Compliant GeoJSON
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picogeojson is a Python library for reading, writing, and working with GeoJSON. It emphasizes standard compliance (RFC 7946) and ergonomics. It is a pure-Python module for ease of installation and distribution.

Encoding and Decoding

GeoJSON files or strings are read using fromstring(), fromfile(), or fromdict().

picogeojson.fromstring('{"type": "Point", "coordinates": [1.0, 3.0]}')
# -> < object at ...>

GeoJSON objects are serialized with tostring(), tofile(), or todict().

    picogeojson.Point([1.0, 3.0])
# -> {"coordinates": [1.0, 3.0], "type": "Point"}'

All of the serialization functions accept the following options:

antimeridian_cutting: bool: Cuts geometries at the 180th meridian so that they plot well on standard world maps.

write_bbox: bool: Write an optional bbox member to the GeoJSON object.

write_crs: bool: Write a non-standard crs member for non-WGS84 longitude-latitude coordinates.

precision: int: Restrict the number of decimal digits in the written coordinates (5 results in precision of 1 meter or better for longitude-latitude coordinates).

When reading GeoJSON, picogeojson returns a Map object, which is a container for GeoJSON. Useful methods on Map objects include:

Map.extract(geotype): creates a generator for geometries of type geotype, as in

geojson = picogeojson.loads(...)

for linestring in geojson.extract(picogeojson.LineString):

Map.extract_features(geotype=None, properties=None): similar to Map.extract, this extract GeoJSON features, optionally filtering by properties.

geojson = picogeojson.loads(...)

for lake in geojson.features("Polygon", {"type": "Lake", "state": "Oregon"}):
    lakes_in_oregon.append(lake), geotype): returns a new Map with function applied to every contained GeoJSON geometry of type geotype.

Map.map_features(function, geotype): returns a new Map with function applied to every contained GeoJSON feature containing geometry geotype and matching properties.

Types and transformations

In order to create or work with GeoJSON, picogeojson defines constructors for all GeoJSON types:

pt = picogeojson.Point([1.0, 3.5])

polygon = picogeojson.Polygon([[[100.0, 20.0], [102.0, 19.7], [102.3, 23.0],
                                [100.1, 22.8], [100.0, 20.0]]])

feature = picojson.Feature(polygon, {"id": "example polygon"})

When constructing geometries, picogeojson takes care of ensuring that coordinate rings are closed and oriented correctly and that coordinates are nested to the correct depth.

The following methods are available:

Type .transform .map .flatmap
Point x - -
LineString x - -
Polygon x - -
MultiPoint x - -
MultiLineString x - -
MultiPolygon x - -
GeometryCollection x x x
Feature x x -
FeatureCollection x x x

.transform operates on coordinates, returning a new geometry or feature with a function applied to each coordinate pair.

.map applies a function to each member of a GeometryCollection or FeatureCollection. Features have a .map_geometry and a .map_properties that apply functions to the underlying geometry or properties dict, respectively.

.flatmap applies a function to each member of a collection, constructing a new collection by concatenating the result of each application.


GeoJSON objects may be composed (merge()) or split (burst()).

points = [picogeojson.Point((1, 2)),
          picogeojson.Point((3, 4)),
          picogeojson.Point((5, 6))]

merged_points = picogeojson.merge(points)
# -> MultiPoint(coordinates=[(1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6)])

split_points = picogeojson.burst(merged_points)
# -> [Point((1, 2)), Point((3, 4)), Point((5, 6))]


picogeojson uses ujson if available, otherwise falling back on the standard library.

The following benchmarks are old and likely inaccurate.

The read benchmark involves reading a list of earthquake features. The write benchmark involves serializing the continent of Australia.

Module Read Write
json 1.49 2.00
geojson 6.74 same
picogeojson 1.84 same*
picogeojson+ujson 1.63 0.31*

*antimeridian cutting and polygon winding check set to False