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from Joerg Jenderek

Hi,
2 files (TDSK-5120x32b.img and TDSK-5120x64b.img ) in directory bootsector
are characterized wrong ( see output bootsector-5.11.txt) .
In reality they are dos images with a sector size smaller than 512. Because
smallest DOS sector size is 32 new test a level 0 searches for boot
signature 0xAA55 in the range from 32 to 512:
30              search/481      \x55\xAA
This test succeed also for some zip files. But if next test for 0xAA55 at
offset 0x1FE succeeds
        >0x1FE          leshort         0xAA55
i got the old examples and print "x86 boot sector".
Alternative test for boot sector sizes smaller 512 at offset 11
>11             uleshort        <512
>>(11.s-2)      uleshort        0xAA55          x86 boot sector
and look for boot signature at end of sector. If these tests succeeds
display also the "x86 boot sector" text.
Because i found bootloader and mbr information only in case of bootsector
sizes greater or equal 512, i keep the the old test sequences and only
replaced "x86 boot sector" string by an empty one because displaying this
text is now done by new additional test.
Some steps has to be done to get the old look like "x86 boot sector, YY
Bootloader, code offset 0xnn, OEM-ID ..."
To display that text before old one,SYSLINUX MBR and DOS BPB
information like in previous file version a  strength of 72 has to be
added.

In the current version first search for the end of sector marker 0xAA55 is
done. If succeeds additional information like DOS BPB and MBR type
is printed. So some boot sector templates without boot signature
are identified as "data". Therefore i separate from "x86 boot sector" the
tests for DOS sector.

Furthermore i has done some minor bug fixes and cosmetic changes.
The jump assembler instruction use relative addresses. So one has to add 2
to
get the real code offset inside the file . The value is ubyte for 0xEB
instruction, but uleshort for 0xE9.
The values for "reserved1" til "reserved3" for DOS boot sectors are wrong,
because the start at offset 52 and not at 54 according to web page
http://thestarman.pcministry.com/asm/mbr/MSWIN41.htm#FSINFO .
This mistake was long time not seen, because this values are normally zero
except for some files like hda9data.bin.
I also display the information about " sectors/track" at offset 24.
For "physical drive" value 0xFF that  words are displayed twice and one
with a wrong value ( See in sub directory physical_drive_2 for files
hda1fd95.bin,sdb2-xp.bin,...)
If the DOS bootsector is followed by the Media descriptor byte 0xFn and
some 0xFFs ( (11.s)     ulelong&0x00ffffF0      0x00ffffF0) this is
characteristic
for a DOS File Allocation Table (FAT). The whole thing is the start of an
DOS disk image. So mime type "application/x-ima" is printed for floppy
images (no fixed disk with FAT12).
NTFS and DOS share the beginning parts of the BIOS parameter block (BPB)
according to http://homepage.ntlworld.com/jonathan.deboynepollard/FGA/
bios-parameter-block.html .
For some x86 boot sectors (files in directory sample/ntfs/) some
information like Media descriptor or heads is correct displayed ( see
output ntfs-5.11.txt ). But the interesting facts of NTFS file system are
not displayed.
By information of http://thestarman.pcministry.com/asm/mbr/NTFSBR.htm
i began to patch the filesystems magic file. If a file looks like a DOS
boot sector and has zero values for the 4 fields FATs,root entries,
 DOS sectors and sectors/FAT it is a NTFS bootsector and the following
bytes contain information like $MFT of the NTFS filesystem ( see output
ntfs-DOSsector.txt ).

After applying changes (file-5.11-filesystems-DOSsector.diff ) a final
output file bootsector-DOSsector.txt for files in directory bootsector is
obtained.

All diffs, output and sample files are stored under
http://mitglied.multimania.de/jenderek/file/

thanks
Joerg
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1 parent e3accea commit 51ceb2bd7a728fb307f190ee68fe53cd0392fb28 @zoulasc zoulasc committed Oct 12, 2012
Showing with 181 additions and 109 deletions.
  1. +181 −109 magic/Magdir/filesystems
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290 magic/Magdir/filesystems
@@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-# $File: filesystems,v 1.61 2011/01/10 14:01:10 christos Exp $
+# $File: filesystems,v 1.62 2012/09/06 14:42:39 christos Exp $
# filesystems: file(1) magic for different filesystems
#
0 string \366\366\366\366 PC formatted floppy with no filesystem
@@ -53,13 +53,21 @@
>>>>11 ulelong >0 \b, %d sectors/track
>>>>15 ulelong >0 \b, %d cylinders
-# updated by Joerg Jenderek at Sep 2007
+# x86 boot sector updated by Joerg Jenderek at Sep 2007,May 2011
+# for any allowed sector sizes
+30 search/481 \x55\xAA
+# to display x86 boot sector (40) before old one (strength=50), SYSLINUX MBR (?) and DOS BPB information (71) like in previous file version
+!:strength +72
+# for sector sizes < 512 Bytes
+>11 uleshort <512
+>>(11.s-2) uleshort 0xAA55 x86 boot sector
+# for sector sizes with 512 or more Bytes
+>0x1FE leshort 0xAA55 x86 boot sector
+# keep old x86 boot sector as dummy for mbr and bootloader displaying
# only for sector sizes with 512 or more Bytes
-0x1FE leshort 0xAA55 x86 boot sector
-# to do also for sectors < than 512 Bytes and some other files, GRR
-#30 search/481 \x55\xAA x86 boot sector
-# not for BeOS floppy 1440k, MBRs
-#(11.s-2) uleshort 0xAA55 x86 boot sector
+0x1FE leshort 0xAA55
+# to display information (51) before DOS BPB (strength=71) and after DOS floppy (120) like in old file version
+!:strength +21
>2 string OSBS \b, OS/BS MBR
# J\xf6rg Jenderek <joerg dot jenderek at web dot de>
>0x8C string Invalid\ partition\ table \b, MS-DOS MBR
@@ -762,6 +770,7 @@
>>>>>492 string RENF \b, FAT (12 bit)
>>>>>495 string RENF \b, FAT (16 bit)
# x86 bootloader end
+
# updated by Joerg Jenderek at Sep 2007
>3 ubyte 0
#no active flag
@@ -776,112 +785,13 @@
>>>>>>>466 ubyte 0x05 \b, extended partition table
>>>>>>>466 ubyte 0x0F \b, extended partition table (LBA)
>>>>>>>466 ubyte 0x0 \b, extended partition table (last)
-# JuMP short bootcodeoffset NOP assembler instructions will usually be EB xx 90
-# http://mirror.href.com/thestarman/asm/2bytejumps.htmm#FWD
-# older drives may use Near JuMP instruction E9 xx xx
->0 lelong&0x009000EB 0x009000EB
->0 lelong&0x000000E9 0x000000E9
-# minimal short forward jump found 03cx??
-# maximal short forward jump is 07fx
->1 ubyte <0xff \b, code offset 0x%x
-# mtools-3.9.8/msdos.h
-# usual values are marked with comments to get only informations of strange FAT systems
-# valid sectorsize must be a power of 2 from 32 to 32768
->>11 uleshort&0x000f x
->>>11 uleshort <32769
->>>>11 uleshort >31
->>>>>21 ubyte&0xf0 0xF0
->>>>>>3 string >\0 \b, OEM-ID "%8.8s"
-#http://mirror.href.com/thestarman/asm/debug/debug2.htm#IHC
->>>>>>>8 string IHC \b cached by Windows 9M
->>>>>>11 uleshort >512 \b, Bytes/sector %u
-#>>>>>>11 uleshort =512 \b, Bytes/sector %u=512 (usual)
->>>>>>11 uleshort <512 \b, Bytes/sector %u
->>>>>>13 ubyte >1 \b, sectors/cluster %u
-#>>>>>>13 ubyte =1 \b, sectors/cluster %u (usual on Floppies)
->>>>>>14 uleshort >32 \b, reserved sectors %u
-#>>>>>>14 uleshort =32 \b, reserved sectors %u (usual Fat32)
-#>>>>>>14 uleshort >1 \b, reserved sectors %u
-#>>>>>>14 uleshort =1 \b, reserved sectors %u (usual FAT12,FAT16)
->>>>>>14 uleshort <1 \b, reserved sectors %u
->>>>>>16 ubyte >2 \b, FATs %u
-#>>>>>>16 ubyte =2 \b, FATs %u (usual)
->>>>>>16 ubyte =1 \b, FAT %u
->>>>>>16 ubyte >0
->>>>>>17 uleshort >0 \b, root entries %u
-#>>>>>>17 uleshort =0 \b, root entries %u=0 (usual Fat32)
->>>>>>19 uleshort >0 \b, sectors %u (volumes <=32 MB)
-#>>>>>>19 uleshort =0 \b, sectors %u=0 (usual Fat32)
->>>>>>21 ubyte >0xF0 \b, Media descriptor 0x%x
-#>>>>>>21 ubyte =0xF0 \b, Media descriptor 0x%x (usual floppy)
->>>>>>21 ubyte <0xF0 \b, Media descriptor 0x%x
->>>>>>22 uleshort >0 \b, sectors/FAT %u
-#>>>>>>22 uleshort =0 \b, sectors/FAT %u=0 (usual Fat32)
->>>>>>26 ubyte >2 \b, heads %u
-#>>>>>>26 ubyte =2 \b, heads %u (usual floppy)
->>>>>>26 ubyte =1 \b, heads %u
-#skip for Digital Research DOS (version 3.41) 1440 kB Bootdisk
->>>>>>38 ubyte !0x70
->>>>>>>28 ulelong >0 \b, hidden sectors %u
-#>>>>>>>28 ulelong =0 \b, hidden sectors %u (usual floppy)
->>>>>>>32 ulelong >0 \b, sectors %u (volumes > 32 MB)
-#>>>>>>>32 ulelong =0 \b, sectors %u (volumes > 32 MB)
-# FAT<32 specific
->>>>>>82 string !FAT32
-#>>>>>>>36 ubyte 0x80 \b, physical drive 0x%x=0x80 (usual harddisk)
-#>>>>>>>36 ubyte 0 \b, physical drive 0x%x=0 (usual floppy)
->>>>>>>36 ubyte !0x80
->>>>>>>>36 ubyte !0 \b, physical drive 0x%x
->>>>>>>37 ubyte >0 \b, reserved 0x%x
-#>>>>>>>37 ubyte =0 \b, reserved 0x%x
->>>>>>>38 ubyte >0x29 \b, dos < 4.0 BootSector (0x%x)
->>>>>>>38 ubyte <0x29 \b, dos < 4.0 BootSector (0x%x)
->>>>>>>38 ubyte =0x29
->>>>>>>>39 ulelong x \b, serial number 0x%x
->>>>>>>>43 string <NO\ NAME \b, label: "%11.11s"
->>>>>>>>43 string >NO\ NAME \b, label: "%11.11s"
->>>>>>>>43 string =NO\ NAME \b, unlabeled
->>>>>>>54 string FAT \b, FAT
->>>>>>>>54 string FAT12 \b (12 bit)
->>>>>>>>54 string FAT16 \b (16 bit)
-# FAT32 specific
->>>>>>82 string FAT32 \b, FAT (32 bit)
->>>>>>>36 ulelong x \b, sectors/FAT %u
->>>>>>>40 uleshort >0 \b, extension flags %u
-#>>>>>>>40 uleshort =0 \b, extension flags %u
->>>>>>>42 uleshort >0 \b, fsVersion %u
-#>>>>>>>42 uleshort =0 \b, fsVersion %u (usual)
->>>>>>>44 ulelong >2 \b, rootdir cluster %u
-#>>>>>>>44 ulelong =2 \b, rootdir cluster %u
-#>>>>>>>44 ulelong =1 \b, rootdir cluster %u
->>>>>>>48 uleshort >1 \b, infoSector %u
-#>>>>>>>48 uleshort =1 \b, infoSector %u (usual)
->>>>>>>48 uleshort <1 \b, infoSector %u
->>>>>>>50 uleshort >6 \b, Backup boot sector %u
-#>>>>>>>50 uleshort =6 \b, Backup boot sector %u (usual)
->>>>>>>50 uleshort <6 \b, Backup boot sector %u
->>>>>>>54 ulelong >0 \b, reserved1 0x%x
->>>>>>>58 ulelong >0 \b, reserved2 0x%x
->>>>>>>62 ulelong >0 \b, reserved3 0x%x
-# same structure as FAT1X
->>>>>>>64 ubyte >0x80 \b, physical drive 0x%x
-#>>>>>>>64 ubyte =0x80 \b, physical drive 0x%x=80 (usual harddisk)
->>>>>>>64 ubyte&0x7F >0 \b, physical drive 0x%x
-#>>>>>>>64 ubyte =0 \b, physical drive 0x%x=0 (usual floppy)
->>>>>>>65 ubyte >0 \b, reserved 0x%x
->>>>>>>66 ubyte >0x29 \b, dos < 4.0 BootSector (0x%x)
->>>>>>>66 ubyte <0x29 \b, dos < 4.0 BootSector (0x%x)
->>>>>>>66 ubyte =0x29
->>>>>>>>67 ulelong x \b, serial number 0x%x
->>>>>>>>71 string <NO\ NAME \b, label: "%11.11s"
->>>>>>>71 string >NO\ NAME \b, label: "%11.11s"
->>>>>>>71 string =NO\ NAME \b, unlabeled
-### FATs end
+
+# DOS x86 sector separated and moved from "x86 boot sector" by Joerg Jenderek at May 2011
+
>0x200 lelong 0x82564557 \b, BSD disklabel
# FATX
0 string FATX FATX filesystem data
-
# Minix filesystems - Juan Cespedes <cespedes@debian.org>
0x410 leshort 0x137f
!:strength / 2
@@ -995,6 +905,168 @@
>>>>>0x217 ulong !0xffffffff
>>>>>>0x217 string >\0 \b, configuration file %-s
+# DOS x86 sector updated and separated from "x86 boot sector" by Joerg Jenderek at May 2011
+# JuMP short bootcodeoffset NOP assembler instructions will usually be EB xx 90
+# over BIOS parameter block (BPB)
+# http://thestarman.pcministry.com/asm/2bytejumps.htm#FWD
+# older drives may use Near JuMP instruction E9 xx xx
+# minimal short forward jump found 0x29 for bootloaders or 0x0
+# maximal short forward jump is 0x7f
+# OEM-ID is empty or contain readable bytes
+0 ulelong&0x804000E9 0x000000E9
+# mtools-3.9.8/msdos.h
+# usual values are marked with comments to get only informations of strange FAT systems
+# valid sectorsize must be a power of 2 from 32 to 32768
+>11 uleshort&0xf001f 0
+>>11 uleshort <32769
+>>>11 uleshort >31
+>>>>21 ubyte&0xf0 0xF0
+>>>>>0 ubyte 0xEB
+>>>>>>1 ubyte x \b, code offset 0x%x+2
+>>>>>0 ubyte 0xE9
+>>>>>>1 uleshort x \b, code offset 0x%x+2
+>>>>>3 string >\0 \b, OEM-ID "%-.8s"
+#http://mirror.href.com/thestarman/asm/debug/debug2.htm#IHC
+>>>>>>8 string IHC \b cached by Windows 9M
+>>>>>11 uleshort >512 \b, Bytes/sector %u
+#>>>>>11 uleshort =512 \b, Bytes/sector %u=512 (usual)
+>>>>>11 uleshort <512 \b, Bytes/sector %u
+>>>>>13 ubyte >1 \b, sectors/cluster %u
+#>>>>>13 ubyte =1 \b, sectors/cluster %u (usual on Floppies)
+>>>>>82 string FAT32
+>>>>>>14 uleshort !32 \b, reserved sectors %u
+#>>>>>>14 uleshort =32 \b, reserved sectors %u (usual Fat32)
+>>>>>82 string !FAT32
+>>>>>>14 uleshort >1 \b, reserved sectors %u
+#>>>>>>14 uleshort =1 \b, reserved sectors %u (usual FAT12,FAT16)
+#>>>>>>14 uleshort 0 \b, reserved sectors %u (usual NTFS)
+>>>>>16 ubyte >2 \b, FATs %u
+#>>>>>16 ubyte =2 \b, FATs %u (usual)
+>>>>>16 ubyte =1 \b, FAT %u
+>>>>>16 ubyte >0
+>>>>>17 uleshort >0 \b, root entries %u
+#>>>>>17 uleshort =0 \b, root entries %u=0 (usual Fat32)
+>>>>>19 uleshort >0 \b, sectors %u (volumes <=32 MB)
+#>>>>>19 uleshort =0 \b, sectors %u=0 (usual Fat32)
+>>>>>21 ubyte >0xF0 \b, Media descriptor 0x%x
+#>>>>>21 ubyte =0xF0 \b, Media descriptor 0x%x (usual floppy)
+>>>>>21 ubyte <0xF0 \b, Media descriptor 0x%x
+>>>>>22 uleshort >0 \b, sectors/FAT %u
+#>>>>>22 uleshort =0 \b, sectors/FAT %u=0 (usual Fat32)
+>>>>>24 uleshort x \b, sectors/track %u
+>>>>>26 ubyte >2 \b, heads %u
+#>>>>>26 ubyte =2 \b, heads %u (usual floppy)
+>>>>>26 ubyte =1 \b, heads %u
+# valid only for sector sizes with more then 32 Bytes
+>>>>>11 uleshort >32
+# skip for Digital Research DOS (version 3.41) 1440 kB Bootdisk
+>>>>>>38 ubyte !0x70
+>>>>>>>28 ulelong >0 \b, hidden sectors %u
+#>>>>>>>28 ulelong =0 \b, hidden sectors %u (usual floppy)
+>>>>>>>32 ulelong >0 \b, sectors %u (volumes > 32 MB)
+#>>>>>>>32 ulelong =0 \b, sectors %u (volumes > 32 MB)
+# FAT<32 bit specific
+>>>>>>>82 string !FAT32
+#>>>>>>>>36 ubyte 0x80 \b, physical drive 0x%x=0x80 (usual harddisk)
+#>>>>>>>>36 ubyte 0 \b, physical drive 0x%x=0 (usual floppy)
+>>>>>>>>36 ubyte !0x80
+>>>>>>>>>36 ubyte !0 \b, physical drive 0x%x
+>>>>>>>>37 ubyte >0 \b, reserved 0x%x
+#>>>>>>>>37 ubyte =0 \b, reserved 0x%x
+# value is 0x80 for NTFS
+>>>>>>>>38 ubyte !0x29 \b, dos < 4.0 BootSector (0x%x)
+>>>>>>>>38 ubyte =0x29
+>>>>>>>>>39 ulelong x \b, serial number 0x%x
+>>>>>>>>>43 string <NO\ NAME \b, label: "%11.11s"
+>>>>>>>>>43 string >NO\ NAME \b, label: "%11.11s"
+>>>>>>>>>43 string =NO\ NAME \b, unlabeled
+# there exist some old floppies without word FAT at offset 54
+# a word like "FATnm " is only a hint for a FAT size on nm-bits
+# Normally the number of clusters is calculated by the values of BPP.
+# if it is small enough FAT is 12 bit, if it is too big enough FAT is 32 bit,
+# otherwise FAT is 16 bit.
+# http://homepage.ntlworld.com/jonathan.deboynepollard/FGA/determining-fat-widths.html
+>>>>>>54 string FAT \b, FAT
+>>>>>>>54 string FAT12 \b (12 bit)
+>>>>>>>54 string FAT16 \b (16 bit)
+# FAT32 bit specific
+>>>>>82 string FAT32 \b, FAT (32 bit)
+>>>>>>36 ulelong x \b, sectors/FAT %u
+# http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc977221.aspx
+>>>>>>40 uleshort >0 \b, extension flags 0x%x
+#>>>>>>40 uleshort =0 \b, extension flags %u
+>>>>>>42 uleshort >0 \b, fsVersion %u
+#>>>>>>42 uleshort =0 \b, fsVersion %u (usual)
+>>>>>>44 ulelong >2 \b, rootdir cluster %u
+#>>>>>>44 ulelong =2 \b, rootdir cluster %u
+#>>>>>>44 ulelong =1 \b, rootdir cluster %u
+>>>>>>48 uleshort >1 \b, infoSector %u
+#>>>>>>48 uleshort =1 \b, infoSector %u (usual)
+>>>>>>48 uleshort <1 \b, infoSector %u
+>>>>>>50 uleshort >6 \b, Backup boot sector %u
+#>>>>>>50 uleshort =6 \b, Backup boot sector %u (usual)
+>>>>>>50 uleshort <6 \b, Backup boot sector %u
+# corrected by Joerg Jenderek at Feb 2011 according to http://thestarman.pcministry.com/asm/mbr/MSWIN41.htm#FSINFO
+>>>>>>52 ulelong >0 \b, reserved1 0x%x
+>>>>>>56 ulelong >0 \b, reserved2 0x%x
+>>>>>>60 ulelong >0 \b, reserved3 0x%x
+# same structure as FAT1X
+#>>>>>>64 ubyte =0x80 \b, physical drive 0x%x=80 (usual harddisk)
+#>>>>>>64 ubyte =0 \b, physical drive 0x%x=0 (usual floppy)
+>>>>>>64 ubyte !0x80
+>>>>>>>64 ubyte >0 \b, physical drive 0x%x
+# in Windows NT bit 0 is a dirty flag to request chkdsk at boot time. bit 1 requests surface scan too
+>>>>>>65 ubyte >0 \b, reserved 0x%x
+>>>>>>66 ubyte !0x29 \b, dos < 4.0 BootSector (0x%x)
+>>>>>>66 ubyte =0x29
+>>>>>>>67 ulelong x \b, serial number 0x%x
+>>>>>>>71 string <NO\ NAME \b, label: "%11.11s"
+>>>>>>>71 string >NO\ NAME \b, label: "%11.11s"
+>>>>>>>71 string =NO\ NAME \b, unlabeled
+# additional tests for floppy image added by Joerg Jenderek
+# no fixed disk
+>>>>>21 ubyte !0xF8
+# floppy media with 12 bit FAT
+>>>>>>54 string !FAT16
+# test for FAT after bootsector
+>>>>>>>(11.s) ulelong&0x00ffffF0 0x00ffffF0 \b, followed by FAT
+# floppy image
+!:mime application/x-ima
+# NTFS specific added by Joerg Jenderek at Mar 2011 according to http://thestarman.pcministry.com/asm/mbr/NTFSBR.htm
+# and http://homepage.ntlworld.com/jonathan.deboynepollard/FGA/bios-parameter-block.html
+# 0 FATs
+>>>>>16 ubyte =0
+# 0 root entries
+>>>>>>17 uleshort =0
+# 0 DOS sectors
+>>>>>>>19 uleshort =0
+# 0 sectors/FAT
+# dos < 4.0 BootSector value found is 0x80
+#38 ubyte =0x80 \b, dos < 4.0 BootSector (0x%x)
+>>>>>>>>22 uleshort =0 \b; NTFS
+>>>>>>>>>24 uleshort >0 \b, sectors/track %u
+>>>>>>>>>36 ulelong !0x800080 \b, physical drive 0x%x
+>>>>>>>>>40 ulequad >0 \b, sectors %lld
+>>>>>>>>>48 ulequad >0 \b, $MFT start cluster %lld
+>>>>>>>>>56 ulequad >0 \b, $MFTMirror start cluster %lld
+# Values 0 to 127 represent MFT record sizes of 0 to 127 clusters.
+# Values 128 to 255 represent MFT record sizes of 2^(256-N) bytes.
+>>>>>>>>>64 lelong <256
+>>>>>>>>>>64 lelong <128 \b, clusters/RecordSegment %d
+>>>>>>>>>>64 ubyte >127 \b, bytes/RecordSegment 2^(-1*%hhi)
+# Values 0 to 127 represent index block sizes of 0 to 127 clusters.
+# Values 128 to 255 represent index block sizes of 2^(256-N) byte
+>>>>>>>>>68 ulelong <256
+>>>>>>>>>>68 ulelong <128 \b, clusters/index block %d
+#>>>>>>>>>>68 ulelong >127 \b, bytes/index block 2^(256-%d)
+>>>>>>>>>>68 ubyte >127 \b, bytes/index block 2^(-1*%hhi)
+>>>>>>>>>72 ulequad x \b, serial number 0%llx
+>>>>>>>>>80 ulelong >0 \b, checksum 0x%x
+#>>>>>>>>>80 ulelong =0 \b, checksum 0x%x=0 (usual)
+>>>>>>>>>0x258 ulelong&0x00009090 =0x00009090
+>>>>>>>>>>&-92 indirect x \b; contains
+### DOS boot sector end
+
9564 lelong 0x00011954 Unix Fast File system [v1] (little-endian),
>8404 string x last mounted on %s,
#>9504 ledate x last checked at %s,

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