All modern server side applications use memcached as fast caching technology. Memcached comes with multiple languages clients including java. The client provides you an ability to gain access to the memcached servers and perform operations you need. All these operations a low level and require you to have control over synchronous/asynchronous ex…
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README.md

3levelmemcache

Overview

All modern server side applications use memcached as fast caching technology. Memcached comes with multiple languages clients including java. The client provides you an ability to gain access to the memcached servers and perform operations you need. All these operations a low level and require you to have control over synchronous/asynchronous execution of your request, require you to specify serializer to use, require you to manage data at low level. One more challenge any app faces with memcached. Memcached is in memory storage, if server crashes - data is lost. To avoid this kind of issues we write/read data from 2 identical memcached storages. Even if one crashes the other still able to server traffic and application do not see the problem. No outage for application.

Data.com has built own caching framework on top of provided memcached low level client. The distinguishing part of this framework:

  • it allows you to operate data at higher level. No worries about serialization, about sync/async execution.
  • it allows you to write into 2 memcached storages
  • it adds local or JVM cache on top of memcached storages. That gives a huge boost in performance in some cases.

3levelmemcache uses spring but it also possible to instantiate objects manually

Supported memcached providers

  • Couchbase or Membase
  • plain memcached

Levels

Data.com cache infrastructure has 3 levels of caching.

  1. FirstLevelCache - this is jvm based caching for hot objects. Works as FIFO cache. Size is controlled by a property. See properties section.

  2. PrimaryCache - the master memcached server. All requests that could not be found in FirstLevelCache are redirected to this cache.

  3. SecondaryCache - the backup memcached server. All requests that could not be found/ or executed on PrimaryCache are redirected to this cache Any level of cache could be disabled except PrimaryCache. PrimaryCache is required.

Each level has an option to assign an interceptor/listener to listen for events.

Connection pools

PrimaryCacheService and SecondaryCacheService maintain connection pool with keep alive mechanism. Each connection is a MemcachedConnection or CouchbaseConnection

CouchbaseConnection

Sockets:

  • 8091 - couchbase "management port", which is used for cluster topology changes
  • 11210 - data port. Port is used for data transmitting. Called "Data port"
  • Optional [11211 - xxxxx] - bucket specific port Algorithm: Each connection has 2-3 threads behind. One thread for async processing of writes. One for listening 8091 management port.

MemcachedConnection

Sockets:

  • [11211-xxxx] - data port for plain memcached connection Algorithm: Each connection has 1 thread behind, for async processing of writes.

Pool Algorithm

Pool is a "Round robin pool" hidden behind JDK dynamic proxy.

Keep alive

Keep alive was implemented for cases where your app connects to cache through firewall, some firewall software might stale the connection without breaking it after some non-active time. To prevent this there is a keep-alive logic. Pooling connection allows to increase the bandwidth primarily because of increasing the amount of worker threads. 1 connection has 1 worker thread and queue, that is not enough sometimes. We identified that having multiple queues with multiple worker threads - improves the performance on multi CPU hardware.

Algorithm

Here are basic algorithms

Action: PUT

Algorithm:

  • if data is allowed* to be cached in FirstLevelCache - put/update data into FirstLevelCache
  • if PrimaryCache is connected and healthy - put data to the PrimaryCache
  • if SecondaryCache is connected and healthy - put data to the SecondaryCache Concept: "Last write wins"

*Allowed means that some data by nature could be sensitive to caching in JVM. There is a way to prevent FirstLevelCache from caching that type of data.

Action: GET

Algorithm:

  • if data exists in FirstLevelCache - return data from FirstLevelCache and stop
  • if data was not found on step 1, return data from PrimaryCache if it's healthy and connected
  • if data was not found on step 2, return data from SecondaryCache if it's healthy and connected Concept: "First found data is served."

Action: APPEND

Algorithm:

  • if key exists in FirstLevelCache - append data there
  • if PrimaryCache is connected and healthy - append data to the PrimaryCache
  • if SecondaryCache is connected and healthy - append data to the SecondaryCache Concept: "Append everywhere"

Action: DELETE

Algorithm:

  • if key exists in FirstLevelCache - delete data there
  • if PrimaryCache is connected and healthy - delete data to the PrimaryCache
  • if SecondaryCache is connected and healthy - delete data to the SecondaryCache Concept: "Delete everywhere"

Properties

Your application should have following properties

cache.l1.size Value: [0-Integer.MaxInt] Desc: Size of firstlevelcache. Where 0 means it's disabled. Required: yes

memcached.pool.size Value: [1-100] Desc: Size of the memcached connections pool, usually 10-20 connections should be enough for most of the applications Required: yes

memcached.pool.timeBetweenKeepAliveRunsSecs Value: [0-..) Desc: Keep alive time intervals Required: yes

memcached.operationTimeOutMsec Value: [2500-xx] Desc: Time out for single operation(get/put/append) Required: optional, default 3000

memcached.operationQueueMaxBlockTimeMsec Value: [200-xx] Desc: If queue is overfull, thread will be waiting for queue, and after this amount timeouts Required: optional, default 6000

memcached.operationQueueSize Value: [16000--xxx] Desc: One connection has an internal queue for operations, this property controls size of this queue Required: yes

memcached.protocol.binary Value: [true/false] Desc: Used only for plain memcached provider. Note: dev memcached.exe works only with false. Required: yes

memcached.membase.primary.URL Value: comma separated URLs Desc: Couchbase cluster comma separated URLs. Example: http://mb01:8091/pools,http://mb02:8091/pools Required: conditional*

memcached.membase.primary.bucketName Value: Couchbase bucket name Required: conditional*

memcached.membase.secondary.URL Value: comma separated URLs. Desc: Couchbase cluster comma separated URLs. Example: http://mb01:8091/pools,http://mb02:8091/pools Required: conditional*

memcached.membase.secondary.bucketName Value: Couchbase bucket name Required: conditional*

memcached.primary.nodeAddresses Value:comma separated socket adresses Desc: For plain memcached only. Example: mb01:11211,mb02:11211 Required: conditional*

memcached.secondary.nodeAddresses Value: comma separated socket adresses Desc: For plain memcached only.Example: mb01:11211,mb02:11211 Required: conditional*

Conditional*:
since you cannot connect to both plain memcached and couchbase server you should specify one of them.

RULE: Primary Cache: memcached.primary.nodeAddresses OR [memcached.membase.primary.URL + memcached.membase.secondary.bucketName]

RULE: Secondary Cache: EMPTY OR memcached.secondary.nodeAddresses OR [memcached.membase.secondary.URL + memcached.membase.secondary.bucketName]

If you set memcached.primary.nodeAddresses AND [memcached.membase.primary.URL + memcached.membase.secondary.bucketName] the membase configs has higher priority and will be taken.

Customizations/observers/hooks

This section describes possible customization you can do per component.

Put a listener at any cache level.

Implement custom listener by implementing com.salesforce.ddc.threlevelmemcache.exposed.listener.CacheListener interface

Put custom listener as spring bean

Annotate your listener with required annotation

  • @CloudCacheListener - to make it listen CloudCache
  • @FirstLevelCacheListener - to make it listen FirstLevelCache
  • @MemcachedPrimaryCacheListener - to make it listen PrimaryCache
  • @MemcachedSecondaryCacheListener - to make it listen SecondaryCache

Example: ListenersTestNG.java

Customize FirstLevel cache caching strategy

Default caching strategy can be found here DefaultAnnotationBasedCachingStrategy.java you can define what to cache in JVM what not.

You can add custom strategy per application by implementing com.salesforce.ddc.threlevelmemcache.exposed.strategy.CachingStrategy Expose it as spring bean and annotate with @FirstLevelCacheStrategy