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;;; perspective.el --- switch between named "perspectives" of the editor
;; Copyright (C) 2008-2010 Nathan Weizenbaum <>
;; Licensed under the same terms as Emacs.
;; Author: Nathan Weizenbaum
;; URL:
;; Version: 1.7
;; Created: 2008-03-05
;; By: Nathan Weizenbaum
;; Keywords: workspace, convenience, frames
;;; Commentary:
;; This package provides tagged workspaces in Emacs, similar to
;; workspaces in windows managers such as Awesome and XMonad (and
;; somewhat similar to multiple desktops in Gnome or Spaces in OS X).
;; perspective.el provides multiple workspaces (or "perspectives") for
;; each Emacs frame. This makes it easy to work on many separate projects
;; without getting lost in all the buffers.
;; Each perspective is composed of a window configuration and a set of
;; buffers. Switching to a perspective activates its window
;; configuration, and when in a perspective only its buffers are
;; available by default.
(require 'cl)
;;; Code:
;; This is only available in Emacs >23,
;; so we redefine it here for compatibility.
(unless (fboundp 'with-selected-frame)
(defmacro with-selected-frame (frame &rest body)
"Execute the forms in BODY with FRAME as the selected frame.
The value returned is the value of the last form in BODY.
See also `with-temp-buffer'."
(declare (indent 1) (debug t))
(let ((old-frame (make-symbol "old-frame"))
(old-buffer (make-symbol "old-buffer")))
`(let ((,old-frame (selected-frame))
(,old-buffer (current-buffer)))
(progn (select-frame ,frame)
(if (frame-live-p ,old-frame)
(select-frame ,old-frame))
(if (buffer-live-p ,old-buffer)
(set-buffer ,old-buffer)))))))
(defmacro persp-frame-local-let (bindings &rest body)
"Like `let', but properly handles frame-local variables.
Bind variables according to BINDINGS then eval BODY.
In Emacs >= 23.2, frame-local variables are not reset after a
`let' expression. This hacks around that by manually resetting
them in Emacs >= 23.2. In older versions, this is identical to
(declare (indent 1))
(if (or (< emacs-major-version 23)
(and (= emacs-major-version 23) (< emacs-minor-version 2)))
`(let ,bindings ,@body)
(let ((binding-syms (mapcar (lambda (binding) (list (car binding) (gensym))) bindings)))
`(let ,(mapcar (lambda (binding)
(list (cadr binding)
(let ((name (car binding)))
`(cons (when (boundp ',name) ,name) (boundp ',name)))))
(progn ,@(mapcar (lambda (binding) `(setq ,(car binding) ,(cadr binding))) bindings)
,@(mapcar (lambda (binding)
`(if (cdr ,(cadr binding))
(setq ,(car binding) (car ,(cadr binding)))
(makunbound ',(car binding)))) binding-syms))))))
(defstruct (perspective
(:conc-name persp-)
(:constructor make-persp-internal))
name buffers killed local-variables
(buffer-history buffer-name-history)
(window-configuration (current-window-configuration)))
(defalias 'persp-killed-p 'persp-killed
"Return whether the perspective CL-X has been killed.")
(defvar persp-interactive-completion-function
(if ido-mode 'ido-completing-read 'completing-read)
"The function which is used by perspective.el to interactivly complete user input")
(defvar persp-mode-hook nil
"A hook that's run after `persp-mode' has been activated.")
(defvar persp-created-hook nil
"A hook that's run after a perspective has been created.
Run with the newly created perspective as `persp-curr'.")
(defvar persp-killed-hook nil
"A hook that's run just before a perspective is destroyed.
Run with the perspective to be destroyed as `persp-curr'.")
(defvar persp-activated-hook nil
"A hook that's run after a perspective has been activated.
Run with the activated perspective active.")
(defvar persp-mode-map (make-sparse-keymap)
"Keymap for perspective-mode.")
(define-prefix-command 'perspective 'perspective-map)
(define-key persp-mode-map (kbd "C-x x") perspective-map)
(define-key persp-mode-map (kbd "C-x x s") 'persp-switch)
(define-key persp-mode-map (kbd "C-x x k") 'persp-remove-buffer)
(define-key persp-mode-map (kbd "C-x x c") 'persp-kill)
(define-key persp-mode-map (kbd "C-x x r") 'persp-rename)
(define-key persp-mode-map (kbd "C-x x a") 'persp-add-buffer)
(define-key persp-mode-map (kbd "C-x x i") 'persp-import)
;; make-variable-frame-local is obsolete according to the docs,
;; but I don't want to have to manually munge frame-parameters
;; all the time so I'm using it anyway.
(defvar perspectives-hash nil
"A hash containing all perspectives. The keys are the
perspetives' names. The values are persp structs,
NAME is the name of the perspective.
WINDOW-CONFIGURATION is the configuration given by
`current-window-configuration' last time the perspective was
saved (if this isn't the current perspective, this is when the
perspective was last active).
BUFFERS is a list of buffer objects that are associated with this
BUFFER-HISTORY is the list of buffer history values for this
KILLED is non-nil if the perspective has been killed.
LOCAL-VARIABLES is an alist from variable names to their
perspective-local values."))
(defvar persp-curr nil
"The current perspective."))
(defvar persp-recursive nil
"The current perspective before beginning a recursive edit."))
(defvar persp-last nil
"The last perspective accessed before the current perspective."))
(defvar persp-modestring nil
"The string displayed in the modeline representing the perspectives."))
(put 'persp-modestring 'risky-local-variable t)
(defvar persp-show-modestring t
"Determines if `persp-modestring' is shown in the modeline.
If the value is 'header, `persp-modestring' is shown in the
header line instead.")
(defvar persp-protected nil
"Whether a perspective error should cause persp-mode to be disabled.
Dynamically bound by `persp-protect'.")
(defface persp-selected-face
'((t (:weight bold :foreground "Blue")))
"The face used to highlight the current perspective on the modeline.")
(defmacro persp-protect (&rest body)
"Wrap BODY to disable persp-mode when it errors out.
This prevents the persp-mode from completely breaking Emacs."
(declare (indent 0))
(let ((persp-protected t))
`(condition-case err
(progn ,@body)
(message "Fatal persp-mode error: %S" err)
(persp-mode -1)))))
(defun persp-error (&rest args)
"Like `error', but marks it as a persp-specific error.
Used along with `persp-protect' to ensure that persp-mode doesn't
bring down Emacs."
(if persp-protected
(signal 'persp-error (list (apply 'format args)))
(apply 'error args)))
(defun check-persp (persp)
"Raise an error if PERSP has been killed."
((not persp)
(persp-error "Expected perspective, was nil"))
((persp-killed-p persp)
(persp-error "Using killed perspective `%s'" (persp-name persp)))))
(defmacro make-persp (&rest args)
"Create a new perspective struct and put it in `perspectives-hash'.
ARGS is a list of keyword arguments followed by an optional BODY.
The keyword arguments set the fields of the perspective struct.
If BODY is given, it is executed to set the window configuration
for the perspective."
(declare (indent defun))
(let ((keywords))
(while (keywordp (car args))
(dotimes (_ 2) (push (pop args) keywords)))
(setq keywords (reverse keywords))
`(let ((persp (make-persp-internal ,@keywords)))
(when persp-curr
(setf (persp-local-variables persp) (persp-local-variables persp-curr)))
(puthash (persp-name persp) persp perspectives-hash)
(with-perspective (persp-name persp)
,(when args
;; Body form given
`(save-excursion ,@args))
(run-hooks 'persp-created-hook))
(defun persp-save ()
"Save the current perspective state.
Specifically, save the current window configuration and
perspective-local variables to `persp-curr'"
(when persp-curr
(setf (persp-local-variables persp-curr)
(lambda (c)
(let ((name (car c)))
(list name (symbol-value name))))
(persp-local-variables persp-curr)))
(setf (persp-buffer-history persp-curr) buffer-name-history)
(setf (persp-window-configuration persp-curr) (current-window-configuration))))
(defun persp-names ()
"Return a list of the names of all perspectives, sorted alphabetically."
(loop for name being the hash-keys of perspectives-hash
collect name)
(defun persp-all-names (&optional not-frame)
"Return a list of the perspective names for all frames.
Excludes NOT-FRAME, if given."
(reduce 'union
(lambda (frame)
(unless (equal frame not-frame)
(with-selected-frame frame (persp-names))))
(defun persp-prompt (&optional default require-match)
"Prompt for the name of a perspective.
DEFAULT is a default value for the prompt.
REQUIRE-MATCH can take the same values as in `completing-read'."
(funcall persp-interactive-completion-function (concat "Perspective name"
(if default (concat " (default " default ")") "")
": ")
nil require-match nil nil default))
(defmacro with-perspective (name &rest body)
"Switch to the perspective given by NAME while evaluating BODY."
(declare (indent 1))
(let ((old (gensym)))
(let ((,old (when persp-curr (persp-name persp-curr)))
(last-persp-cache persp-last))
(persp-switch ,name)
(when ,old (persp-switch ,old)))
(setq persp-last last-persp-cache)))))
(defun persp-new (name)
"Return a new perspective with name NAME.
The new perspective will start with only an `initial-major-mode'
buffer called \"*scratch* (NAME)\"."
(make-persp :name name
(switch-to-buffer (concat "*scratch* (" name ")"))
(funcall initial-major-mode)
(defun persp-reactivate-buffers (buffers)
"Raise BUFFERS to the top of the most-recently-selected list.
Returns BUFFERS with all non-living buffers removed.
See also `other-buffer'."
(loop for buf in (reverse buffers)
if (not (null (buffer-name buf)))
collect buf into living-buffers
and do (switch-to-buffer buf)
finally return (reverse living-buffers)))
(defun persp-set-local-variables (vars)
"Set the local variables given in VARS.
VARS should be an alist of variable names to values."
(dolist (var vars) (apply 'set var)))
(defun persp-intersperse (list interspersed-val)
"Intersperse a value into a list.
Return a new list made from taking LIST and inserting
INTERSPERSED-VAL between every pair of items.
For example, (persp-intersperse '(1 2 3) 'a) gives '(1 a 2 a 3)."
(lambda (list el) (if list (list* el interspersed-val list) (list el)))
list :initial-value nil)))
(defconst persp-mode-line-map
(let ((map (make-sparse-keymap)))
(define-key map [mode-line down-mouse-1] 'persp-mode-line-click)
(defun persp-mode-line-click (event)
"Select the clicked perspective.
EVENT is the click event triggering this function call."
(interactive "e")
(persp-switch (format "%s" (car (posn-string (event-start event))))))
(defun persp-update-modestring ()
"Update `persp-modestring' to reflect the current perspectives.
Has no effect when `persp-show-modestring' is nil."
(when persp-show-modestring
(setq persp-modestring
(append '("[")
(persp-intersperse (mapcar 'persp-format-name (persp-names)) "|")
(defun persp-format-name (name)
"Format the perspective name given by NAME for display in `persp-modestring'."
(let ((string-name (format "%s" name)))
(if (equal name (persp-name persp-curr))
(propertize string-name 'face 'persp-selected-face)
(propertize string-name
'local-map persp-mode-line-map
'mouse-face 'mode-line-highlight))))
(defun persp-get-quick (char &optional prev)
"Return the name of the first perspective that begins with CHAR.
Perspectives are sorted alphabetically.
PREV can be the name of a perspective. If it's passed,
this will try to return the perspective alphabetically after PREV.
This is used for cycling between perspectives."
(persp-get-quick-helper char prev (persp-names)))
(defun persp-get-quick-helper (char prev names)
(if (null names) nil
(let ((name (car names)))
((and (null prev) (eq (string-to-char name) char)) name)
((equal name prev)
(if (and (not (null (cdr names))) (eq (string-to-char (cadr names)) char))
(cadr names)
(persp-get-quick char)))
(t (persp-get-quick-helper char prev (cdr names)))))))
(defun persp-switch (name)
"Switch to the perspective given by NAME.
If it doesn't exist, create a new perspective and switch to that.
Switching to a perspective means that all buffers associated with
that perspective are reactivated (see `persp-reactivate-buffers'),
the perspective's window configuration is restored, and the
perspective's local variables are set."
(interactive "i")
(if (null name) (setq name (persp-prompt (and persp-last (persp-name persp-last)))))
(if (and persp-curr (equal name (persp-name persp-curr))) name
(let ((persp (gethash name perspectives-hash)))
(setq persp-last persp-curr)
(when (null persp)
(setq persp (persp-new name)))
(persp-activate persp)
(defun persp-activate (persp)
"Activate the perspective given by the persp struct PERSP."
(check-persp persp)
(setq persp-curr persp)
(persp-set-local-variables (persp-local-variables persp))
(persp-reactivate-buffers (persp-buffers persp))
(setq buffer-name-history (persp-buffer-history persp))
(set-window-configuration (persp-window-configuration persp))
(run-hooks 'persp-activated-hook))
(defun persp-switch-quick (char)
"Switch to the first perspective, alphabetically, that begins with CHAR.
Sets `this-command' (and thus `last-command') to (persp-switch-quick . CHAR).
See `persp-switch', `persp-get-quick'."
(interactive "c")
(let ((persp (if (and (consp last-command) (eq (car last-command) this-command))
(persp-get-quick char (cdr last-command))
(persp-get-quick char))))
(setq this-command (cons this-command persp))
(if persp (persp-switch persp)
(persp-error (concat "No perspective name begins with " (string char))))))
(defun persp-find-some ()
"Return the name of a valid perspective.
This function tries to return the \"most appropriate\"
perspective to switch to. It tries:
* The perspective given by `persp-last'.
* The main perspective.
* The first existing perspective, alphabetically.
If none of these perspectives can be found, this function will
create a new main perspective and return \"main\"."
(persp-last (persp-name persp-last))
((gethash "main" perspectives-hash) "main")
((> (hash-table-count perspectives-hash) 0) (car (persp-names)))
(t (persp-activate
(make-persp :name "main" :buffers (buffer-list)
:window-configuration (current-window-configuration)))
(defun persp-add-buffer (buffer)
"Associate BUFFER with the current perspective.
See also `persp-switch' and `persp-remove-buffer'."
(let ((read-buffer-function nil))
(read-buffer "Add buffer to perspective: "))))
(let ((buffer (get-buffer buffer)))
(unless (memq buffer (persp-buffers persp-curr))
(push buffer (persp-buffers persp-curr)))))
(defun* persp-buffer-in-other-p (buffer)
"Returns nil if BUFFER is only in the current perspective.
Otherwise, returns (FRAME . NAME), the frame and name of another
perspective that has the buffer."
(loop for frame in (frame-list)
do (loop for persp being the hash-values of (with-selected-frame frame perspectives-hash)
if (and (not (and (equal frame (selected-frame))
(equal (persp-name persp) (persp-name persp-curr))))
(memq buffer (persp-buffers persp)))
do (return-from persp-buffer-in-other-p
(cons frame (persp-name persp)))))
(defun persp-remove-buffer (buffer)
"Disassociate BUFFER with the current perspective.
See also `persp-switch' and `persp-add-buffer'."
(interactive "bRemove buffer from perspective: \n")
(setq buffer (get-buffer buffer))
; Only kill the buffer if no other perspectives are using it
(cond ((not (persp-buffer-in-other-p buffer))
(kill-buffer buffer))
;; Make the buffer go away if we can see it.
;; TODO: Is it possible to tell if it's visible at all,
;; rather than just the current buffer?
((eq buffer (current-buffer)) (bury-buffer))
(t (bury-buffer buffer)))
(setf (persp-buffers persp-curr) (remq buffer (persp-buffers persp-curr))))
(defun persp-kill (name)
"Kill the perspective given by NAME.
Killing a perspective means that all buffers associated with that
perspective and no others are killed."
(interactive "i")
(if (null name) (setq name (persp-prompt (persp-name persp-curr) t)))
(with-perspective name
(run-hooks 'persp-killed-hook)
(mapcar 'persp-remove-buffer (persp-buffers persp-curr))
(setf (persp-killed persp-curr) t))
(remhash name perspectives-hash)
(when (equal name (persp-name persp-last))
(setq persp-last nil))
(when (equal name (persp-name persp-curr))
;; Don't let persp-last get set to the deleted persp.
(persp-frame-local-let ((persp-last persp-last)) (persp-switch (persp-find-some)))))
(defun persp-rename (name)
"Rename the current perspective to NAME."
(interactive "sNew name: ")
(if (gethash name perspectives-hash)
(persp-error "Perspective `%s' already exists" name)
(remhash (persp-name persp-curr) perspectives-hash)
(puthash name persp-curr perspectives-hash)
(setf (persp-name persp-curr) name)
(defun* persp-all-get (name not-frame)
"Returns the list of buffers for a perspective named NAME from any
frame other than NOT-FRAME.
This doesn't return the window configuration because those can't be
copied across frames."
(dolist (frame (frame-list))
(unless (equal frame not-frame)
(with-selected-frame frame
(let ((persp (gethash name perspectives-hash)))
(if persp (return-from persp-all-get (persp-buffers persp))))))))
(defun persp-read-buffer (prompt &optional def require-match)
"A replacement for the built-in `read-buffer'.
Meant to be used with `read-buffer-function'. Return the name of
the buffer selected, only selecting from buffers within the
current perspective.
With a prefix arg, uses the old `read-buffer' instead."
(let ((read-buffer-function nil))
(if current-prefix-arg
(read-buffer prompt def require-match)
;; Most of this is taken from `minibuffer-with-setup-hook',
;; slightly modified because it's not a macro.
;; The only functional difference is that the append argument
;; to add-hook is t, so that it'll be run after the hook added
;; by `read-buffer-to-switch'.
(let ((rb-completion-table (persp-complete-buffer))
(setq persp-read-buffer-hook
(lambda ()
(remove-hook 'minibuffer-setup-hook persp-read-buffer-hook)
(setq minibuffer-completion-table rb-completion-table)))
(add-hook 'minibuffer-setup-hook persp-read-buffer-hook t)
(read-buffer prompt def require-match))
(remove-hook 'minibuffer-setup-hook persp-read-buffer-hook)))))))
(defun persp-complete-buffer ()
"Perform completion on all buffers within the current perspective."
(lexical-let ((persp-names (mapcar 'buffer-name (persp-buffers persp-curr))))
(apply-partially 'completion-table-with-predicate
(or minibuffer-completion-table 'internal-complete-buffer)
(lambda (name)
(member (if (consp name) (car name) name) persp-names))
(defun* persp-import (name &optional dont-switch)
"Import a perspective named NAME from another frame. If DONT-SWITCH
is non-nil or with prefix arg, don't switch to the new perspective."
;; TODO: Have some way of selecting which frame the perspective is imported from.
(interactive "i\nP")
(unless name
(setq name (funcall persp-interactive-completion-function
"Import perspective: " (persp-all-names (selected-frame)) nil t)))
(if (and (gethash name perspectives-hash)
(not (yes-or-no-p (concat "Perspective `" name "' already exits. Continue? "))))
(return-from persp-import))
(let ((buffers (persp-all-get name (selected-frame)))
(if (null buffers)
(persp-error "Perspective `%s' doesn't exist in another frame" name))
(setq persp (make-persp :name name :buffers buffers
(switch-to-buffer (loop for buffer in buffers
if (buffer-live-p buffer)
return buffer))
(if dont-switch
(persp-activate persp))))
(defadvice switch-to-buffer (after persp-add-buffer-adv)
"Add BUFFER to the current perspective.
See also `persp-add-buffer'."
(let ((buf (ad-get-arg 0)))
(when buf
(persp-add-buffer buf)))))
(defadvice display-buffer (after persp-add-buffer-adv)
"Add BUFFER to the perspective for the frame on which it's displayed.
See also `persp-add-buffer'."
(when ad-return-value
(let ((buf (ad-get-arg 0))
(frame (window-frame ad-return-value)))
(when (and buf frame)
(with-selected-frame frame
(persp-add-buffer buf)))))))
(defadvice recursive-edit (around persp-preserve-for-recursive-edit)
"Preserve the current perspective when entering a recursive edit."
(persp-frame-local-let ((persp-recursive persp-curr)
(old-hash (copy-hash-table perspectives-hash)))
;; We want the buffer lists that were created in the recursive edit,
;; but not the window configurations
(maphash (lambda (key new-persp)
(let ((persp (gethash key old-hash)))
(when persp
(setf (persp-buffers persp) (persp-buffers new-persp)))))
(setq perspectives-hash old-hash))))
(defadvice exit-recursive-edit (before persp-restore-after-recursive-edit)
"Restore the old perspective when exiting a recursive edit."
(if persp-recursive (persp-switch (persp-name persp-recursive)))))
(define-minor-mode persp-mode
"Toggle perspective mode.
When active, keeps track of multiple 'perspectives',
named collections of buffers and window configurations."
:global t
:keymap persp-mode-map
(if persp-mode
(ad-activate 'switch-to-buffer)
(ad-activate 'display-buffer)
(ad-activate 'recursive-edit)
(ad-activate 'exit-recursive-edit)
(add-hook 'after-make-frame-functions 'persp-init-frame)
(add-hook 'ido-make-buffer-list-hook 'persp-set-ido-buffers)
(setq read-buffer-function 'persp-read-buffer)
(persp-init-frame (selected-frame))
(setf (persp-buffers persp-curr) (buffer-list))
(run-hooks 'persp-mode-hook))
(ad-deactivate-regexp "^persp-.*")
(remove-hook 'after-make-frame-functions 'persp-init-frame)
(remove-hook 'ido-make-buffer-list-hook 'persp-set-ido-buffers)
(setq read-buffer-function nil)
(setq perspectives-hash nil)
(setq global-mode-string (delq 'persp-modestring global-mode-string))))
(defun persp-init-frame (frame)
"Initialize the perspectives system in FRAME.
By default, this uses the current frame."
(with-selected-frame frame
'((perspectives-hash) (persp-curr) (persp-last) (persp-recursive) (persp-modestring)))
;; Don't set these variables in modify-frame-parameters
;; because that won't do anything if they've already been accessed
(setq perspectives-hash (make-hash-table :test 'equal :size 10))
(when persp-show-modestring
(if (eq persp-show-modestring 'header)
(let ((val (or (default-value 'header-line-format) '(""))))
(unless (memq 'persp-modestring val)
(set-default 'header-line-format (append val '(persp-modestring)))))
(setq global-mode-string (or global-mode-string '("")))
(unless (memq 'persp-modestring global-mode-string)
(setq global-mode-string (append global-mode-string '(persp-modestring)))))
(make-persp :name "main" :buffers (list (current-buffer))
:window-configuration (current-window-configuration)))))
(defun persp-make-variable-persp-local (variable)
"Make VARIABLE become perspective-local.
This means that whenever a new perspective is switched into, the
variable will take on its local value for that perspective. When
a new perspective is created, the variable will inherit its value
from the current perspective at time of creation."
(unless (assq variable (persp-local-variables persp-curr))
(let ((entry (list variable (symbol-value variable))))
(dolist (frame (frame-list))
(loop for persp being the hash-values of (with-selected-frame frame perspectives-hash)
do (push entry (persp-local-variables persp)))))))
(defmacro persp-setup-for (name &rest body)
"Add code that should be run to set up the perspective named NAME.
Whenever a new perspective named NAME is created, runs BODY in
it. In addition, if one exists already, runs BODY in it immediately."
(declare (indent 1))
(add-hook 'persp-created-hook
(lambda ()
(when (string= (persp-name persp-curr) ,name)
(when (gethash ,name perspectives-hash)
(with-perspective ,name ,@body))))
(defun persp-set-ido-buffers ()
"Restrict the ido buffer to the current perspective."
(let ((persp-names
(remq nil (mapcar 'buffer-name (persp-buffers persp-curr))))
(indices (make-hash-table)))
(let ((i 0))
(dolist (elt ido-temp-list)
(puthash elt i indices)
(setq i (1+ i))))
(setq ido-temp-list
(sort persp-names (lambda (a b)
(< (gethash a indices 10000)
(gethash b indices 10000)))))))
(defun quick-perspective-keys ()
"Bind quick key commands to switch to perspectives.
All C-S-letter key combinations are bound to switch to the first
perspective beginning with the given letter."
(loop for c from ?a to ?z
do (define-key persp-mode-map
(read-kbd-macro (concat "C-S-" (string c)))
`(lambda ()
(persp-switch-quick ,c)))))
(defun persp-turn-off-modestring ()
"Deactivate the perspective modestring."
(setq persp-modestring nil)
(setq persp-show-modestring nil))
(defun persp-turn-on-modestring ()
"Activate the perspective modestring."
(setq persp-show-modestring t)
(provide 'perspective)
;;; perspective.el ends here