Example project showing how to use buildroot and fwup
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board Raspberry Pi updates due to new version of BR Apr 6, 2016
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package/fwup
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README.md

Buildroot and fwup examples

This project contains examples of using Buildroot and fwup to create firmware images for the Raspberry Pi and BeagleBone Black. The first example simply creates a raw image that you can copy directly to an SDCard using dd(1) or fwup. The second one demonstrates how fwup can be used to create firmware update files (zip files with metadata) that can be run directly on an RPi or BBB to upgrade the firmware running on it.

Just building a raw firmware image

Sometimes it is useful to just build a raw image that can be written to an SDCard with dd(1). There's no need to think about firmware updates or anything fancy. The bbb_simple_defconfig configuration is an example of this. It builds a root file system and kernel that is a barebones Linux and Busybox build. To be useful, one would need to add an application and probably a lot of libraries, but that's not needed here.

The fwup utility is used to build a firmware update file out of everything. It is then "applied" to an empty file called bbb.img. When it's "applied", it writes the master boot record (MBR) to offset 0, creates a FAT partition for uboot, and writes the rootfs to the right place. You can then use bbb.img with dd(1). The firmware update file, bbb.fw, can be ignored. It's just an intermediate file.

The SDCard image that is created is defined in the file board/bbb/fwup-simple.conf. Here's a more visual image of the layout of the SDCard:

Section Description
MBR Standard 512 byte master boot record
Boot partition About 1 MiB; contains u-boot.img, uEnv.txt, etc.
Rootfs partition Configured to be 128 MiB; contains rootfs as built by Buildroot
Partition 3 Undefined
Partition 4 Undefined

As you can tell, there's a lot of unallocated space on the SDCard (we only use the first 129 MB or so of space). By modifying fwup-simple.conf you can make the boot or rootfs partitions bigger or create partitions 3 and 4.

Building

If you're using Ubuntu, you may need to install some packages to make Buildroot work. This should be sufficient:

$ sudo apt-get install git g++ libncurses5-dev bc
$ sudo apt-get install libc6:i386 libstdc++6:i386 zlib1g:i386 gcc-multilib # 64-bit Linux

After that, clone this project and run make:

$ make rpi_simple_defconfig
$ make

It can take some time to download and build everything so you may need to be patient. The build products can be found in buildroot/output/images.

Installing

Insert an SDCard on your PC and then run the following:

$ make burn-complete

This uses fwup to write the image to the SDCard. If you're accustomed to using dd(1) to write images to an SDCard, it's almost the same thing except that it automatically finds the SDCard, unmounts it if necessary, and writes only what's necessary to the card to reduce the time it takes. If you'd like to run dd, you can still do so as follows:

$ sudo dd if=buildroot/output/images/raspberrypi.img of=/dev/sdc bs=1M

Insert the SDCard into a Raspberry Pi, and watch it boot over the serial port. Log in as root.

On device firmware update

There are several strategies for updating firmware on device. For example, you can update files directly on the rootfs, you can have a small firmware update program on a dedicated partition that knows how to update the main partition, or you can have two locations on the SDCard/eMMC and ping/pong between them. This section describes the latter setup. The fwup configuration can be found in board/raspberrypi/fwup-pingpong.conf and it creates a SDCard/eMMC layout like the following:

Section Description
MBR Standard 512 byte master boot record
Boot partition Contains the kernel, config.txt, etc.
Rootfs A partition Configured to be 128 MiB; contains rootfs as built by Buildroot
Rootfs B partition Configured to be 128 MiB; unused until the firmware update
Application data partition FAT32 partition used for demonstration. Application data that should survive firmware updates would be put here.

The way it works is that the bootloader boots Linux from Rootfs A. At a later point in time, the user applies an update. This gets written to the Rootfs B partition. After all of the data gets written, the MBR will be updated to make uboot boot Linux from the Rootfs B partition. This has a nice property in that if the user pulls the power or hits cancel midway during the update, the system will boot from Rootfs A like the firmware update never happened. Likewise, if an error is detected midway into the firmware update process, no damage is done. Obviously, you can still brick the system if the firmware update is valid, but the software in it is buggy. To recover from that, you could create a uboot script that boots from the opposite rootfs partition if you hold down a button or something. That is not demonstrated here.

Building the demo for the Beaglebone Black

Warning: This exact details could be out of date since I haven't been using BBBs lately. The general idea is still the same.

For the demo, we need an two firmware files, "v1" and "v2". We'll install the "v1" firmware and then upgrade to the "v2" firmware.

NOTE: Building takes a while. If you want to cheat, just copy the firmware files that I made from the prebuilt directory.

# Build the "v1" firmware
$ make realclean
$ make bbb_fwup1_defconfig
$ make

# save the "v1" firmware
$ cp buildroot/output/images/bbb.fw bbb-v1.fw

# Build the "v2" firmware
$ make realclean
$ make bbb_fwup2_defconfig
$ make

# save the "v2" firmware
$ cp buildroot/output/images/bbb.fw bbb-v2.fw

Insert an SDCard into your PC (via a USB multireader or other device) so that it can be programmed with the "v1" firmware. On my PC, it shows up as /dev/sdc:

# unmount any file systems that were automounted
$ umount /media/fhunleth/*

# program the SDCard with v1
$ sudo buildroot/output/host/usr/bin/fwup -a -i bbb-v1.fw -t complete
Use 3.64 GiB memory card found at /dev/sdc? [y/N] y

fwup will try to detect the SDCard and will ask for confirmation before writing to it. If you have multiple devices that look like SDCards or fwup doesn't detected it, you may need to add -d /dev/sdc or similar to the command line. The complete parameter specifies which task from the fwup-pingpong.conf file to run. In this case, we want a complete image that writes the MBR, bootloader partition, rootfs, and clears out all application data. When we do updates, we don't want to overwrite the bootloader partition or the application data, so the upgrade task doesn't do this. You can configure fwup to update them anyway if you want. Also note that we could have programmed the bbb.img file here like we did in the simple example at the top. Using fwup can be faster since it doesn't have to write zeros to fill in the gaps between partitions.

Next, mount the new filesystems on the SDCard on your PC. I find it easiest to unplug and plug the SDCard back into the PC so that it automounts. Three filesystems should mount, the boot partition, the rootfs, and a big empty partition for application data. Copy both firmware update files to the application data partition.

# My SDCard's 4th partition got automounted as 4507-9E5C1, but
# this changes. Check that you're not copying to the boot or rootfs
# before doing this on your system. I also get confused on the BBB
# whether I'm using the eMMC or the SDCard, so I'm creating an "sdcard" file
# here as a sanity check.

$ cp *.fw /media/fhunleth/4507-9E5C1
$ touch /media/fhunleth/4507-9E5C1/sdcard
$ ls -las /media/fhunleth/4507-9E5C1
total 9227
   1 drwx------  2 fhunleth fhunleth     512 Sep  7 16:47 .
   4 drwxr-x---+ 6 root     root        4096 Sep  7 16:42 ..
4611 -rw-r--r--  1 fhunleth fhunleth 4721489 Sep  7 16:43 bbb-v1.fw
4611 -rw-r--r--  1 fhunleth fhunleth 4721373 Sep  7 16:43 bbb-v2.fw
   0 -rw-r--r--  1 fhunleth fhunleth       0 Sep  7 16:47 sdcard

$ umount /media/fhunleth/*

After unmounting the SDCard, plug it into the BBB and boot off it. The console is accessible via the UART. Here's what you should see when you boot and login:

This image was created using the bbb_fwup1_defconfig.
buildroot login: root
#

Mount the application data partition:

# mount /dev/mmcblk0p4 /mnt
# ls /mnt
bbb-v1.fw  bbb-v2.fw  sdcard

At this point, it's possible to demo a firmware update on the BBB. We're running the "v1" firmware (cat /etc/issue if unsure) and we want to apply the "v2" firmware. Run the following:

# fwup -a -d /dev/mmcblk0 -i /mnt/bbb-v2.fw -t upgrade

This runs the upgrade task on /dev/mmcblk0. fwup is smart enough to detect that we're running off the Rootfs A partition (i.e., the 2nd partition) so it writes the "v2" firmware to the Rootfs B partition (i.e., the 3rd partition). The update is NOT finished, so if you reboot now, you won't get the update. You must finalize the upgrade. I like this since it allows me to change my mind, but if you don't need this ability, you can update the fwup-pingpong.conf file to not have a two step upgrade. To run the second step, you'll find that the first call to fwup created a file on /tmp. Run fwup on it to finalize the upgrade:

# ls -las /tmp/finalize.fw
     4 -rw-r--r--    1 root     root          1366 Jan  1 01:47 /tmp/finalize.fw
# fwup -a -d /dev/mmcblk0 -i /tmp/finalize.fw -t on-reboot
# reboot

After it reboots, you should see the following:

This image was created using the bbb_fwup2_defconfig.
buildroot login:

This bbb_fwup2_defconfig part tells you that you are now running the "v2" software. Even though I only changed /etc/issue between the firmware versions, a whole new rootfs was installed. This was overkill for this minor change, but in a real scenerio where small parts of the Linux kernel, the application, and random changes to system utilities and libraries, upgrading the whole rootfs is not unreasonable.

If you want to verify what happened, place the SDCard into your PC. You should see two rootfs file systems and you can verify that one of them has a /etc/issue file with the "v1" contents and the other rootfs has a /etc/issue with the "v2" contents.

Programming the eMMC

On the BBB, it's convenient to run off the eMMC. Programming it after booting from an SDCard is similar to programming the SDCard from your PC - just apply a complete firmware image to the eMMC. Assuming that you worked through the above example, boot from the SDCard and run the following:

# mount /dev/mmcblk0p4 /mnt
# fwup -a -d /dev/mmcblk1 -i /mnt/bbb-v2.fw -t complete
# poweroff

Now remove the SDCard and press the reset button. The BBB should boot from eMMC. If you insert the SDCard back in and mount the 4th partition, you can run through the above instructions to apply the "v1" firmware to the eMMC if you'd like:

# mount /dev/mmcblk1p4 /mnt
# ls /mnt
bbb-v1.fw  bbb-v2.fw  sdcard
# fwup -a -d /dev/mmcblk0 -i /mnt/bbb-v1.fw -t upgrade
# fwup -a -d /dev/mmcblk0 -i /tmp/finalize.fw -t on-reboot
# poweroff

Now remove the SDCard, press reset and verify that the "v1" firmware is running. Do it again with "v2" if you'd like.