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FDUP(1) User Commands FDUP(1) NAME fdup - find duplicates SYNOPSIS fdup [mode] [option...] directory... DESCRIPTION fdup traverses the supplied directories and finds files with equal con‐ tents. fdup will not follow symbolic links it encounters. OPTIONS This utility has four modes of operation. These are selected with the options -B, -H, -L and -S. If none of these options is provided, fdup behaves as if -S was selected. If more than one mode of operation is provided, only the last mode that was passed counts. -B Turn files with equal contents into btrfs(8) lightweight copies of each other. A lightweight or COW copy shares the underlying disk space with the original file until it is altered, but has no other connections to the original file. This option only works on Linux with files on btrfs file systems and implies -b d. -H Turn each group of files with equal contents into hardlinks to one file. This implies -b dl. -L List groups of files with equal contents, separated by blank files. -S Similar to -H, turn each group of files with equal contents into symbolic links to one file. The file that is not turned into a symbolic link is arbitrarily chosen. -b specifier... Control file matching behavior. specifier is one or more of the following specifiers. By default, fdup considers all cases as duplicate that can be detected as distinct files with the speci‐ fiers below. c Files with different creation times are considered dis‐ tinct d Files on different devices are considered distinct g Files owned by different groups are considered distinct l Hardlinks to the same file are considered distinct m Files with different modification times are considered distinct p Files with different permissions are considered distinct u Files owned by different users are considered distinct -h Print a synopsis of fdup's command line options and then termi‐ nate with an exit status of 0. -p Preserve permissions, ownership, modification and access times. If -p is provided and fdup fails to correctly assign one of these attributes, no files are changed and fdup aborts. This differs from the behavior without -p, in that otherwise only a warning is printed and fdup keeps going, possibly clobbering attributes of the file. fdup attempts to preserve attributes regardless of -p. Please notice that -p has no effect when used with -L for obvious reasons. Only access and modification times are preserved when used with -S. -s n[,m] Restrict file size when looking for duplicates. If used in the form -s n, fdup ignores all files that are less than n bytes in size. If used in the form -s n,m, fdup ignores all files that are less than n or more than m bytes in size. If you don't want to specify a lower boundary, use -s 0,m. By default, fdup behaves as if -s 0 has been given. Suffixes K, M, G, T, P and E can be used to specify 1024, 1024*1024, 1024*1024*1024,... bytes. This option can speed up operation if you are scanning a large amount of small files but don't care about duplicates in them, or if you don't want fdup to scan through very large files that are known not to be duplicates. -v Outputs statistics to stderr(3) while processing files. These statistics can be useful as a progress indicator. -x Stay on one file system. This applies to each supplied directory individually. EXIT STATUS fdup terminates with an exit status of 0 on success. If one of the operations fdup performs fails, its exit status is 1. If fdup does not recognize one of the command line options it was called with, it termi‐ nates with an exit status of 2. BUGS When using the option -H, fdup is known to have problems when too many files are considered equal. Please file bugs at <https://github.com/fuzxxl/fdup/issues>. COPYRIGHT Copyright (c) 2013, Robert Clausecker All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without mod‐ ification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copy‐ right notice, this list of conditions and the following dis‐ claimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS “AS IS” AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTIC‐ ULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. AUTHOR Written by Robert Clausecker <firstname.lastname@example.org>. SEE ALSO find(1) Robert Clausecker 2013-08-29 FDUP(1)