Note: This project is currently WIP, no guarantees are made until an 0.1 release.
This project is a C++11 library for putting every last bit to good use.
It combines various techniques such as
llvm::PointerIntPair, tombstones and (a custom implementation of) bitfields to write types that use as little bits as possible.
Important: This library is a low-level implementation library.
It is meant for experienced C++ programmers who write foundational code, such as vocabulary types, containers etc.
As such, the types used by this library should not appear in interfaces directly.
Instead they are implementation details of other types.
This is especially true for the
_impl types such as
Proper vocabulary types are meant to be built on top of them.
tiny::bit_view: A view for a range of (possibly disjoint) bits. This is a fundamental type used internally and for implementing some traits.
tiny::enum_traits: Traits to specify range of an
enum. Will be automatically implemented for enumerations with members such as
unsigned_count_, but can be specialized for own types. They are required for exposing information about your enumerations.
tiny::padding_traits: Traits to specify padding bytes of your type. They basically provide a
tiny::bit_viewto the bytes that are padding.
tiny::padding_traits_aggregateprovides a semi-automatic implementation for aggregate types.
Tiny types are types that are just a couple of bits in size. They cannot be stored directly but instead in a storage type:
tiny::tiny_storage: Stores multiple tiny types tightly packed together (think bitfields).
tiny::pointer_tiny_storage: Stores tiny types in the alignment bits of a pointer.
tiny::padding_tiny_storage: Stores tiny types in the padding of another type.
The tiny types provided by this library:
Nbit integers (where
tiny::tiny_int_range<Min, Max>: the specified integers
tiny::tiny_enum<E>: a tiny enumeration
tiny::tiny_flag_set<Flags>: a set of flags, i.e. multiple booleans with names
Optional implementations like
std::optional<T> need to have storage for
T and a boolean indicating whether or not one is currently stored.
Due to alignment and padding this can easily double the size beyond what is necessary.
A tombstone is a special "invalid" value of a type, like a
It can be used to indicate an empty optional without needing to store a boolean.
tiny::tombstone_traits are a non-intrusive way of exposing tombstones without creating the ability to expose the invalid type states.
Vocabulary Implementation Helpers
A space efficient optional implementation can be built on top of the tombstone traits. However, certain design decisions of such vocabulary types are somewhat controversial. So instead of writing the full implementation, the library contains just the bare minimum. Proper vocabulary types can be built on top.
tiny::optional_impl: a tombstone enabled and thus compact optional
tiny::pointer_variant_impl: a union of multiple pointer types using alignment bits to store the currently active pointer
Q: Are those tricks standard conforming C++?
A: For the most part, yes:
The implementations are carefully crafted to avoid undefined behavior.
However, I'm certainly relying on some implementation-defined behavior.
For example, the
tiny::pointer_tiny_storage makes some assumptions about the integral representation of pointers that are not necessarily guaranteed,
but all implementations I'm aware of work that way.
Please let me know if yours don't!
Q: The tiny types behave weird when I use
A: That's not a question, but yes.
By their very nature I cannot expose references to a stored tiny type.
Proxies are used instead, which interact poorly with
This is an implementation limit I can't really do anything about.
Q: It breaks when I do this!
A: Don't do that. And file an issue (or a PR, I have a lot of other projects...).
Q: This is awesome!
A: Thanks. I do have a Patreon page, so consider checking it out:
A full reference documentation is WIP, look at the comments in the header files for now.
Annotated tutorial style examples can be found in the example directory.
The library requires a C++11 compiler. Compilers that are being tested on CI:
- GCC 5 to 8
- clang 4 to 7
- XCode 9 and 10
- Visual Studio 2017
It only requires the following standard library headers:
new(for placement new only)
debug_assert library optionally requires
cstdio for printing messages to
DEBUG_ASSERT_NO_STDIO disables that.
It does not use exceptions, RTTI or dynamic memory allocation.
The library is header-only and has only my debug_assert library as dependency.
If you use CMake,
debug_assert will be cloned automatically if not installed on the system.
You can use it with
add_subdirectory() or install it and use
then link to
foonathan::foonathan_tiny and everything will be setup automatically.
- NaN floating point packing
- More vocabulary type helpers