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fugit

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Time tools for flor and the floraison group.

It uses et-orbi to represent time instances and raabro as a basis for its parsers.

Fugit is a core dependency of rufus-scheduler >= 3.5.

Related projects

Sister projects

The intersection of those two projects is where fugit is born:

  • rufus-scheduler - a cron/at/in/every/interval in-process scheduler, in fact, it's the father project to this fugit project
  • flor - a Ruby workflow engine, fugit provides the foundation for its time scheduling capabilities

Similar, sometimes overlapping projects

  • chronic - a pure Ruby natural language date parser
  • parse-cron - parses cron expressions and calculates the next occurrence after a given date
  • ice_cube - Ruby date recurrence library
  • ISO8601 - Ruby parser to work with ISO8601 dateTimes and durations
  • ...

Projects using fugit

Fugit.parse(s)

The simplest way to use fugit is via Fugit.parse(s).

require 'fugit'

Fugit.parse('0 0 1 jan *').class         # ==> ::Fugit::Cron
Fugit.parse('12y12M').class              # ==> ::Fugit::Duration

Fugit.parse('2017-12-12').class          # ==> ::EtOrbi::EoTime
Fugit.parse('2017-12-12 UTC').class      # ==> ::EtOrbi::EoTime

Fugit.parse('every day at noon').class   # ==> ::Fugit::Cron

If fugit cannot extract a cron, duration or point in time out of the string, it will return nil.

Fugit.parse('nada')
  # ==> nil

Fugit.do_parse(s)

Fugit.do_parse(s) is equivalent to Fugit.parse(s), but instead of returning nil, it raises an error if the given string contains no time information.

Fugit.do_parse('nada')
  # ==> /home/jmettraux/w/fugit/lib/fugit/parse.rb:32
  #     :in `do_parse': found no time information in "nada" (ArgumentError)

parse_cron, parse_in, parse_at, parse_duration, and parse_nat

require 'fugit'

Fugit.parse_cron('0 0 1 jan *').class       # ==> ::Fugit::Cron
Fugit.parse_duration('12y12M').class        # ==> ::Fugit::Duration

Fugit.parse_at('2017-12-12').class          # ==> ::EtOrbi::EoTime
Fugit.parse_at('2017-12-12 UTC').class      # ==> ::EtOrbi::EoTime

Fugit.parse_nat('every day at noon').class  # ==> ::Fugit::Cron

do_parse_cron, do_parse_in, do_parse_at, do_parse_duration, and do_parse_nat

As Fugit.parse(s) returns nil when it doesn't grok its input, and Fugit.do_parse(s) fails when it doesn't grok, each of the parse_ methods has its partner do_parse_ method.

Fugit::Cron

A class Fugit::Cron to parse cron strings and then #next_time and #previous_time to compute the next or the previous occurrence respectively.

There is also a #brute_frequency method which returns an array [ shortest delta, longest delta, occurrence count ] where delta is the time between two occurrences.

require 'fugit'

c = Fugit::Cron.parse('0 0 * *  sun')
  # or
c = Fugit::Cron.new('0 0 * *  sun')

p Time.now  # => 2017-01-03 09:53:27 +0900

p c.next_time      # => 2017-01-08 00:00:00 +0900
p c.previous_time  # => 2017-01-01 00:00:00 +0900

p c.brute_frequency  # => [ 604800, 604800, 53 ]
                     #    [ delta min, delta max, occurrence count ]
p c.rough_frequency  # => 7 * 24 * 3600 (7d rough frequency)

p c.match?(Time.parse('2017-08-06'))  # => true
p c.match?(Time.parse('2017-08-07'))  # => false
p c.match?('2017-08-06')              # => true
p c.match?('2017-08-06 12:00')        # => false

Example of cron strings understood by fugit:

'5 0 * * *'         # 5 minutes after midnight, every day
'15 14 1 * *'       # at 1415 on the 1st of every month
'0 22 * * 1-5'      # at 2200 on weekdays
'0 22 * * mon-fri'  # idem
'23 0-23/2 * * *'   # 23 minutes after 00:00, 02:00, 04:00, ...

'@yearly'    # turns into '0 0 1 1 *'
'@monthly'   # turns into '0 0 1 * *'
'@weekly'    # turns into '0 0 * * 0'
'@daily'     # turns into '0 0 * * *'
'@midnight'  # turns into '0 0 * * *'
'@hourly'    # turns into '0 * * * *'

'0 0 L * *'     # last day of month at 00:00
'0 0 last * *'  # idem
'0 0 -7-L * *'  # from the seventh to last to the last day of month at 00:00

# and more...

the first Monday of the month

Fugit tries to follow the man 5 crontab documentation.

There is a surprising thing about this canon, all the columns are joined by ANDs, except for monthday and weekday which are joined together by OR if they are both set (they are not *).

Many people (me included) are suprised when they try to specify "at 05:00 on the first Monday of the month" as 0 5 1-7 * 1 or 0 5 1-7 * mon and the results are off.

The man page says:

Note: The day of a command's execution can be specified by two fields -- day of month, and day of week. If both fields are restricted (ie, are not *), the command will be run when either field matches the current time. For example, ``30 4 1,15 * 5'' would cause a command to be run at 4:30 am on the 1st and 15th of each month, plus every Friday.

Fugit follows this specification.

There is a solution though, please read on.

the hash extension

Fugit understands 0 5 * * 1#1 or 0 5 * * mon#1 as "each first Monday of the month, at 05:00".

'0 5 * * 1#1'    #
'0 5 * * mon#1'  # the first Monday of the month at 05:00

'0 6 * * 5#4,5#5'      #
'0 6 * * fri#4,fri#5'  # the 4th and 5th Fridays of the month at 06:00

'0 7 * * 5#-1'    #
'0 7 * * fri#-1'  # the last Friday of the month at 07:00

'0 7 * * 5#L'       #
'0 7 * * fri#L'     #
'0 7 * * 5#last'    #
'0 7 * * fri#last'  # the last Friday of the month at 07:00

'0 23 * * mon#2,tue'  # the 2nd Monday of the month and every Tuesday, at 23:00

the modulo extension

Fugit, since 1.1.10, also understands cron strings like "9 0 * * sun%2" which can be read as "every other Sunday at 9am".

For odd Sundays, one can write 9 0 * * sun%2+1.

It can be combined, as in 9 0 * * sun%2,tue%3+2

But what does it reference to? It starts at 1 on 2019-01-01.

require 'et-orbi' # >= 1.1.8

# the reference
p EtOrbi.parse('2019-01-01').wday       # => 2
p EtOrbi.parse('2019-01-01').rweek      # => 1
p EtOrbi.parse('2019-01-01').rweek % 2  # => 1

# today (as of this coding...)
p EtOrbi.parse('2019-04-11').wday       # => 4
p EtOrbi.parse('2019-04-11').rweek      # => 15
p EtOrbi.parse('2019-04-11').rweek % 2  # => 1

Fugit::Duration

A class Fugit::Duration to parse duration strings (vanilla rufus-scheduler ones and ISO 8601 ones).

Provides duration arithmetic tools.

require 'fugit'

d = Fugit::Duration.parse('1y2M1d4h')

p d.to_plain_s  # => "1Y2M1D4h"
p d.to_iso_s    # => "P1Y2M1DT4H" ISO 8601 duration
p d.to_long_s   # => "1 year, 2 months, 1 day, and 4 hours"

d += Fugit::Duration.parse('1y1h')

p d.to_long_s  # => "2 years, 2 months, 1 day, and 5 hours"

d += 3600

p d.to_plain_s  # => "2Y2M1D5h3600s"

p Fugit::Duration.parse('1y2M1d4h').to_sec # => 36820800

There is a #deflate method

Fugit::Duration.parse(1000).to_plain_s # => "1000s"
Fugit::Duration.parse(3600).to_plain_s # => "3600s"
Fugit::Duration.parse(1000).deflate.to_plain_s # => "16m40s"
Fugit::Duration.parse(3600).deflate.to_plain_s # => "1h"

# or event shorter
Fugit.parse(1000).deflate.to_plain_s # => "16m40s"
Fugit.parse(3600).deflate.to_plain_s # => "1h"

There is also an #inflate method

Fugit::Duration.parse('1h30m12').inflate.to_plain_s # => "5412s"
Fugit.parse('1h30m12').inflate.to_plain_s # => "5412s"

Fugit.parse('1h30m12').to_sec # => 5412
Fugit.parse('1h30m12').to_sec.to_s + 's' # => "5412s"

The to_*_s methods are also available as class methods:

p Fugit::Duration.to_plain_s('1y2M1d4h')
  # => "1Y2M1D4h"
p Fugit::Duration.to_iso_s('1y2M1d4h')
  # => "P1Y2M1DT4H" ISO 8601 duration
p Fugit::Duration.to_long_s('1y2M1d4h')
  # => "1 year, 2 months, 1 day, and 4 hours"

Fugit::At

Points in time are parsed and given back as EtOrbi::EoTime instances.

Fugit::At.parse('2017-12-12').to_s
  # ==> "2017-12-12 00:00:00 +0900" (at least here in Hiroshima)

Fugit::At.parse('2017-12-12 12:00:00 America/New_York').to_s
  # ==> "2017-12-12 12:00:00 -0500"

Directly with Fugit.parse_at(s) is OK too:

Fugit.parse_at('2017-12-12 12:00:00 America/New_York').to_s
  # ==> "2017-12-12 12:00:00 -0500"

Directly with Fugit.parse(s) is OK too:

Fugit.parse('2017-12-12 12:00:00 America/New_York').to_s
  # ==> "2017-12-12 12:00:00 -0500"

Fugit::Nat

Fugit understand some kind of "natural" language:

For example, those "every" get turned into Fugit::Cron instances:

Fugit::Nat.parse('every day at five')                         # ==> '0 5 * * *'
Fugit::Nat.parse('every weekday at five')                     # ==> '0 5 * * 1,2,3,4,5'
Fugit::Nat.parse('every day at 5 pm')                         # ==> '0 17 * * *'
Fugit::Nat.parse('every tuesday at 5 pm')                     # ==> '0 17 * * 2'
Fugit::Nat.parse('every wed at 5 pm')                         # ==> '0 17 * * 3'
Fugit::Nat.parse('every day at 16:30')                        # ==> '30 16 * * *'
Fugit::Nat.parse('every day at 16:00 and 18:00')              # ==> '0 16,18 * * *'
Fugit::Nat.parse('every day at noon')                         # ==> '0 12 * * *'
Fugit::Nat.parse('every day at midnight')                     # ==> '0 0 * * *'
Fugit::Nat.parse('every tuesday and monday at 5pm')           # ==> '0 17 * * 1,2'
Fugit::Nat.parse('every wed or Monday at 5pm and 11')         # ==> '0 11,17 * * 1,3'
Fugit::Nat.parse('every day at 5 pm on America/Los_Angeles')  # ==> '0 17 * * * America/Los_Angeles'
Fugit::Nat.parse('every day at 6 pm in Asia/Tokyo')           # ==> '0 18 * * * Asia/Tokyo'
Fugit::Nat.parse('every 3 hours')                             # ==> '0 */3 * * *'
Fugit::Nat.parse('every 4 months')                            # ==> '0 0 1 */4 *'
Fugit::Nat.parse('every 5 minutes')                           # ==> '*/5 * * * *'
Fugit::Nat.parse('every 15s')                                 # ==> '*/15 * * * * *'

Directly with Fugit.parse(s) is OK too:

Fugit.parse('every day at five')  # ==> Fugit::Cron instance '0 5 * * *'

Ambiguous nats

Not all strings result in a clean, single, cron expression. The multi: false|true|:fail argument to Fugit::Nat.parse could help.

Fugit::Nat.parse('every day at 16:00 and 18:00')
  .to_cron_s
    # ==> '0 16,18 * * *' (a single Fugit::Cron instances)
Fugit::Nat.parse('every day at 16:00 and 18:00', multi: true)
  .collect(&:to_cron_s)
    # ==> [ '0 16,18 * * *' ] (array of Fugit::Cron instances, here only one)

Fugit::Nat.parse('every day at 16:15 and 18:30')
  .to_cron_s
    # ==> '15 16 * * *' (a single of Fugit::Cron instances)
Fugit::Nat.parse('every day at 16:15 and 18:30', multi: true)
  .collect(&:to_cron_s)
    # ==> [ '15 16 * * *', '30 18 * * *' ] (two Fugit::Cron instances)

Fugit::Nat.parse('every day at 16:15 and 18:30', multi: :fail)
  # ==> ArgumentError: multiple crons in "every day at 16:15 and 18:30" (15 16 * * * | 30 18 * * *)
Fugit::Nat.parse('every day at 16:15 nada 18:30', multi: true)
  # ==> nil

multi: true indicates to Fugit::Nat that an array of Fugit::Cron instances is expected as a result.

multi: :fail tells Fugit::Nat.parse to fail if the result is more than 1 Fugit::Cron instances.

multi: false is the default behaviour, return a single Fugit::Cron instance or nil when it cannot parse.

LICENSE

MIT, see LICENSE.txt

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time tools (cron, parsing, durations, ...) for Ruby, rufus-scheduler, and flor

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