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README.md

FusionAuth JWT semver 2.0.0 compliant Tests

FusionAuth JWT is intended to be fast and easy to use. FusionAuth JWT has a single external dependency on Jackson, no Bouncy Castle, Apache Commons or Guava.

Security disclosures

If you find a vulnerability or other security related bug, please send a note to security@fusionauth.io before opening a GitHub issue. This will allow us to assess the disclosure and prepare a fix prior to a public disclosure.

We are very interested in compensating anyone that can identify a security related bug or vulnerability and properly disclose it to us.

Features

  • JWT signing using HMAC, RSA and Elliptic Curve support
    • HS256, HS384, HS512, RS256, RS384, RS512, ES256, ES384, ES512
  • JWT signing using RSA-PSS signatures
  • Modular crypto provider so you can drop in support for BC FIPS or other JCE security providers.
  • PEM decoding / encoding
    • Decode PEM files to PrivateKey or PublicKey
      • Decode private EC keys un-encapsulated in PKCS#8, returned PEM will be in PKCS#8 form.
      • Both public and private keys will be returned when encoded in the private PEM
    • Encode PrivateKey or PublicKey to PEM
  • JSON Web Key
    • Build JWK from Private Key
    • Build JWK from Public Key
    • Build JWK from PEM
    • Parse public keys from a JSON Web Key
    • Retrieve JWK from JWKS endpoints
  • Helpers
    • Generate RSA Key Pairs in 2048, 3072 or 4096 bit sizes
    • Generate EC Key Pairs in 256, 384 and 521 bit sizes
    • Generate x5t and x5t#256 values from X.509 Certificates
    • Generate JWK thumbprint using SHA-1 or SHA-256
    • Generate ideal HMAC secret lengths for SHA-256, SHA-384 and SHA-512
    • Generate the at_hash and c_hash claims for OpenID Connect

Get it

Maven

<dependency>
 <groupId>io.fusionauth</groupId>
 <artifactId>fusionauth-jwt</artifactId>
 <version>4.1.0</version>
</dependency>

Gradle

implementation 'io.fusionauth:fusionauth-jwt:4.1.0'

Gradle Kotlin

implementation("io.fusionauth:fusionauth-jwt:4.1.0")

Savant

dependency(id: "io.fusionauth:fusionauth-jwt:4.1.0")

For others see https://search.maven.org.

Example Code:

JWT Signing and Verifying

Sign and encode a JWT using HMAC

// Build an HMAC signer using a SHA-256 hash
Signer signer = HMACSigner.newSHA256Signer("too many secrets");

// Build a new JWT with an issuer(iss), issued at(iat), subject(sub) and expiration(exp)
JWT jwt = new JWT().setIssuer("www.acme.com")
                   .setIssuedAt(ZonedDateTime.now(ZoneOffset.UTC))
                   .setSubject("f1e33ab3-027f-47c5-bb07-8dd8ab37a2d3")
                   .setExpiration(ZonedDateTime.now(ZoneOffset.UTC).plusMinutes(60));
                       
// Sign and encode the JWT to a JSON string representation
String encodedJWT = JWT.getEncoder().encode(jwt, signer);

A higher strength hash can be used by changing the signer. The encoding and decoding steps are not affected.

// Build an HMAC signer using a SHA-384 hash
Signer signer384 = HMACSigner.newSHA384Signer("too many secrets");

// Build an HMAC signer using a SHA-512 hash
Signer signer512 = HMACSigner.newSHA512Signer("too many secrets");

Verify and decode a JWT using HMAC

// Build an HMC verifier using the same secret that was used to sign the JWT
Verifier verifier = HMACVerifier.newVerifier("too many secrets");

// Verify and decode the encoded string JWT to a rich object
JWT jwt = JWT.getDecoder().decode(encodedJWT, verifier);

// Assert the subject of the JWT is as expected
assertEquals(jwt.subject, "f1e33ab3-027f-47c5-bb07-8dd8ab37a2d3");

Sign and encode a JWT using RSA

// Build an RSA signer using a SHA-256 hash
Signer signer = RSASigner.newSHA256Signer(new String(Files.readAllBytes(Paths.get("private_key.pem"))));

// Build a new JWT with an issuer(iss), issued at(iat), subject(sub) and expiration(exp)
JWT jwt = new JWT().setIssuer("www.acme.com")
                   .setIssuedAt(ZonedDateTime.now(ZoneOffset.UTC))
                   .setSubject("f1e33ab3-027f-47c5-bb07-8dd8ab37a2d3")
                   .setExpiration(ZonedDateTime.now(ZoneOffset.UTC).plusMinutes(60));
        
// Sign and encode the JWT to a JSON string representation
String encodedJWT = JWT.getEncoder().encode(jwt, signer);

A higher strength hash can be used by changing the signer. The encoding and decoding steps are not affected.

// Build an RSA signer using a SHA-384 hash
Signer signer = RSASigner.newSHA384Signer(new String(Files.readAllBytes(Paths.get("private_key.pem"))));

// Build an RSA signer using a SHA5124 hash
Signer signer = RSASigner.newSHA512Signer(new String(Files.readAllBytes(Paths.get("private_key.pem"))));

Verify and decode a JWT using RSA

// Build an RSA verifier using an RSA Public Key
Verifier verifier = RSAVerifier.newVerifier(Paths.get("public_key.pem"));

// Verify and decode the encoded string JWT to a rich object
JWT jwt = JWT.getDecoder().decode(encodedJWT, verifier);

// Assert the subject of the JWT is as expected
assertEquals(jwt.subject, "f1e33ab3-027f-47c5-bb07-8dd8ab37a2d3");

Sign and encode a JWT using EC

// Build an EC signer using a SHA-256 hash
Signer signer = ECSigner.newSHA256Signer(new String(Files.readAllBytes(Paths.get("private_key.pem"))));

// Build a new JWT with an issuer(iss), issued at(iat), subject(sub) and expiration(exp)
JWT jwt = new JWT().setIssuer("www.acme.com")
                   .setIssuedAt(ZonedDateTime.now(ZoneOffset.UTC))
                   .setSubject("f1e33ab3-027f-47c5-bb07-8dd8ab37a2d3")
                   .setExpiration(ZonedDateTime.now(ZoneOffset.UTC).plusMinutes(60));
        
// Sign and encode the JWT to a JSON string representation
String encodedJWT = JWT.getEncoder().encode(jwt, signer);

A higher strength hash can be used by changing the signer. The encoding and decoding steps are not affected.

// Build an EC signer using a SHA-384 hash
Signer signer = ECSigner.newSHA384Signer(new String(Files.readAllBytes(Paths.get("private_key.pem"))));

// Build an EC signer using a SHA-512 hash
Signer signer = ECSigner.newSHA512Signer(new String(Files.readAllBytes(Paths.get("private_key.pem"))));

Verify and decode a JWT using EC

// Build an EC verifier using an EC Public Key
Verifier verifier = ECVerifier.newVerifier(Paths.get("public_key.pem"));

// Verify and decode the encoded string JWT to a rich object
JWT jwt = JWT.getDecoder().decode(encodedJWT, verifier);

// Assert the subject of the JWT is as expected
assertEquals(jwt.subject, "f1e33ab3-027f-47c5-bb07-8dd8ab37a2d3");

Verify a JWT adjusting for Clock Skew

// Build an EC verifier using an EC Public Key
Verifier verifier = ECVerifier.newVerifier(Paths.get("public_key.pem"));

// Verify and decode the encoded string JWT to a rich object and allow up to 60 seconds
// of clock skew when asserting the 'exp' and 'nbf' claims if they exist.
JWT jwt = JWT.getDecoder().withClockSkew(60).decode(encodedJWT, verifier);

// Assert the subject of the JWT is as expected
assertEquals(jwt.subject, "f1e33ab3-027f-47c5-bb07-8dd8ab37a2d3");

Verify an expired JWT by going back in time

In a scenario where you may have a hard coded JWT in a test case that you wish to validate, you may use the time machine JWT decoder. Ideally you would not hard code JWTs in your tests and instead generate a new one each time so that the JWT would pass the expiration check. If this is not possible, this option is provided.

// Build an EC verifier using an EC Public Key
Verifier verifier = ECVerifier.newVerifier(Paths.get("public_key.pem"));

// Using the time machine decoder, you may adjust 'now' to any point in the past, or future.
// Note, this is only provided for testing, and should not be used in production.
ZonedDateTime thePast = ZonedDateTime.of(2019, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, ZoneOffset.UTC) 
JWT jwt = JWT.getTimeMachineDecoder(thePast).decode(encodedJWT, verifier);

// Assert the subject of the JWT is as expected
assertEquals(jwt.subject, "f1e33ab3-027f-47c5-bb07-8dd8ab37a2d3");

Build a Signer, or a Verifier using a provided CryptoProvider

This pattern is available on the HMAC, RSA and EC verifier and signers.

// Build and EC signer using a BC Fips ready Crypto Provider
Signer signer = ECSigner.newSHA256Signer(new String(Files.readAllBytes(Paths.get("private_key.pem"))), new BCFIPSCryptoProvider());

// Build an EC verifier using a BC Fips ready Crypto Provider
Verifier verifier = ECVerifier.newVerifier(Paths.get("public_key.pem"), new BCFIPSCryptoProvider());

JSON Web Keys

Retrieve JSON Web Keys from a JWKS endpoint

// Retrieve JSON Web Keys using a known JWKS endpoint
// - You may optionally provide a HttpURLConnection to this method instead of a string if you want to build your own connection.
List<JSONWebKey> keys = JSONWebKeySetHelper.retrieveKeysFromJWKS("https://www.googleapis.com/oauth2/v3/certs");

// Retrieve JSON Web Keys using a well known OpenID Connect configuration endpoint
// - You may optionally provide a HttpURLConnection to this method instead of a string if you want to build your own connection.
List<JSONWebKey> keys = JSONWebKeySetHelper.retrieveKeysFromWellKnownConfiguration("https://accounts.google.com/.well-known/openid-configuration");

// Retrieve JSON Web Keys using an OpenID Connect issuer endpoint
List<JSONWebKey> keys = JSONWebKeySetHelper.retrieveKeysFromIssuer("https://accounts.google.com");

Convert a Public Key to JWK

JSONWebKey jwk = JSONWebKey.build(publicKey);
String json = jwk.toJSON();
{
  "e": "AQAB",
  "kty": "RSA",
  "n": "Auchby3lZKHbiAZrTkJh79hJvgC3W7STSS4y6UZEhhxx3m3W2hD8qCyw6BEyrciPpwou-vmeDN7qBSk2QKqTTjlg5Pkf8O4z8d9HAlBTUDg4p98qLFOF2EFWWTiFbQwAP2qODOIv9WCAM2rkXEPwGiF962XAoOwiSmldeDu7Uo5A-bnTi0z3oNu4qm_48kv90o9CMiELszE9jsfoH32WE71HDqhsRjVNddDJ81e5zxBN8UEmaR-gmWqa63laON2KANPugJP7PrYJ_PC9ilQfV3F1rDpqbvlFQkshohJ39VrVpEtSRmJ12nqTFuspXLApekOyic3J9jo6ZI7o3IdQmy3bpnJIT_U",
  "use": "sig"
}

Extract the Public Key from a JWK

{
  "e": "AQAB",
  "kty": "RSA",
  "n": "Auchby3lZKHbiAZrTkJh79hJvgC3W7STSS4y6UZEhhxx3m3W2hD8qCyw6BEyrciPpwou-vmeDN7qBSk2QKqTTjlg5Pkf8O4z8d9HAlBTUDg4p98qLFOF2EFWWTiFbQwAP2qODOIv9WCAM2rkXEPwGiF962XAoOwiSmldeDu7Uo5A-bnTi0z3oNu4qm_48kv90o9CMiELszE9jsfoH32WE71HDqhsRjVNddDJ81e5zxBN8UEmaR-gmWqa63laON2KANPugJP7PrYJ_PC9ilQfV3F1rDpqbvlFQkshohJ39VrVpEtSRmJ12nqTFuspXLApekOyic3J9jo6ZI7o3IdQmy3bpnJIT_U",
  "use": "sig"
}
String json = { ... example above ... }
byte[] bytes = json.getBytes(StandardCharsets.UTF_8);
JSONWebKey jwk = Mapper.deserialize(bytes, JSONWebKey.class);
PublicKey publicKey = JSONWebKey.parse(jwk);

Convert a Private Key to JWK

JSONWebKey jwk = JSONWebKey.build(privateKey);
String json = jwk.toJSON();
{
  "p": "9dy6wUxA0eOHopUP-E5QjDzuW8rXdaQMR566oDJ1qL0iD0koQAB9X3hboB-2Rru0aATu6WDW-jd4mgtYnXO8ow",
  "kty": "RSA",
  "q": "6Nfc6c8meTRkVRAHCF24LB5GLfsjoMB0tOeEO9w9Ous1a4o-D24bAePMUImAp3woFoNDRfWtlNktOqLel5Pjew",
  "d": "C0G3QGI6OQ6tvbCNYGCqq043YI_8MiBl7C5dqbGZmx1ewdJBhMNJPStuckhskURaDwk4-8VBW9SlvcfSJJrnZhgFMjOYSSsBtPGBIMIdM5eSKbenCCjO8Tg0BUh_xa3CHST1W4RQ5rFXadZ9AeNtaGcWj2acmXNO3DVETXAX3x0",
  "e": "AQAB",
  "use": "sig",
  "qi": "XLE5O360x-MhsdFXx8Vwz4304-MJg-oGSJXCK_ZWYOB_FGXFRTfebxCsSYi0YwJo-oNu96bvZCuMplzRI1liZw",
  "dp": "32QGgDmjr9GX3N6p2wh1YWa_gMHmUSqUScLseUA_7eijeNYU70pCoCtAvVXzDYPhoJ3S4lQuIL2kI_tpMe8GFw",
  "dq": "21tJjqeN-k-mWhCwX2xTbpTSzsyy4uWMzUTy6aXxtUkTWY2yK70yClS-Df2MS70G0za0MPtjnUAAgSYhB7HWcw",
  "n": "359ZykLITko_McOOKAtpJRVkjS5itwZxzjQidW2X6tBEOYCH4LZbwfj8fGGvlUtzpyuwnYuIlNX8TvZLTenOk45pphXr5PMCMKi7YZgkhd6_t_oeHnXY-4bnDLF1r9OUFKwj6C-mFFM-woKc-62tuK6QJiuc-5bFfn9wRL15K1E"
}

Add a custom property to a JWK

JSONWebKey jwk = JSONWebKey.build(privateKey)
                           .add("boom", "goes the dynamite")
                           .add("more", "cowbell");
String json = jwk.toJSON();
{
  "alg" : "ES256",
  "boom" : "goes the dynamite",
  "crv" : "P-256",
  "kty" : "EC",
  "more" : "cowbell",
  "use" : "sig",
  "x" : "NIWpsIea0qzB22S0utDG8dGFYqEInv9C7ZgZuKtwjno",
  "y" : "iVFFtTgiInz_fjh-n1YqbibnUb2vtBZFs3wPpQw3mc0"
}

Building

Building with Maven

$ mvn install

Building with Savant

$ sb int

Note: If you do not yet have Savant build tool installed, use the following instructions.

$ mkdir ~/savant
$ cd ~/savant
$ wget http://savant.inversoft.org/org/savantbuild/savant-core/1.0.0/savant-1.0.0.tar.gz
$ tar xvfz savant-1.0.0.tar.gz
$ ln -s ./savant-1.0.0 current
$ export PATH=$PATH:~/savant/current/bin/

For more information, checkout savantbuild.org.