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README.md

Synopsis

A storage agnostic resource-oriented ODM for building prototypical models with validation and sanitization.

Motivation

How often have you found yourself writing Model code in your application? Pretty often? Good! Unlike other "Object-Document Mappers" resourceful tries to only focus on two things:

  • A simple API for defining custom Model prototypes with validation. No sugar is required to instantiate prototypes defined by resourceful.

  • Define an extensibility model for databases to provide CRUD functionality to Models along with custom query, filtering or updating specific to that specific implementation (Mongo, CouchDB, Redis, etc).

Status

Build Status

Features

Installation

$ [sudo] npm install resourceful

Usage

Simple case

var resourceful = require('resourceful');

var Creature = resourceful.define('creature', function () {
  //
  // Specify a storage engine
  //
  this.use('couchdb');

  //
  // Specify some properties with validation
  //
  this.string('diet');
  this.bool('vertebrate');
  this.array('belly');

  //
  // Specify timestamp properties
  //
  this.timestamps();
});

//
// Now that the `Creature` prototype is defined
// we can add custom logic to be available on all instances
//
Creature.prototype.feed = function (food) {
  this.belly.push(food);
};

Defining resources

Here's the simplest of resources:

var Creature = resourceful.define('creature');

The returned Creature object is a resource constructor, in other words, a function. Now let's add some properties to this constructor:

Creature.string('diet');
Creature.bool('vertebrate');
Creature.array('belly');
Creature.object('children');

// Are equivalent to
Creature.property('diet'); // Defaults to String
Creature.property('vertebrate', Boolean);
Creature.property('belly', Array);
Creature.property('children', Object);

And add a method to the prototype:

Creature.prototype.feed = function (food) {
  this.belly.push(food);
};

Now lets instantiate a Creature, and feed it:

var wolf = new(Creature)({
  diet:      'carnivore',
  vertebrate: true
});

wolf.feed('squirrel');
console.dir(wolf.belly);

You can also define resources this way:

var Creature = resourceful.define('creature', function () {
  this.string('diet');
  this.bool('vertebrate');
  this.array('belly');

  this.prototype.feed = function (food) {
    this.belly.push(food);
  };
});

Defining properties with Resource.property

Lets define a legs property, which is the number of legs the creature has:

Creature.number('legs');

Note that this form is equivalent:

Creature.property('legs', Number);
/* or */
Creature.property('legs', 'number');

If we wanted to constrain the possible values the property could take, we could pass in an object as the last parameter:

Creature.number('legs', {
  required: true,

  minimum: 0,
  maximum: 8,

  conform: function (val) {
    return val % 2 === 0;
  }
});

Now resourceful won't let Creature instances be saved unless the legs property has a value between 0 and 8, and is even,

This style is also valid for defining properties:

Creature.number('legs')
        .required()
        .minimum(0)
        .maximum(8)
        .conform(function (val) { return val % 2 === 0 });

If we want to access and modify an already defined property, we can do it this way:

Creature.schema.properties['legs'].maximum(6);

Engines (saving and fetching resources)

By default, resourceful uses an in-memory engine. If we would like our resources to be persistent, we must use another engine, for example CouchDB.

Engines are used for exposing different storage backends to resourceful. Resourceful currently has two bundled engines:

  • couchdb
  • memory

Engines can be specified when defining a resource with this.use:

var Creature = resource.define('creature', function () {

  this.use('couchdb', {
    uri: 'http://example.jesusabdullah.net'
  });

  /*

      //
      // alternately
      //
      this.use('memory');

      //
      // or, supposing `Engine` is defined as a resourceful engine:
      //
      this.use(Engine, {
        'uri': 'file:///tmp/datastore'
      });

  */

});

Using the CouchDB engine

First, one must create a CouchDB database for resourceful to use. One way to do this is to use Futon, located by default at http://localhost:5984/_utils/. In this example, we name the database myResourcefulDB.

Next, let resourceful know to use use this particular CouchDB database.

var resourceful = require('resourceful');

resourceful.use('couchdb', {database: 'myResourcefulDB'});

Saving and fetching resources (engine agnostic)

Assuming we have already defined a ''Wolf'' resource with name, age, and fur properties, we can fetch and save wolf resources like this:

Wolf.create({ name: 'Wolverine', age: 68 }, function (err, wolf) {
  if (err) { throw new(Error)(err) }

  console.log(wolf); // { id: 42, resource: 'wolf', name: 'Wolverine', age: 68 }

  wolf.age++;
  wolf.save(function (err) {
    if (!err) {
      console.log('happy birthday ' + wolf.name + '!');
    }
  });
});

Wolf.get(42, function (err, wolf) {
  if (err) { throw new(Error)(err) }

  wolf.update({ fur: 'curly' }, function (e, wolf) {
    console.log(wolf.fur); // "curly"
  });
});

Unique id problem

As both couchdb and memory engines are document store style databases, we encounter the problem of allocating the same id to two different resources. For example, we might see the need to allocate the id Smith for a book and an author. This is called Unique ID problem.

We prepend the lowercase of the resource name to the id's given to resourceful api.

Author with id 'smith' is stored with id 'author/smith'

Engine caching

Resourceful comes with a helper for managing an in-memory cache of your documents. This helps increase the speed of resourceful by avoiding extraneous interactions with the back-end.

Unlike engines, caches have a completely synchronous API. This is acceptable since the calls are short and usually occur inside an asynchronously-executing procedure.

History

Resourceful's first engine was the couchdb engine, which was built using cradle. As such, the design of resourceful's engines is somewhat inferred from the design of couchdb itself. In particular, engine prototypes are often named and designed after http verbs, status reporting follows http status code conventions, and engines can be designed around stored views.

That said: The memory engine, as it needs to do much less, can be considered to have the most minimal api possible for an engine, with a few exceptions.

Both pieces of code are more-or-less self-documenting.

Relationships

Resourceful supports parent relationship between two resourceful. All the available api examples are given below.

All the below examples use couchdb engine. These examples implements a one-to-many relationship between user and repository

Define resources

user.js

var resourceful = require('resourceful');

module.exports = resourceful.define('user', function () {
  this.string('name')
});

repository.js

var resourceful = require('resourceful');

module.exports = resourceful.define('repository', function () {
  this.parent('User');
});

Creating parent

var User = require('./user');

User.create({
  id: 'marak',
  name: 'Marak Squires'
}, function (err, user) {
  console.log(user);
  /*
  {
    id: 'marak',
    name: 'Marak Squires',
    resource: 'User',
    repository_ids: []
  }
   */
});

The document is stored in couchdb as following:

[
  {
    _id: 'user/marak',
    name: 'Marak Squires',
    resource: 'User',
    repository_ids: []
  }
]

Creating child

Creating a child will prepend the parent's id to allow multiple child resources with the same id but in diffirent parent's context.

var User = require('./user');

User.createRepository('marak', {
  id: 'colors',
}, function (err, repo) {
  console.log(repo);
  /*
  {
    id: 'user/marak/colors',
    resource: 'Repository',
    user_id: 'marak'
  }
   */
});

This will add 'colors' to marak's repository_ids making the documents stored in couchdb as

[
  {
    _id: 'user/marak',
    name: 'Marak Squires',
    resource: 'User',
    repository_ids: ['colors']
  },
  {
    _id: 'repository/user/marak/colors'
    resource: 'Repository',
    user_id: 'marak'
  }
]

The child can be requested using the Repository resource, but you need to provide the parent context too.

var Repository = require('./repository');

Repository.get('user/marak/colors', function (err, repo) {
  console.log(repo);
  /*
  {
    id: 'user/marak/colors',
    resource: 'Repository',
    user_id: 'marak'
  }
   */
});

Fetching children

All the children of a parent can be fetched using the following

var User = require('./user');

User.repositories('marak', function (err, repos) {
  console.log(repos);
  /*
  [
    {
      id: 'user/marak/repository',
      resource: 'Repository',
      user_id: 'marak'
    }
  ]
  */
});

Destroying a parent

The destruction of a parent will result in cascading destruction of it's children. Cascading destruction here means that all the children of the parent's children will be destroyed and so on.

var User = require('./user');

User.destroy('marak', function () {});

Both the documents in couchdb will be destroyed by the above call.

API

Resource Constructor Methods

These methods are available on all user-defined resource constructors, as well as on the default resourceful.Resource constructor.

  • Resource.get(id, [callback]): Fetch a resource by id.
  • Resource.update(id, properties, [callback]): Update a resource with properties.
  • Resource.destroy(id, [callback]): Destroy a resource by id.
  • Resource.all([callback]): Fetches all resources of this type.
  • Resource.find(properties, [callback]): Find all resources of this type which satisfy obj conditions.
  • Resource.save(inst, [callback]): Saves the specified resource instance inst by overwriting all properties.
  • Resource.create(properties, [callback]): Creates a new instance of the Resource with the specified properties.
  • Resource.new(properties): Instantiates a new instance of the Resource with the properties.

Resource Instance Methods

  • Resource.prototype.save([callback])
  • Resource.prototype.update(properties, [callback])
  • Resource.prototype.destroy([callback])
  • Resource.prototype.reload([callback])

Relationship Constructor Methods

These methods are available on all user-defined resource constructors which are in a relationship

  • Parent.children(id, [callback]): Fetches all the children for the specified id.
  • Parent.createChild(id, properties, [callback]): Create a child for id with the specified properties.
  • Child.byParent(id, [callback]): Fetches all the children for the parent given by id.

Relationship Instance Methods

  • Parent.prototype.children([callback])
  • Parent.prototype.createChild(properties, [callback])
  • Child.prototype.parent([callback]): Fetches the parent of the given child instance.

Engine Constructor

In general, it is safe to attach instance methods to your new engine. For example, memory.js keeps a counter (called this.counter) for creating new documents without a specified name.

var engine = new Engine({
  uri: 'protocol://path/to/database'
});

At a minimum, the constructor should:

Interpret the 'uri' argument

The 'uri' argument should be treated as a unique ID to your particular data store. For example, this is a couchdb uri for the couchdb store.

In most cases the uri argument will correspond to a database url, but that's not always true. In the case of "memory", it's simply a legal javascript object property name.

Initialize a store

A constructed engine should, in some way or another, initialize a connection to its data store. For couchdb, this means opening a new connection object with cradle and attaching it as this.connection. However, this isn't a good fit for all cases; the memory store, for example, simply creates a new property to a "stores" object if stores["storeName"] doesn't exist.

Engine Instance Members

protocol

Resourceful will parse out the "couchdb" from the protocol and attempt to use an included resource with that string as its resource.protocol.

For third-party engines this may not seem critical but it's good practice to include anyway, for the purposes of inspection if nothing else.

Engine.prototype.protocol = 'file';

The protocol method sets the protocol member is used by resourceful to add syntactic sugar such that you may do:

Resource.connect('couchdb://example.nodejitsu.com');

Engine Instance Methods

Resourceful allows flexibility in some prototype methods, but not in others. Authors are encouraged to add prototype methods that feel natural to expose; for instance, the couchdb engine exposes this.prototype.head for sending http HEAD requests.

request()

Unlike some of the other prototype methods, request does not have to follow any particular contract, as it's used by your engine internally to encapsulate an asynchronous request to your particular datastore.

this.request(function () {

  var update = key in this.store;
  this.store[key] = val;
  callback(null, resourceful.mixin({ status: update ? 200 : 201 }, val));
});

In the case of the memory datastore, this simply involves a process.nextTick helper:

Memory.prototype.request = function (fn) {

  var self = this;

  process.nextTick(function () {
    fn.call(self);
  });
};

In the couchdb engine, requests look more like:

this.request('post', doc, function (e, res) {

  if (e) {
    return callback(e);
  }

  res.status = 201;
  callback(null, resourceful.mixin({}, doc, res));
});

An engine should expose the request interface that feels most natural given the transport. However, there are some conventions to follow:

  1. this.request should be asynchronous.
  2. The callback should set 'this' to be the same context as outside the callback

save()

Because the engines api was written with couchdb in mind, 'doc' should include an appropriate http status under doc.status.

save can be implemented using a combination of 'head', 'put' and 'post', as in the case of the couchdb engine. However, in the memory engine case put is an alias to save and update is implemented separately. See below: head, put and update. The following pattern should be followed across all engines:

engine.save('key', value, function (err, doc) {

  if (err) {
    throw err;
  }

  if (doc.status == 201) {
    // Will be 201 instead of 200 if the document is created instead of modified
    console.log('New document created!');
  }

  console.log(doc);
});

put()

put is typically used to represent operations that update or modify the database without creating new resources. However, it is acceptable to alias the 'save' method and allow for the creation of new resources.

Because the engines api was written with couchdb in mind, 'doc' should include an appropriate http status under doc.status. The expected status is '201'. See below: post. This pattern should be followed across all engines:

engine.put('key', value, function (err, doc) {

  if (err) {
    throw err;
  }

  if (doc.status === 201) {
    console.log('Document updated!');
  }
  else {
    throw new Error('Document did not update.');
  }

  console.log(doc);
});

post()

create()

This pattern should be followed across all engines for implementations of these methods. However, they are optional. The memory engine defines Engine.prototype.load instead. For instance:

engine.create('key', value, function (err, doc) {

  if (err) {
    throw err;
  }

  if (doc.status === 201) {
    console.log('Document updated!');
  }
  else {
    throw new Error('Status: '+doc.status);
  }

  console.log(doc);
});

post is typically used to represent operations that create new resources without modifying or updating existing ones. create should be implemented as an alias for post.

Because the engines api was written with couchdb in mind, 'doc' should include an appropriate http status under doc.status. The expected status is '201'.

load()

This method is optional and is used to more or less replace the "create" and "post" methods along with "put" and "save".

//
// Example with the memory transport
//
var memory = new Memory();

memory.load([ { 'foo': 'bar' }, { 'bar': 'baz' }]);

In the above example, each object passed to memory.load is loaded as a new document. This approach is useful in cases where you already have a javascript representation of your store (as in the case of memory) and don't need to interact with a remote api as in the case of couchdb.

update()

update is used to modify existing resources by copying enumerable properties from the update object to the existing object (often called a "mixin" and implemented in javascript in resourceful.mixin and utile.mixin). Besides the mixin process (meaning your stored object won't lose existing properties), update is synonymous with put, and in fact uses put internally in the case of both the couchdb and memory engines.

Because the engines api was written with couchdb in mind, 'doc' should include an appropriate http status under doc.status. The expected status is '201', as with put. This pattern should be followed across all engines:

engine.put('key', { 'foo': 'bar' }, function (err, doc) {

  if (err) {
    throw err;
  }

  if (doc.status === 201) {
    console.log('Document updated!');
  }
  else {
    throw new Error('Document did not update.');
  }

  console.log(doc); // doc.foo should now be bar

});

get()

This pattern should be followed across all engines:

engine.get('key', function (err, doc) {

  if (err) {
    if (err.status === 404) {
      console.log('Document was not there!');
    }

    throw err;
  }

  console.log(doc);
});

destroy()

destroy is used to delete existing resources.

Because the engines api was written with couchdb in mind, 'doc' should include an appropriate http status under doc.status. The expected status is '204', which stands for 'successfully deleted'. This pattern should be followed across all engines:

engine.get('key', function (err, doc) {

  if (err) {
    throw err;
  }

  //
  // "status" should be the only property on `doc`.
  //
  if (doc.status !== 204) {
    throw new Error('Status: '+doc.status);
  }

  console.log('Successfully destroyed document.');
});

find()

find is a shorthand for finding resources which in some cases can be implemented as a special case of filter, as with memory here:

Memory.prototype.find = function (conditions, callback) {

  this.filter(function (obj) {
    return Object.keys(conditions).every(function (k) {
      return conditions[k] ===  obj[k];
    });
  }, callback);
};

This pattern should be followed across all engines:

engine.find({ 'foo': 'bar' }, function (err, docs) {

  if (err) {
    throw err;
  }

  //
  // docs[0].foo === 'bar'
  //

});

The couchdb version, however, uses special logic as couchdb uses temporary and stored views.


  IMPORTANT NOTE
  --------------

  `CouchDB.prototype.find` uses a temporary view. This is useful while testing but is slow and bad practice on a production couch. Please use `CouchDB.prototype.filter` instead.

filter()

The semantics of 'filter' vary slightly depending on the engine. The semantics of filter(), like those of request(), should reflect the particular idioms of the underlying transport.

//
// Example used with a Memory engine
//
engine.filter(filterfxn, function (err, docs) {

  if (err) {
    throw err;
  }

  //
  // returned docs filtered by "filter"
  //

});

The "memory" case simply applies a function against the store's documents. In contrast, the couchdb engine exposes an api for using stored mapreduce functions on the couch:

//
// Example used with a Couchdb engine
//
engine.filter("view", params, function (err, docs) {

  if (err) {
    throw err;
  }

  //
  // returned docs filtered using the "view" mapreduce function on couch.
  //

});

sync()

Engine.prototype.sync is used to sync "design document" information with the database if necessary. This is specific to couchdb; for the 'memory' transport there is no conception of (or parallel to) a design document.

engine.sync(factory, function (err) {

  if (err) {
    throw err;
  }
});

In the case where there is no doc or "stored procedures" of any kind to upload to the database, this step can be simplified to:

Engine.prototype.sync = function (factory, callback) {

  process.nextTick(function () { callback(); });
};

Cache Constructor

This creates a new in-memory cache for your engine. The cache is automatically populated by resourceful. This means that you don't need to actually use the cache directly for many operations. In fact, the memory engine doesn't explicitly use resourceful.Cache at all.

var resourceful = require('resourceful');

var cache = new Cache();

Cache Instance Methods

resourceful.Cache has the following prototypes for interacting with the in-memory cache:

  • Cache.prototype.get(id): Attempt to 'get' a cached document.
  • Cache.prototype.put(id, doc): Attempt to 'put' a document into the cache.
  • Cache.prototype.update(id, doc): Attempt to update a document in the cache. This means that it will attempt to merge your old and new document instead of overwriting the old with the new!
  • Cache.prototype.clear(id): Attempts to remove a document from the cache. Document 'overwriting' may be achieved with call to .clear followed by a call to .put.
  • Cache.prototype.has(id): Checks to see if a given document is in the cache or not.

The couchdb engine explicity uses resourceful.Cache in two places, both in cases where fetching the document is prohibitive and can be avoided. The couchdb engine checks the cache for the object with which to merge new data before uploading:

Couchdb.prototype.update = function (id, doc, callback) {

  return this.cache.has(id) 
    ? this.put(id, resourceful.mixin({}, this.cache.get(id).toJSON(), doc), callback)
    : this.request('merge', id, doc, callback);
};

object.toJSON is a misnomer; Instead of returning json, .toJSON() returns a cloned object. This method is named as such because it's detected and used by JSON.stringify.

The couchdb engine checks the cache for the object it wants to destroy:

if (this.cache.has(id)) {

  args.splice(1, -1, this.cache.get(id)._rev);
  return this.request.apply(this, ['remove'].concat(args));
}

In the above snippet (just a small part of the entire function), the couchdb engine uses the cache to get revision data without doing a GET.

Tests

All tests are written with vows and should be run with npm:

  $ npm test

License

Copyright 2012 Nodejitsu, Inc.

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at

http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.

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