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F# RFC FS-1076 - From the end slicing and indexing for collections

This RFC covers the detailed proposal for this suggestion.


This RFC proposes the capability to slice and index collections with indices counted from the end. Using the ^i syntax in slicing and indexing desugars to collection.GetReverseIndex(i).


let list = [1;2;3;4;5]

list.[..^0]   // 1,2,3,4,5
list.[..^1]   // 1,2,3,4
list.[0..^1]  // 1,2,3,4
list.[^1..]   // 4,5
list.[^0..]   // 5
list.[^2..^1] // 3,4


From-the-end slicing and indexing would allow easier operations on arrays. Currently in Python one can specify a negative index, like list.[:-1] to obtain a slice of the list without the last element. This feature is often used in scientific and mathematical computation. Adding this feature would make F# more accessible for those uses.

Detailed design


The ^ operator is currently used as a infix operator for:

  • Power (2^2)
  • Measure types
  • Legacy string concat

It is used as a prefix operator for:

  • Statically resolved types

For the from-the-end slicing and indexing, the ^ operator will be overloaded as a prefix operator.

We will add new rules to the parser to support the following expressions for optRange:


Using ^ outside of the square brackets will not mean anything, as the parsing rule that handles it only exists inside optRange.

In addition, because of the way .. is handled currently in the lexer, to correctly parse ..^, we would have to add it to the list of reserved symbolic operators. This would break any users currently using ..^ as a custom operator.


Currently in the typechecker, the slicing is handled in two ways (see typechecker.fs: 6295):

  • For core collections, depending on the shape of the slicing call and the type of the collection, the appropriate GetSlice method implementation is picked and the supplied slicing indices are transformed into arguments to those methods.
  • For third party collections, the compiler builds a generic GetSlice call, then does another round of typechecking to find the concrete implementation.

To support from-the-end slicing, logic can be added in these two code paths to check if the ^ symbol was prepended to any of the indices. If it is detected, the call to GetSlice with the index ^i will be desugared to myCollection.GetReverseIndex(i). The desugared indices will be piped to the existing GetSlice implementations.

For indexing, currently .[i] is desugared to .Item(i). After this change, .[^i] would be desugared to .Item(GetReverseIndex(i)).

For all the core collections, the provided implementation of GetReverseIndex(i) would be collection.Length - i - 1 (See below for rationale of -1).

For third party collections, a GetReverseIndex method would need to exist for the ^ to work correctly. If GetSlice is implemented and GetReverseIndex is not, regular slicing would function as expected, but when ^ is present in the slice expression there would be an error thrown at compile time that looks like GetReverseIndex is not defined.

A GetReverseIndex is not implemented by default for third party collections because we do not know if the third party collection has a concept of collection.Length.


Differing behavior with current inclusive-inclusive slicing compared to other languages

The current F# slicing behavior is front-inclusive and rear-inclusive, in contrast to front-inclusive and rear-exclusive for C# and Python. This means that if we choose to implement GetReverseIndex(i) as myList.Length - i - 1, then:

// Python
list[:-1]    // 1,2,3,4
list[-1:]    // 5

// F#
list.[..^1]  // 1,2,3,4 -- Same
list.[^1..]  // 4,5     -- Different
list.[^0..]  // 5       -- Different

Because of the difference in inclusivity, we can only match Python/C# behavior for either list.[^1..] or list.[..^1] but not both, unless the definition of ^i varies based on the context of where it's placed.

It is assumed that most users will use this syntax in the form of list.[..^1], or "I want everything in this except for the last i elements."

Third party collections could implement reverse slicing in an inconsistent way

Because GetReverseIndex needs to be implemented by third party collections, they could implement it in a way that is inconsistent with the proposed behavior in Core. For example, if a third party author decides to implement GetReverseIndex(i) as arr.Length - i without the -1, this would result in different behavior compared to core collections.

If a user is using the third party collection alongside core collections, this would be very confusing as collection.[..^1] could return different elements even if the two collections contain the same items.


  • Using - instead of ^: not possible since negative indexes can be valid
  • Defining ^i as mylist.Length - i without the -1. This would allow list[-1:] == list.[^1..] but would cause list.[..^1] to be different.
  • Define ^i to mean mylist.Length - i if used as the starting index of a slice and mylist.Length - i - 1 if used as the end index. This would align the behavior completely with C#, but it would mean that the slicing would change from inclusive-inclusive to inclusive-exclusive if the ^ operator was used.
  • Providing a default GetReverseIndex for third party collections.


Please address all necessary compatibility questions:

  • Is this a breaking change? Yes

This would break any code that defines ..^ as a custom operator.

Third-party collections

We currently require third party collections to implement <'T>.GetSlice to support slicing syntax and <'T>.Item for indexing. We can additionally require third party collections to implement <'T>.GetReverseIndex if they wish to support from-the-end indexing and slicing. If they choose to do implement only GetSlice/Item, any ^i indices will fail with a compile time error.

Old versions of Core

  • New compiler + new core:
    • Expected behavior
  • New compiler + old core:
    • Same behavior as above, as the ^i is desugared into a normal GetSlice call.
  • Old compiler + new core:
    • Error on ^ at compile time.
  • Old compiler + old core:
    • Error on ^ at compile time.

Unresolved questions

Do we have actual data to back up the assumption that people use the list.[..^1] more than list.[^1..]?

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