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AquaVM interprets AIR – a π-calculus-derived set of instructions that the Aqua language compiles to


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AquaVM executes compiled Aqua, i.e., Aqua Intermediate Representation (AIR) scripts, and plays an integral role in the implementation of the Fluence peer-to-peer compute protocol. Specifically, AquaVM allows expressing network choreography in scripts and composing distributed, peer-to-peer hosted services. Moreover, AquaVM plays a significant role in facilitating function addressability in the Fluence network, see Figure 1.

AquaVM & AIR model

Figure 1: Stylized AquaVM And AIR Model

Since AquaVM compiles to Wasm, it can run in both client, such as browsers and Node.js apps, and server environments.

AquaVM: Interpreter Execution Model

AquaVM's execution model facilitates Fluence protocol's data push model implemented as a particle, i.e., a smart packet comprised of data, AIR, and some metadata. In this context, AquaVM can be viewed as a pure state transition function that facilitates particle updates, which includes state management of particle data by taking previous and current state to produce a new state and an updated list of peers and call requests in the remaining AIR workflow. In addition to local service call execution, AquaVM handles requests from remote peers, e.g., as a part of a parallel execution block, to call local services and handle the future response, see Figure 2.

interpreter execution model

Figure 2: AquaVM Interpreter Execution Model

In summary, the AquaVM execution model handles the topological hops for simple and advanced composition patterns, such as (async) parallel service execution on one or multiple peers.

Aquamarine Intermediate Representation (AIR): IR for P2P Systems

AIR is an S-expression-based low-level language with binary form to come. It currently consists of fourteen instructions with more instructions to come. Semantics of AIR is inspired by π-calculus, λ-calculus, and category theory. Its syntax is inspired by Wasm Text Format (WAT) and Lisp. AIR scripts control the Fluence peer-to-peer network, its peers and even resources on other (p2p) networks, such as IPFS and Filecoin, e.g., Fluence IPFS library through Marine adapter services.

A description of AIR values and a list of AIR instructions together with examples of their usage can be found here. The main properties of AIR and its interface are discussed here.

A complete list of AIR instructions with examples of their usage can be found here. The fundamental contracts of the AquaVM interface, along with a more detailed interaction scheme can be found here.

Repository Structure

  • air is the core of AquaVM
  • air-interpreter is a crate to support different compilation targets (Marine and wasm-bindgen)
  • avm
    • client is an AquaVM launcher for browser and Node.js targets
    • server is an AquaVM launcher for server-side targets
  • crates
    • air-lib contains all main crates for the core of AquaVM
    • beautifier is an implementation of AIR-beautifier
    • data-store defines a DataStore trait used by the Fluence node
    • interpreter-wasm is a crate for better integration of compiled Wasm code into the Fluence node
    • testing-framework is an implementation of the framework that improves test writing experience
  • tools contains AquaVM-related tools


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All software code is copyright (c) Fluence Labs, Inc. under the Apache-2.0 license.