Perl6 ZMQ binding
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Net::ZMQ is a Perl6 binding library for ZeroMQ


Version 0.1.2


This is in development. The only certainty is that the tests pass on my machine.


There is an an earlier project on github: I started this one primarily to learn both Perl6 and ZMQ. The older project may be more stable and suitable to your needs. If you do boldly go and use this one, please share bugs and fixes!

ZMQ Versions

Current development is with ZeroMQ 4.2.


Development is on linux/x64. Due to some pointer voodoo, it is possible the code will break on other architectures/OSes. This should not be too hard to fix, but it depends on other people trying it on other platforms.

Example Code

use v6;
use Net::ZMQ::V4::Constants;
use Net::ZMQ::Context;
use Net::ZMQ::Socket;
use Net::ZMQ::Message;

my Context $ctx .= new :throw-everything;
my Socket $s1 .= new($ctx, :pair, :throw-everything);
my Socket $s2 .= new($ctx, :pair, :throw-everything);

my $endpoint = 'inproc://con';

my $counter = 0;
my $callme = sub ($d, $h) { say 'sending ++$counter'};\
      .add('a short envelope' )\
      .add( :newline )\
      .add( :empty )\
      .add('a very long story', :max-part-size(255), :newline )\
      .add('another long chunk à la française', :divide-into(3), :newline )\
      .add( :empty )\
      .send($s1, :callback( $callme ));

my $message = $s2.receive( :slurp );
say $message;




holds all the constants from zmq.h v4. They are grouped with tags. The tags not loaded by default are

  • :EVENT
  • :DRAFT Experimental, not in stable version
  • :RADIO
  • :IOPLEX multiplexing


holds NativeCall bindings for all the functions in zmq.h most calls are machine generated and the only check is that they compile. constant ZMQ_LOW_LEVEL_FUNCTIONS_TESTED holds a list of the calls used and tested in the module so far. loading Net::ZMQ::V4::Version prints it


use in order to chack version compatibility. It exports

  • verion()
  • version-major()

Net::ZMQ::Context, ::Socket, ::Message, ::Poll

These are the main classes providing a higher-level Perl6 OO interface to ZMQ

         .new( :throw-everything(True))      # set to True to throw non fatal errors
         .terminate() 			                 # manually release all resources (gc would do that)
         .shutdown()			                   # close all sockets
         .get-option(name)                   # get Context option
         .set-option(name, value)	           # set Context option

          options can also be accessed through methods with the name of the option
          with/without get- and set- prefixes.
             e.g get: .get-io-threads()  .io-threads()
             set: .set-io-threads(2) .io-threads(2)
          Net::ZMQ::ContextOptions holds the dispatch table
  context   - the zmq-context; must be supplied to new()
  type      - the ZMQ Socket Type constant: One of
    :pair :publisher :subscriber :client :server :dealer :router :pull :push :xpub :xsub :stream
    must be supplied to new()
  last-error - the last zmq error reported
  throw-everything  - when true, all non-fatal errors except EAGAIN (async) throw
  async-fail-throw  - when true, EAGAIN (async) throws; when false EAGAIN returns Any
  max-send-bytes    - largest single part send in bytes
  max-recv-number   - longest charcter string representing an integer number
                      in a single, integer message part
  max-recv-bytes    - bytes threshhold for truncating receive methods

Methods that do not return a useful value return self on success and Any on failure.
Send methods return the number of bytes sent or Any.

Socket Wrapper Methods
    bind( endpoint --> self )         ;endpoint must be a string with a valid zmq endpoint
    unbind( endpoint = last-endpoint  --> self )
    connect( endpoint  --> self )
    disconnect( endpoint = last-endpoint --> self )

Send Methods
      -part sends with SNDMORE flag (incomplete)
      -split causes input to be split and sent in message parts
      -async duh!
      all methods return the number of bytes sent or Any
    send( Str , :async, :part, :enc --> Int)
    send( Int, :async, :part -->Int )
    send( buf8, :async, :part, :max-send-bytes -->Int )
    send(Str, Int split-at :split! :async, :part. :enc  -->Int )
    send(buf8, Int split-at :split! :async, :part -->Int )
    send(buf8, Array splits, :part, :async, :callback, :max-send-bytes -->Int )
    send(:empty!, :async, :part -->Int )        

Receive Methods
      -bin causes return type to be a byte buffer (buf8) instead of a string
      -int retrieves a single integer message
      -slurp causes all waiting parts of a message to be aseembled and returned as single object
      -truncate truncates at a maximum byte length
      -async duh!
    receive(:truncate!, :async, :bin, :enc )
    receive(:int!, :async, :max-recv-number --> Int)
    receive(:slurp!, :async, :bin, :enc)
    receive(:async, :bin, :enc)

Options Methods
    there are option getters and setter for every socket option
    the list of options is in
    every option name creates four legal invocations
        * .get-identity()  .identity()
        * .set-identity(id) .identity(id)
    options can also be accessed explicitly with the ZMQ option Constant.
        valid Type Objects are Str, buf8 and Int
        get-option(Int opt-contant, Type-Object return-type, Int size )

Misc Methods
    doc(-->Str) ;this

The Message classes is an OO interface to the zero-copy mechanism. It uses a builder to build an immutable message that can be sent (and re-sent) zero-copied. See example above for useage.


builds a Message object that can be used to send complex messages. uses zero-copy internally.

  USAGE example

      my MsgBuilder $builder  .= new;
      my Message $msg =
                .add($content-1, :max-part-size(1024) :newline)\
                .add($content-2, :max-part-size(1024) :newline)\


    add( Str, :max-part-size :divide-into, :newline, :enc --> self)
    add( :empty --> self)
    add( :newline --> self)
    finalize( --> Message)

Immutable message

    send(Socket, :part, :async, Callable:($,$ --> Int:D) :callback  --> Int)                  
    send-all(@sockets, :part, :async, Callable:($,$ --> Int:D) :callback  --> Int)
    bytes( --> Int)          
    segments( --> Int)  
    copy(:enc --> Str)

MsgRecv accumulates message parts received on one or more sockets with minimal copying. parts can be examined, slectevely sent over sockets. and transforming functions can be queued on each part.

    slurp(Socket, :async)
              accumulate waiting message parts from a socket
    push-transform(UInt, &func)
              queue a transfrm function ( for example, encoding). The function should
              conform to :(Str:D --> Str:D|Any ) or (Blob:D --> Str:D|Any 
            . Any effectively delete the part. 
              queue a global transfrm function 

    set-encoding( 'ENCODING' ) 
              a wrapper of push-transform

    send(Socket, $from = 0, $n = elems, :async ) sends all or ome of the parts

    [ UInt ] returns message part, transformed by all the transformers
    at-raw( UInt )  returns message part as raw bunary data

PollBuilder builds a polled set of receiving sockets

(Silly) Usage
my $poll =\
  .add( $socket-1, sub ($m) { say "got --$m-- on  socket 1";} ))\
  .add( $socket-2, sub ($m) { say "got --$m-- on  socket 2";} ))\
  .add( $socket-3, { False })\
  .delay( 500 )\

1 while $poll.poll(:serial);
say "Done!";

  add( PollHandler --> self)
  add( Socket, Callable:(Socket) --> self)  
  delay( Int msecs --> self)                #   -1 => blocks, 0 => no delay
  finalize( --> Poll)

PollHandler is an an abstract class that represents an action to do on a socket when it polls positive. It has four readymade subclasses that feed the action a different

    * StrPollHandler
    * MessagePollHandler
    * SocketPollHandler
    * MsgRecvPollHandler

  new( Socket, Callable:(T) )
  do( Socket )  --  this method is called by the Poll object and can be subclassed
                    to create new types of responses

Poll holds and polls an immutable collection of receiving sockets

  poll returns a sequence of the results of the callback functions associated with the succesfully
  polled sockets or an empty sequence. It throws on error.
  primarily fo testing: returns a single result, from the callback of the first succesfully polled
  socket, or Any. The order is defined by the building invocation.

runs a steerable proxy

new( :frontend!($, :backend!($
        :capture($ , :control($

runs an echo server (connect with :client )

  new( :uri )
  run                           blocks on the invoking thread
  detach( --> Promise)          runs in a promise
  shutdown                      stops the server  (no restart possible)


All files (unless noted otherwise) can be used, modified and redistributed under the terms of the Artistic License Version 2. Examples (in the documentation, in tests or distributed as separate files) can be considered public domain.

ⓒ 2017 Gabriel Ash