation 2
+ 3. MD5 Algorithm Description 3
+ 4. Summary 6
+ 5. Differences Between MD4 and MD5 6
+ References 7
+ APPENDIX A - Reference Implementation 7
+ Security Considerations 21
+ Author's Address 21
+
+1. Executive Summary
+
+ This document describes the MD5 message-digest algorithm. The
+ algorithm takes as input a message of arbitrary length and produces
+ as output a 128-bit "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input.
+ It is conjectured that it is computationally infeasible to produce
+ two messages having the same message digest, or to produce any
+ message having a given prespecified target message digest. The MD5
+ algorithm is intended for digital signature applications, where a
+ large file must be "compressed" in a secure manner before being
+ encrypted with a private (secret) key under a public-key cryptosystem
+ such as RSA.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 1]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+ The MD5 algorithm is designed to be quite fast on 32-bit machines. In
+ addition, the MD5 algorithm does not require any large substitution
+ tables; the algorithm can be coded quite compactly.
+
+ The MD5 algorithm is an extension of the MD4 message-digest algorithm
+ 1,2]. MD5 is slightly slower than MD4, but is more "conservative" in
+ design. MD5 was designed because it was felt that MD4 was perhaps
+ being adopted for use more quickly than justified by the existing
+ critical review; because MD4 was designed to be exceptionally fast,
+ it is "at the edge" in terms of risking successful cryptanalytic
+ attack. MD5 backs off a bit, giving up a little in speed for a much
+ greater likelihood of ultimate security. It incorporates some
+ suggestions made by various reviewers, and contains additional
+ optimizations. The MD5 algorithm is being placed in the public domain
+ for review and possible adoption as a standard.
+
+ For OSI-based applications, MD5's object identifier is
+
+ md5 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
+ iso(1) member-body(2) US(840) rsadsi(113549) digestAlgorithm(2) 5}
+
+ In the X.509 type AlgorithmIdentifier [3], the parameters for MD5
+ should have type NULL.
+
+2. Terminology and Notation
+
+ In this document a "word" is a 32-bit quantity and a "byte" is an
+ eight-bit quantity. A sequence of bits can be interpreted in a
+ natural manner as a sequence of bytes, where each consecutive group
+ of eight bits is interpreted as a byte with the high-order (most
+ significant) bit of each byte listed first. Similarly, a sequence of
+ bytes can be interpreted as a sequence of 32-bit words, where each
+ consecutive group of four bytes is interpreted as a word with the
+ low-order (least significant) byte given first.
+
+ Let x_i denote "x sub i". If the subscript is an expression, we
+ surround it in braces, as in x_{i+1}. Similarly, we use ^ for
+ superscripts (exponentiation), so that x^i denotes x to the i-th
+ power.
+
+ Let the symbol "+" denote addition of words (i.e., modulo-2^32
+ addition). Let X <<< s denote the 32-bit value obtained by circularly
+ shifting (rotating) X left by s bit positions. Let not(X) denote the
+ bit-wise complement of X, and let X v Y denote the bit-wise OR of X
+ and Y. Let X xor Y denote the bit-wise XOR of X and Y, and let XY
+ denote the bit-wise AND of X and Y.
+
+
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 2]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+3. MD5 Algorithm Description
+
+ We begin by supposing that we have a b-bit message as input, and that
+ we wish to find its message digest. Here b is an arbitrary
+ nonnegative integer; b may be zero, it need not be a multiple of
+ eight, and it may be arbitrarily large. We imagine the bits of the
+ message written down as follows:
+
+ m_0 m_1 ... m_{b-1}
+
+ The following five steps are performed to compute the message digest
+ of the message.
+
+3.1 Step 1. Append Padding Bits
+
+ The message is "padded" (extended) so that its length (in bits) is
+ congruent to 448, modulo 512. That is, the message is extended so
+ that it is just 64 bits shy of being a multiple of 512 bits long.
+ Padding is always performed, even if the length of the message is
+ already congruent to 448, modulo 512.
+
+ Padding is performed as follows: a single "1" bit is appended to the
+ message, and then "0" bits are appended so that the length in bits of
+ the padded message becomes congruent to 448, modulo 512. In all, at
+ least one bit and at most 512 bits are appended.
+
+3.2 Step 2. Append Length
+
+ A 64-bit representation of b (the length of the message before the
+ padding bits were added) is appended to the result of the previous
+ step. In the unlikely event that b is greater than 2^64, then only
+ the low-order 64 bits of b are used. (These bits are appended as two
+ 32-bit words and appended low-order word first in accordance with the
+ previous conventions.)
+
+ At this point the resulting message (after padding with bits and with
+ b) has a length that is an exact multiple of 512 bits. Equivalently,
+ this message has a length that is an exact multiple of 16 (32-bit)
+ words. Let M[0 ... N-1] denote the words of the resulting message,
+ where N is a multiple of 16.
+
+3.3 Step 3. Initialize MD Buffer
+
+ A four-word buffer (A,B,C,D) is used to compute the message digest.
+ Here each of A, B, C, D is a 32-bit register. These registers are
+ initialized to the following values in hexadecimal, low-order bytes
+ first):
+
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 3]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+ word A: 01 23 45 67
+ word B: 89 ab cd ef
+ word C: fe dc ba 98
+ word D: 76 54 32 10
+
+3.4 Step 4. Process Message in 16-Word Blocks
+
+ We first define four auxiliary functions that each take as input
+ three 32-bit words and produce as output one 32-bit word.
+
+ F(X,Y,Z) = XY v not(X) Z
+ G(X,Y,Z) = XZ v Y not(Z)
+ H(X,Y,Z) = X xor Y xor Z
+ I(X,Y,Z) = Y xor (X v not(Z))
+
+ In each bit position F acts as a conditional: if X then Y else Z.
+ The function F could have been defined using + instead of v since XY
+ and not(X)Z will never have 1's in the same bit position.) It is
+ interesting to note that if the bits of X, Y, and Z are independent
+ and unbiased, the each bit of F(X,Y,Z) will be independent and
+ unbiased.
+
+ The functions G, H, and I are similar to the function F, in that they
+ act in "bitwise parallel" to produce their output from the bits of X,
+ Y, and Z, in such a manner that if the corresponding bits of X, Y,
+ and Z are independent and unbiased, then each bit of G(X,Y,Z),
+ H(X,Y,Z), and I(X,Y,Z) will be independent and unbiased. Note that
+ the function H is the bit-wise "xor" or "parity" function of its
+ inputs.
+
+ This step uses a 64-element table T[1 ... 64] constructed from the
+ sine function. Let T[i] denote the i-th element of the table, which
+ is equal to the integer part of 4294967296 times abs(sin(i)), where i
+ is in radians. The elements of the table are given in the appendix.
+
+ Do the following:
+
+ /* Process each 16-word block. */
+ For i = 0 to N/16-1 do
+
+ /* Copy block i into X. */
+ For j = 0 to 15 do
+ Set X[j] to M[i*16+j].
+ end /* of loop on j */
+
+ /* Save A as AA, B as BB, C as CC, and D as DD. */
+ AA = A
+ BB = B
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 4]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+ CC = C
+ DD = D
+
+ /* Round 1. */
+ /* Let [abcd k s i] denote the operation
+ a = b + ((a + F(b,c,d) + X[k] + T[i]) <<< s). */
+ /* Do the following 16 operations. */
+ [ABCD 0 7 1] [DABC 1 12 2] [CDAB 2 17 3] [BCDA 3 22 4]
+ [ABCD 4 7 5] [DABC 5 12 6] [CDAB 6 17 7] [BCDA 7 22 8]
+ [ABCD 8 7 9] [DABC 9 12 10] [CDAB 10 17 11] [BCDA 11 22 12]
+ [ABCD 12 7 13] [DABC 13 12 14] [CDAB 14 17 15] [BCDA 15 22 16]
+
+ /* Round 2. */
+ /* Let [abcd k s i] denote the operation
+ a = b + ((a + G(b,c,d) + X[k] + T[i]) <<< s). */
+ /* Do the following 16 operations. */
+ [ABCD 1 5 17] [DABC 6 9 18] [CDAB 11 14 19] [BCDA 0 20 20]
+ [ABCD 5 5 21] [DABC 10 9 22] [CDAB 15 14 23] [BCDA 4 20 24]
+ [ABCD 9 5 25] [DABC 14 9 26] [CDAB 3 14 27] [BCDA 8 20 28]
+ [ABCD 13 5 29] [DABC 2 9 30] [CDAB 7 14 31] [BCDA 12 20 32]
+
+ /* Round 3. */
+ /* Let [abcd k s t] denote the operation
+ a = b + ((a + H(b,c,d) + X[k] + T[i]) <<< s). */
+ /* Do the following 16 operations. */
+ [ABCD 5 4 33] [DABC 8 11 34] [CDAB 11 16 35] [BCDA 14 23 36]
+ [ABCD 1 4 37] [DABC 4 11 38] [CDAB 7 16 39] [BCDA 10 23 40]
+ [ABCD 13 4 41] [DABC 0 11 42] [CDAB 3 16 43] [BCDA 6 23 44]
+ [ABCD 9 4 45] [DABC 12 11 46] [CDAB 15 16 47] [BCDA 2 23 48]
+
+ /* Round 4. */
+ /* Let [abcd k s t] denote the operation
+ a = b + ((a + I(b,c,d) + X[k] + T[i]) <<< s). */
+ /* Do the following 16 operations. */
+ [ABCD 0 6 49] [DABC 7 10 50] [CDAB 14 15 51] [BCDA 5 21 52]
+ [ABCD 12 6 53] [DABC 3 10 54] [CDAB 10 15 55] [BCDA 1 21 56]
+ [ABCD 8 6 57] [DABC 15 10 58] [CDAB 6 15 59] [BCDA 13 21 60]
+ [ABCD 4 6 61] [DABC 11 10 62] [CDAB 2 15 63] [BCDA 9 21 64]
+
+ /* Then perform the following additions. (That is increment each
+ of the four registers by the value it had before this block
+ was started.) */
+ A = A + AA
+ B = B + BB
+ C = C + CC
+ D = D + DD
+
+ end /* of loop on i */
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 5]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+3.5 Step 5. Output
+
+ The message digest produced as output is A, B, C, D. That is, we
+ begin with the low-order byte of A, and end with the high-order byte
+ of D.
+
+ This completes the description of MD5. A reference implementation in
+ C is given in the appendix.
+
+4. Summary
+
+ The MD5 message-digest algorithm is simple to implement, and provides
+ a "fingerprint" or message digest of a message of arbitrary length.
+ It is conjectured that the difficulty of coming up with two messages
+ having the same message digest is on the order of 2^64 operations,
+ and that the difficulty of coming up with any message having a given
+ message digest is on the order of 2^128 operations. The MD5 algorithm
+ has been carefully scrutinized for weaknesses. It is, however, a
+ relatively new algorithm and further security analysis is of course
+ justified, as is the case with any new proposal of this sort.
+
+5. Differences Between MD4 and MD5
+
+ The following are the differences between MD4 and MD5:
+
+ 1. A fourth round has been added.
+
+ 2. Each step now has a unique additive constant.
+
+ 3. The function g in round 2 was changed from (XY v XZ v YZ) to
+ (XZ v Y not(Z)) to make g less symmetric.
+
+ 4. Each step now adds in the result of the previous step. This
+ promotes a faster "avalanche effect".
+
+ 5. The order in which input words are accessed in rounds 2 and
+ 3 is changed, to make these patterns less like each other.
+
+ 6. The shift amounts in each round have been approximately
+ optimized, to yield a faster "avalanche effect." The shifts in
+ different rounds are distinct.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 6]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+References
+
+ [1] Rivest, R., "The MD4 Message Digest Algorithm", RFC 1320, MIT and
+ RSA Data Security, Inc., April 1992.
+
+ [2] Rivest, R., "The MD4 message digest algorithm", in A.J. Menezes
+ and S.A. Vanstone, editors, Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO '90
+ Proceedings, pages 303-311, Springer-Verlag, 1991.
+
+ [3] CCITT Recommendation X.509 (1988), "The Directory -
+ Authentication Framework."
+
+APPENDIX A - Reference Implementation
+
+ This appendix contains the following files taken from RSAREF: A
+ Cryptographic Toolkit for Privacy-Enhanced Mail:
+
+ global.h -- global header file
+
+ md5.h -- header file for MD5
+
+ md5c.c -- source code for MD5
+
+ For more information on RSAREF, send email to <rsaref@rsa.com>.
+
+ The appendix also includes the following file:
+
+ mddriver.c -- test driver for MD2, MD4 and MD5
+
+ The driver compiles for MD5 by default but can compile for MD2 or MD4
+ if the symbol MD is defined on the C compiler command line as 2 or 4.
+
+ The implementation is portable and should work on many different
+ plaforms. However, it is not difficult to optimize the implementation
+ on particular platforms, an exercise left to the reader. For example,
+ on "little-endian" platforms where the lowest-addressed byte in a 32-
+ bit word is the least significant and there are no alignment
+ restrictions, the call to Decode in MD5Transform can be replaced with
+ a typecast.
+
+A.1 global.h
+
+/* GLOBAL.H - RSAREF types and constants
+ */
+
+/* PROTOTYPES should be set to one if and only if the compiler supports
+ function argument prototyping.
+The following makes PROTOTYPES default to 0 if it has not already
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 7]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+ been defined with C compiler flags.
+ */
+#ifndef PROTOTYPES
+#define PROTOTYPES 0
+#endif
+
+/* POINTER defines a generic pointer type */
+typedef unsigned char *POINTER;
+
+/* UINT2 defines a two byte word */
+typedef unsigned short int UINT2;
+
+/* UINT4 defines a four byte word */
+typedef unsigned long int UINT4;
+
+/* PROTO_LIST is defined depending on how PROTOTYPES is defined above.
+If using PROTOTYPES, then PROTO_LIST returns the list, otherwise it
+ returns an empty list.
+ */
+#if PROTOTYPES
+#define PROTO_LIST(list) list
+#else
+#define PROTO_LIST(list) ()
+#endif
+
+A.2 md5.h
+
+/* MD5.H - header file for MD5C.C
+ */
+
+/* Copyright (C) 1991-2, RSA Data Security, Inc. Created 1991. All
+rights reserved.
+
+License to copy and use this software is granted provided that it
+is identified as the "RSA Data Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest
+Algorithm" in all material mentioning or referencing this software
+or this function.
+
+License is also granted to make and use derivative works provided
+that such works are identified as "derived from the RSA Data
+Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm" in all material
+mentioning or referencing the derived work.
+
+RSA Data Security, Inc. makes no representations concerning either
+the merchantability of this software or the suitability of this
+software for any particular purpose. It is provided "as is"
+without express or implied warranty of any kind.
+
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 8]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+These notices must be retained in any copies of any part of this
+documentation and/or software.
+ */
+
+/* MD5 context. */
+typedef struct {
+ UINT4 state[4]; /* state (ABCD) */
+ UINT4 count[2]; /* number of bits, modulo 2^64 (lsb first) */
+ unsigned char buffer[64]; /* input buffer */
+} MD5_CTX;
+
+void MD5Init PROTO_LIST ((MD5_CTX *));
+void MD5Update PROTO_LIST
+ ((MD5_CTX *, unsigned char *, unsigned int));
+void MD5Final PROTO_LIST ((unsigned char [16], MD5_CTX *));
+
+A.3 md5c.c
+
+/* MD5C.C - RSA Data Security, Inc., MD5 message-digest algorithm
+ */
+
+/* Copyright (C) 1991-2, RSA Data Security, Inc. Created 1991. All
+rights reserved.
+
+License to copy and use this software is granted provided that it
+is identified as the "RSA Data Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest
+Algorithm" in all material mentioning or referencing this software
+or this function.
+
+License is also granted to make and use derivative works provided
+that such works are identified as "derived from the RSA Data
+Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm" in all material
+mentioning or referencing the derived work.
+
+RSA Data Security, Inc. makes no representations concerning either
+the merchantability of this software or the suitability of this
+software for any particular purpose. It is provided "as is"
+without express or implied warranty of any kind.
+
+These notices must be retained in any copies of any part of this
+documentation and/or software.
+ */
+
+#include "global.h"
+#include "md5.h"
+
+/* Constants for MD5Transform routine.
+ */
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 9]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+#define S11 7
+#define S12 12
+#define S13 17
+#define S14 22
+#define S21 5
+#define S22 9
+#define S23 14
+#define S24 20
+#define S31 4
+#define S32 11
+#define S33 16
+#define S34 23
+#define S41 6
+#define S42 10
+#define S43 15
+#define S44 21
+
+static void MD5Transform PROTO_LIST ((UINT4 [4], unsigned char [64]));
+static void Encode PROTO_LIST
+ ((unsigned char *, UINT4 *, unsigned int));
+static void Decode PROTO_LIST
+ ((UINT4 *, unsigned char *, unsigned int));
+static void MD5_memcpy PROTO_LIST ((POINTER, POINTER, unsigned int));
+static void MD5_memset PROTO_LIST ((POINTER, int, unsigned int));
+
+static unsigned char PADDING[64] = {
+ 0x80, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
+ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
+ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
+};
+
+/* F, G, H and I are basic MD5 functions.
+ */
+#define F(x, y, z) (((x) & (y)) | ((~x) & (z)))
+#define G(x, y, z) (((x) & (z)) | ((y) & (~z)))
+#define H(x, y, z) ((x) ^ (y) ^ (z))
+#define I(x, y, z) ((y) ^ ((x) | (~z)))
+
+/* ROTATE_LEFT rotates x left n bits.
+ */
+#define ROTATE_LEFT(x, n) (((x) << (n)) | ((x) >> (32-(n))))
+
+/* FF, GG, HH, and II transformations for rounds 1, 2, 3, and 4.
+Rotation is separate from addition to prevent recomputation.
+ */
+#define FF(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
+ (a) += F ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + (UINT4)(ac); \
+ (a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 10]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+ (a) += (b); \
+ }
+#define GG(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
+ (a) += G ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + (UINT4)(ac); \
+ (a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
+ (a) += (b); \
+ }
+#define HH(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
+ (a) += H ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + (UINT4)(ac); \
+ (a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
+ (a) += (b); \
+ }
+#define II(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
+ (a) += I ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + (UINT4)(ac); \
+ (a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
+ (a) += (b); \
+ }
+
+/* MD5 initialization. Begins an MD5 operation, writing a new context.
+ */
+void MD5Init (context)
+MD5_CTX *context; /* context */
+{
+ context->count[0] = context->count[1] = 0;
+ /* Load magic initialization constants.
+*/
+ context->state[0] = 0x67452301;
+ context->state[1] = 0xefcdab89;
+ context->state[2] = 0x98badcfe;
+ context->state[3] = 0x10325476;
+}
+
+/* MD5 block update operation. Continues an MD5 message-digest
+ operation, processing another message block, and updating the
+ context.
+ */
+void MD5Update (context, input, inputLen)
+MD5_CTX *context; /* context */
+unsigned char *input; /* input block */
+unsigned int inputLen; /* length of input block */
+{
+ unsigned int i, index, partLen;
+
+ /* Compute number of bytes mod 64 */
+ index = (unsigned int)((context->count[0] >> 3) & 0x3F);
+
+ /* Update number of bits */
+ if ((context->count[0] += ((UINT4)inputLen << 3))
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 11]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+ < ((UINT4)inputLen << 3))
+ context->count[1]++;
+ context->count[1] += ((UINT4)inputLen >> 29);
+
+ partLen = 64 - index;
+
+ /* Transform as many times as possible.
+*/
+ if (inputLen >= partLen) {
+ MD5_memcpy
+ ((POINTER)&context->buffer[index], (POINTER)input, partLen);
+ MD5Transform (context->state, context->buffer);
+
+ for (i = partLen; i + 63 < inputLen; i += 64)
+ MD5Transform (context->state, &input[i]);
+
+ index = 0;
+ }
+ else
+ i = 0;
+
+ /* Buffer remaining input */
+ MD5_memcpy
+ ((POINTER)&context->buffer[index], (POINTER)&input[i],
+ inputLen-i);
+}
+
+/* MD5 finalization. Ends an MD5 message-digest operation, writing the
+ the message digest and zeroizing the context.
+ */
+void MD5Final (digest, context)
+unsigned char digest[16]; /* message digest */
+MD5_CTX *context; /* context */
+{
+ unsigned char bits[8];
+ unsigned int index, padLen;
+
+ /* Save number of bits */
+ Encode (bits, context->count, 8);
+
+ /* Pad out to 56 mod 64.
+*/
+ index = (unsigned int)((context->count[0] >> 3) & 0x3f);
+ padLen = (index < 56) ? (56 - index) : (120 - index);
+ MD5Update (context, PADDING, padLen);
+
+ /* Append length (before padding) */
+ MD5Update (context, bits, 8);
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 12]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+ /* Store state in digest */
+ Encode (digest, context->state, 16);
+
+ /* Zeroize sensitive information.
+*/
+ MD5_memset ((POINTER)context, 0, sizeof (*context));
+}
+
+/* MD5 basic transformation. Transforms state based on block.
+ */
+static void MD5Transform (state, block)
+UINT4 state[4];
+unsigned char block[64];
+{
+ UINT4 a = state[0], b = state[1], c = state[2], d = state[3], x[16];
+
+ Decode (x, block, 64);
+
+ /* Round 1 */
+ FF (a, b, c, d, x[ 0], S11, 0xd76aa478); /* 1 */
+ FF (d, a, b, c, x[ 1], S12, 0xe8c7b756); /* 2 */
+ FF (c, d, a, b, x[ 2], S13, 0x242070db); /* 3 */
+ FF (b, c, d, a, x[ 3], S14, 0xc1bdceee); /* 4 */
+ FF (a, b, c, d, x[ 4], S11, 0xf57c0faf); /* 5 */
+ FF (d, a, b, c, x[ 5], S12, 0x4787c62a); /* 6 */
+ FF (c, d, a, b, x[ 6], S13, 0xa8304613); /* 7 */
+ FF (b, c, d, a, x[ 7], S14, 0xfd469501); /* 8 */
+ FF (a, b, c, d, x[ 8], S11, 0x698098d8); /* 9 */
+ FF (d, a, b, c, x[ 9], S12, 0x8b44f7af); /* 10 */
+ FF (c, d, a, b, x[10], S13, 0xffff5bb1); /* 11 */
+ FF (b, c, d, a, x[11], S14, 0x895cd7be); /* 12 */
+ FF (a, b, c, d, x[12], S11, 0x6b901122); /* 13 */
+ FF (d, a, b, c, x[13], S12, 0xfd987193); /* 14 */
+ FF (c, d, a, b, x[14], S13, 0xa679438e); /* 15 */
+ FF (b, c, d, a, x[15], S14, 0x49b40821); /* 16 */
+
+ /* Round 2 */
+ GG (a, b, c, d, x[ 1], S21, 0xf61e2562); /* 17 */
+ GG (d, a, b, c, x[ 6], S22, 0xc040b340); /* 18 */
+ GG (c, d, a, b, x[11], S23, 0x265e5a51); /* 19 */
+ GG (b, c, d, a, x[ 0], S24, 0xe9b6c7aa); /* 20 */
+ GG (a, b, c, d, x[ 5], S21, 0xd62f105d); /* 21 */
+ GG (d, a, b, c, x[10], S22, 0x2441453); /* 22 */
+ GG (c, d, a, b, x[15], S23, 0xd8a1e681); /* 23 */
+ GG (b, c, d, a, x[ 4], S24, 0xe7d3fbc8); /* 24 */
+ GG (a, b, c, d, x[ 9], S21, 0x21e1cde6); /* 25 */
+ GG (d, a, b, c, x[14], S22, 0xc33707d6); /* 26 */
+ GG (c, d, a, b, x[ 3], S23, 0xf4d50d87); /* 27 */
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 13]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+ GG (b, c, d, a, x[ 8], S24, 0x455a14ed); /* 28 */
+ GG (a, b, c, d, x[13], S21, 0xa9e3e905); /* 29 */
+ GG (d, a, b, c, x[ 2], S22, 0xfcefa3f8); /* 30 */
+ GG (c, d, a, b, x[ 7], S23, 0x676f02d9); /* 31 */
+ GG (b, c, d, a, x[12], S24, 0x8d2a4c8a); /* 32 */
+
+ /* Round 3 */
+ HH (a, b, c, d, x[ 5], S31, 0xfffa3942); /* 33 */
+ HH (d, a, b, c, x[ 8], S32, 0x8771f681); /* 34 */
+ HH (c, d, a, b, x[11], S33, 0x6d9d6122); /* 35 */
+ HH (b, c, d, a, x[14], S34, 0xfde5380c); /* 36 */
+ HH (a, b, c, d, x[ 1], S31, 0xa4beea44); /* 37 */
+ HH (d, a, b, c, x[ 4], S32, 0x4bdecfa9); /* 38 */
+ HH (c, d, a, b, x[ 7], S33, 0xf6bb4b60); /* 39 */
+ HH (b, c, d, a, x[10], S34, 0xbebfbc70); /* 40 */
+ HH (a, b, c, d, x[13], S31, 0x289b7ec6); /* 41 */
+ HH (d, a, b, c, x[ 0], S32, 0xeaa127fa); /* 42 */
+ HH (c, d, a, b, x[ 3], S33, 0xd4ef3085); /* 43 */
+ HH (b, c, d, a, x[ 6], S34, 0x4881d05); /* 44 */
+ HH (a, b, c, d, x[ 9], S31, 0xd9d4d039); /* 45 */
+ HH (d, a, b, c, x[12], S32, 0xe6db99e5); /* 46 */
+ HH (c, d, a, b, x[15], S33, 0x1fa27cf8); /* 47 */
+ HH (b, c, d, a, x[ 2], S34, 0xc4ac5665); /* 48 */
+
+ /* Round 4 */
+ II (a, b, c, d, x[ 0], S41, 0xf4292244); /* 49 */
+ II (d, a, b, c, x[ 7], S42, 0x432aff97); /* 50 */
+ II (c, d, a, b, x[14], S43, 0xab9423a7); /* 51 */
+ II (b, c, d, a, x[ 5], S44, 0xfc93a039); /* 52 */
+ II (a, b, c, d, x[12], S41, 0x655b59c3); /* 53 */
+ II (d, a, b, c, x[ 3], S42, 0x8f0ccc92); /* 54 */
+ II (c, d, a, b, x[10], S43, 0xffeff47d); /* 55 */
+ II (b, c, d, a, x[ 1], S44, 0x85845dd1); /* 56 */
+ II (a, b, c, d, x[ 8], S41, 0x6fa87e4f); /* 57 */
+ II (d, a, b, c, x[15], S42, 0xfe2ce6e0); /* 58 */
+ II (c, d, a, b, x[ 6], S43, 0xa3014314); /* 59 */
+ II (b, c, d, a, x[13], S44, 0x4e0811a1); /* 60 */
+ II (a, b, c, d, x[ 4], S41, 0xf7537e82); /* 61 */
+ II (d, a, b, c, x[11], S42, 0xbd3af235); /* 62 */
+ II (c, d, a, b, x[ 2], S43, 0x2ad7d2bb); /* 63 */
+ II (b, c, d, a, x[ 9], S44, 0xeb86d391); /* 64 */
+
+ state[0] += a;
+ state[1] += b;
+ state[2] += c;
+ state[3] += d;
+
+ /* Zeroize sensitive information.
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 14]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+*/
+ MD5_memset ((POINTER)x, 0, sizeof (x));
+}
+
+/* Encodes input (UINT4) into output (unsigned char). Assumes len is
+ a multiple of 4.
+ */
+static void Encode (output, input, len)
+unsigned char *output;
+UINT4 *input;
+unsigned int len;
+{
+ unsigned int i, j;
+
+ for (i = 0, j = 0; j < len; i++, j += 4) {
+ output[j] = (unsigned char)(input[i] & 0xff);
+ output[j+1] = (unsigned char)((input[i] >> 8) & 0xff);
+ output[j+2] = (unsigned char)((input[i] >> 16) & 0xff);
+ output[j+3] = (unsigned char)((input[i] >> 24) & 0xff);
+ }
+}
+
+/* Decodes input (unsigned char) into output (UINT4). Assumes len is
+ a multiple of 4.
+ */
+static void Decode (output, input, len)
+UINT4 *output;
+unsigned char *input;
+unsigned int len;
+{
+ unsigned int i, j;
+
+ for (i = 0, j = 0; j < len; i++, j += 4)
+ output[i] = ((UINT4)input[j]) | (((UINT4)input[j+1]) << 8) |
+ (((UINT4)input[j+2]) << 16) | (((UINT4)input[j+3]) << 24);
+}
+
+/* Note: Replace "for loop" with standard memcpy if possible.
+ */
+
+static void MD5_memcpy (output, input, len)
+POINTER output;
+POINTER input;
+unsigned int len;
+{
+ unsigned int i;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 15]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+ output[i] = input[i];
+}
+
+/* Note: Replace "for loop" with standard memset if possible.
+ */
+static void MD5_memset (output, value, len)
+POINTER output;
+int value;
+unsigned int len;
+{
+ unsigned int i;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
+ ((char *)output)[i] = (char)value;
+}
+
+A.4 mddriver.c
+
+/* MDDRIVER.C - test driver for MD2, MD4 and MD5
+ */
+
+/* Copyright (C) 1990-2, RSA Data Security, Inc. Created 1990. All
+rights reserved.
+
+RSA Data Security, Inc. makes no representations concerning either
+the merchantability of this software or the suitability of this
+software for any particular purpose. It is provided "as is"
+without express or implied warranty of any kind.
+
+These notices must be retained in any copies of any part of this
+documentation and/or software.
+ */
+
+/* The following makes MD default to MD5 if it has not already been
+ defined with C compiler flags.
+ */
+#ifndef MD
+#define MD MD5
+#endif
+
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <time.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include "global.h"
+#if MD == 2
+#include "md2.h"
+#endif
+#if MD == 4
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 16]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+#include "md4.h"
+#endif
+#if MD == 5
+#include "md5.h"
+#endif
+
+/* Length of test block, number of test blocks.
+ */
+#define TEST_BLOCK_LEN 1000
+#define TEST_BLOCK_COUNT 1000
+
+static void MDString PROTO_LIST ((char *));
+static void MDTimeTrial PROTO_LIST ((void));
+static void MDTestSuite PROTO_LIST ((void));
+static void MDFile PROTO_LIST ((char *));
+static void MDFilter PROTO_LIST ((void));
+static void MDPrint PROTO_LIST ((unsigned char [16]));
+
+#if MD == 2
+#define MD_CTX MD2_CTX
+#define MDInit MD2Init
+#define MDUpdate MD2Update
+#define MDFinal MD2Final
+#endif
+#if MD == 4
+#define MD_CTX MD4_CTX
+#define MDInit MD4Init
+#define MDUpdate MD4Update
+#define MDFinal MD4Final
+#endif
+#if MD == 5
+#define MD_CTX MD5_CTX
+#define MDInit MD5Init
+#define MDUpdate MD5Update
+#define MDFinal MD5Final
+#endif
+
+/* Main driver.
+
+Arguments (may be any combination):
+ -sstring - digests string
+ -t - runs time trial
+ -x - runs test script
+ filename - digests file
+ (none) - digests standard input
+ */
+int main (argc, argv)
+int argc;
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 17]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+char *argv[];
+{
+ int i;
+
+ if (argc > 1)
+ for (i = 1; i < argc; i++)
+ if (argv[i][0] == '-' && argv[i][1] == 's')
+ MDString (argv[i] + 2);
+ else if (strcmp (argv[i], "-t") == 0)
+ MDTimeTrial ();
+ else if (strcmp (argv[i], "-x") == 0)
+ MDTestSuite ();
+ else
+ MDFile (argv[i]);
+ else
+ MDFilter ();
+
+ return (0);
+}
+
+/* Digests a string and prints the result.
+ */
+static void MDString (string)
+char *string;
+{
+ MD_CTX context;
+ unsigned char digest[16];
+ unsigned int len = strlen (string);
+
+ MDInit (&context);
+ MDUpdate (&context, string, len);
+ MDFinal (digest, &context);
+
+ printf ("MD%d (\"%s\") = ", MD, string);
+ MDPrint (digest);
+ printf ("\n");
+}
+
+/* Measures the time to digest TEST_BLOCK_COUNT TEST_BLOCK_LEN-byte
+ blocks.
+ */
+static void MDTimeTrial ()
+{
+ MD_CTX context;
+ time_t endTime, startTime;
+ unsigned char block[TEST_BLOCK_LEN], digest[16];
+ unsigned int i;
+
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 18]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+ printf
+ ("MD%d time trial. Digesting %d %d-byte blocks ...", MD,
+ TEST_BLOCK_LEN, TEST_BLOCK_COUNT);
+
+ /* Initialize block */
+ for (i = 0; i < TEST_BLOCK_LEN; i++)
+ block[i] = (unsigned char)(i & 0xff);
+
+ /* Start timer */
+ time (&startTime);
+
+ /* Digest blocks */
+ MDInit (&context);
+ for (i = 0; i < TEST_BLOCK_COUNT; i++)
+ MDUpdate (&context, block, TEST_BLOCK_LEN);
+ MDFinal (digest, &context);
+
+ /* Stop timer */
+ time (&endTime);
+
+ printf (" done\n");
+ printf ("Digest = ");
+ MDPrint (digest);
+ printf ("\nTime = %ld seconds\n", (long)(endTime-startTime));
+ printf
+ ("Speed = %ld bytes/second\n",
+ (long)TEST_BLOCK_LEN * (long)TEST_BLOCK_COUNT/(endTime-startTime));
+}
+
+/* Digests a reference suite of strings and prints the results.
+ */
+static void MDTestSuite ()
+{
+ printf ("MD%d test suite:\n", MD);
+
+ MDString ("");
+ MDString ("a");
+ MDString ("abc");
+ MDString ("message digest");
+ MDString ("abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz");
+ MDString
+ ("ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789");
+ MDString
+ ("1234567890123456789012345678901234567890\
+1234567890123456789012345678901234567890");
+}
+
+/* Digests a file and prints the result.
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 19]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+ */
+static void MDFile (filename)
+char *filename;
+{
+ FILE *file;
+ MD_CTX context;
+ int len;
+ unsigned char buffer[1024], digest[16];
+
+ if ((file = fopen (filename, "rb")) == NULL)
+ printf ("%s can't be opened\n", filename);
+
+ else {
+ MDInit (&context);
+ while (len = fread (buffer, 1, 1024, file))
+ MDUpdate (&context, buffer, len);
+ MDFinal (digest, &context);
+
+ fclose (file);
+
+ printf ("MD%d (%s) = ", MD, filename);
+ MDPrint (digest);
+ printf ("\n");
+ }
+}
+
+/* Digests the standard input and prints the result.
+ */
+static void MDFilter ()
+{
+ MD_CTX context;
+ int len;
+ unsigned char buffer[16], digest[16];
+
+ MDInit (&context);
+ while (len = fread (buffer, 1, 16, stdin))
+ MDUpdate (&context, buffer, len);
+ MDFinal (digest, &context);
+
+ MDPrint (digest);
+ printf ("\n");
+}
+
+/* Prints a message digest in hexadecimal.
+ */
+static void MDPrint (digest)
+unsigned char digest[16];
+{
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 20]
+
+RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
+
+
+ unsigned int i;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < 16; i++)
+ printf ("%02x", digest[i]);
+}
+
+A.5 Test suite
+
+ The MD5 test suite (driver option "-x") should print the following
+ results:
+
+MD5 test suite:
+MD5 ("") = d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e
+MD5 ("a") = 0cc175b9c0f1b6a831c399e269772661
+MD5 ("abc") = 900150983cd24fb0d6963f7d28e17f72
+MD5 ("message digest") = f96b697d7cb7938d525a2f31aaf161d0
+MD5 ("abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz") = c3fcd3d76192e4007dfb496cca67e13b
+MD5 ("ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789") =
+d174ab98d277d9f5a5611c2c9f419d9f
+MD5 ("123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456
+78901234567890") = 57edf4a22be3c955ac49da2e2107b67a
+
+Security Considerations
+
+ The level of security discussed in this memo is considered to be
+ sufficient for implementing very high security hybrid digital-
+ signature schemes based on MD5 and a public-key cryptosystem.
+
+Author's Address
+
+ Ronald L. Rivest
+ Massachusetts Institute of Technology
+ Laboratory for Computer Science
+ NE43-324
+ 545 Technology Square
+ Cambridge, MA 02139-1986
+
+ Phone: (617) 253-5880
+ EMail: rivest@theory.lcs.mit.edu
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+Rivest [Page 21]
+
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