Code to accompany our paper "Continual Learning Through Synaptic Intelligence" ICML 2017
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Continual Learning Through Synaptic Intelligence

This repository contains code to reproduce the key findings of our path integral approach to prevent catastrophic forgetting in continual learning.

Zenke, F.1, Poole, B.1, and Ganguli, S. (2017). Continual Learning Through Synaptic Intelligence. In Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Machine Learning, D. Precup, and Y.W. Teh, eds. (International Convention Centre, Sydney, Australia: PMLR), pp. 3987–3995.

1) Equal contribution


title = 	 {Continual Learning Through Synaptic Intelligence},
author = 	 {Friedemann Zenke and Ben Poole and Surya Ganguli},
booktitle = 	 {Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Machine Learning},
pages = 	 {3987--3995},
year = 	 {2017},
editor = 	 {Doina Precup and Yee Whye Teh},
volume = 	 {70},
series = 	 {Proceedings of Machine Learning Research},
address = 	 {International Convention Centre, Sydney, Australia},
month = 	 {06--11 Aug},
publisher = 	 {PMLR},
pdf = 	 {},
url = 	 {},


We have tested this maintenance release (v1.1) with the following configuration:

  • Python 3.5.2
  • Jupyter 4.4.0
  • Tensorflow 1.10
  • Keras 2.2.2

Kudos to Mitra ( for making our code conform with Keras 2.2.2!

Earlier releases

For the original release (v1.0) we used the following configuration of the libraries which were available at the time:

  • Python 3.5.2
  • Jupyter 4.3.0
  • Tensorflow 1.2.1
  • Keras 2.0.5

To revert to such a environment we suggest using virtualenv (

virtualenv -p python3 env
source env/bin/activate
pip3 install -vI keras==2.0.5
pip3 install jupyter matplotlib numpy tensorflow-gpu tqdm seaborn