:doc:`conventions` covers the essential aspects of Linux desktop integration. This page provides further information on optional desktop integration features. It also provides guidance on how applications can ensure that their user interfaces fit into the whole range of Linux desktops and distributions.
This information is primarily intended for developers who are new to Linux. However it is also relevant to desktop-specific Linux applications who wish to target a broader range of Linux environments.
While targeting the Linux desktop ecosystem might seem challenging, the existence of common standards, in combination with these guidelines, means that supporting the full range of Linux environments needn't be difficult.
Application toolkits, such as Electron, GTK and Qt, provide built-in support
for detecting which locale to use. Otherwise, the
can be used.
Portals are the framework for securely accessing resources from outside an application sandbox. They provide a range of common features to applications, including:
- Determining network status
- Opening a file with a file chooser
- Opening URIs
- Preventing the device from suspend/sleep/powering off
- Sending email
- Showing notifications
- Taking screenshots and screencasts
Toolkits like GTK and Qt provide transparent support for portals:
.. toctree:: :maxdepth: 2 portals-gtk portals-qt
If you are not using one of these toolkits, it is possible to access the portals API directly. See the Portals API documentation for more information.
A number of toolkits and frameworks provide transparent support for Linux desktop notifications. This includes Electron, GTK, KDE and QML.
Status icons are the same concept as the system tray or the taskbar on Windows, or menu bar icons on Mac. These are supported on most Linux distributions, through libappindicator.
A number of Linux distributions don't show status icons. It is still possible to provide a status icon, and it will be shown in some distributions. However, in order to ensure compatibility, it is recommended to only use status icons in a supplementary manner, and not to rely on them as the only mechanism for providing status information or access to particular features. This includes "minimize to tray" (or equivalent) functionality.
XEmbed style icons will function with the
x11 permission but all other
status icon interfaces require extra permissions to escape the sandbox and
these services are not designed to be robust against untrusted software.
GNOME-based distributions, like CentOS, Fedora, Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Ubuntu, provide the option to integrate with system search, by providing a search provider. This allows application-provided search results to appear in the Activities Overview.
Window controls are the buttons used to close, maximize and minimize windows. These do vary across Linux desktops, particularly in terms of which controls are shown. Whether applications attempt to follow these variations is up to their discretion. Providing the exact same controls as used by a particular desktop environment should not be seen as a hard requirement.
From a user experience perspective, it is important to ensure that window controls appear on the same side of the window as other desktops. On Linux this is the right side of the window (like Windows).
Applications can rely on system-provided titlebars on Linux, if they don't want to draw their own window controls.
If your application uses a dark visual style as well as system-provided window
GTK_THEME_VARIANT=dark X11 window property should be
used, to ensure that window decorations match the rest of the application
window. This can be done by running:
xprop -f _GTK_THEME_VARIANT 8u -set _GTK_THEME_VARIANT dark
If your application uses the built in
GtkApplication:menu-bar or the Qt 5
equivalent they will work as expected from within a sandboxed application.
Flatpak applications cannot directly use the system theme. This happens because flatpaks do not have the ability to use data files or libraries in
/usr (where system themes are typically located). The solution to this was to package themes as Flatpaks, as relying upon the host to have the correct version for every flatpak defeats the portability benefits it provides. These themes are provided as extensions, to the Freedesktop runtime when the extension point is Gtk, and to the KDE runtime when the extension point is Qt.
The theming system requires Flatpak 0.8.4+ and applications using up to date
org.gnome.Platform 3.24+, or
org.freedesktop.Platform 1.6+, or
Instructions for Gtk
The current Gtk themes are packaged in the flathub repository which you can add (if it's not already added) by running:
$ flatpak remote-add flathub https://flathub.org/repo/flathub.flatpakrepo
To see a list of currently packaged themes you can use the command
flatpak search gtk3theme (available since Flatpak version 0.10.1). In case you use an older version of Flatpak than that, you can use the command
flatpak remote-ls flathub | grep org.gtk.Gtk3theme. The difference in output between these two commands is that the first prints the application ID, the remote from which the theme comes and the theme's description, while the second prints only the full name of the theme's flatpak package.
You can install themes with the command
flatpak install flathub org.gtk.Gtk3theme.Foo, replacing
Foo with the name of the desired theme.
Instructions for Qt
For the Qt theming to work, the flatpak packages kstyle and platformtheme must be installed. These are packed in the kdeapps repository which you can add by running:
$ flatpak remote-add kdeapps https://distribute.kde.org/kdeapps.flatpakrepo
Afterwards the two packages can be installed with the following commands:
$ flatpak install kdeapps org.kde.KStyle.Adwaita//5.9 $ flatpak install kdeapps org.kde.PlatformTheme.QGnomePlatform//5.9
There is no ideal way to specify the theme Flatpak applications use. The applications will try to match the system theme currently being used, if it corresponds to any of the Flatpak themes installed, and will fall back to Adwaita (if they use Gtk2 or Gtk3) or the default Qt theme (if they use Qt) if a corresponding theme isn't detected.
As of Flatpak 0.10.1, the Flatpak system can detect whether the system themes available correspond to any Flatpak themes available in the repositories, and, if so, will automatically install found themes at update time based upon the
gtk-theme Dconf key. This key however can contain only one value, the one of the currently being used theme, which means that the Flatpak versions of matching themes that aren't currently being used aren't installed until those themes are enabled. If none of the corresponding system themes are currently being used, the applications will fall back to Adwaita or the default Qt theme.
On X11, Gtk3 picks up the themes via XSettings. Specifically, the GNOME XSettings daemon
gsd-xsettings reads the DConf values and converts them into the XSettings values. For this to work, you need an xsettings daemon that is correctly configured. Gtk3 on Wayland picks up themes directly via Dconf. For this to work, you can either use KDE (with
kde-gtk-config > 5.11.95), GNOME, which works out of the box, or manually configure the dconf keys under
/org/gnome/desktop/interface/. For the DConf option to work on Wayland the application must also be configured to have DConf access.
Other notes on theming
In regards to icon themes, since Flatpak 0.8.8 the host icons are exposed to the guest, so that there is usually no need for the presence of Flatpak icon themes.
If you use the Global Dark Theme option (removed in GNOME-Tweaks 3.28) in
gnome-tweak-tool it will not work as that simply writes to
settings.ini which isn’t available in the sandbox. Use dark versions of themes instead if they exist.