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A lightweight embedded no-sql document database, representing documents as XML in flat .XML files.
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A lightweight embedded no-sql object DB persisting objects to flat XML files. XFlat is a completely free alternative to db4o for an embedded object DB.

So you've got a Java application, and need to persist some data. Cool. Just write it to a file.

Well, my data's in a bunch of POJOs.

Ok that's easy, just serialize it to XML and drop it into a DOM, then write it to a file.

Alright, that sounds easy enough. But wait a second, I need random access to my saved POJOs.

Well thats a bit harder, but you could write a class to inspect the DOM and pull out the data you need.

But I also need to query my POJOs by arbitrary criteria.

Looks like you need a database. Take a look at db4o or Sql Lite

Well I'd prefer not to have to deal with Sql, and I may need to inspect or transform my data as XML.

Oh, well in that case XFlat is for you!

XFlat is a single lightweight JAR that persists XML DOM Elements to flat files. It presents as a CRUD interface to XML Elements that can be queried by ID or arbitrary XPath expressions. Because it is stored in flat files, XFlat is not relational and is schemaless. XFlat is currently effective for table sizes up to the dozens of KB. Future versions will contain engines that are effective up to the hundreds of MB, using memory-mapped files.


  • Pure XML data files

    • XFlat's data files are pure XML. This means they can be inspected, queried, transformed and manipulated by common XML tools like XSLT and XQuery. It is trivial to create a process to export your entire database, or import data from another process into your database by directly manipulating the XML (provided the database is not running during the import, which is simple to control). XFlat will automatically re-index the data files on startup if they have changed.
  • POJO mapping to XML

    • XFlat maps POJOs to JDOM Element objects using JAXB. The underlying implementation can be swapped if necessary. The JAXB context is only loaded if it is used, so you can avoid it completely by specifying custom converters, or using only the JDOM CRUD interface.
  • Queriable by XPath expressions

    • Tables can be queried by any arbitrary XPath expression using the table row as the context. The expression selects a part of the Element that is convertible to the value which is being matched, then the matching is performed using Hamcrest Matchers. Breaking the query into XPath expressions and values allows the engine to leverage indexes effectively, much more easily than if we used XQuery. Future versions may support XQuery.
  • Multiple swappable Engines (to be implemented)

    • The management of each table is handled by an Engine. As a table grows or shrinks, the appropriate Engine for managing the data is swapped in behind the scenes. For example, very small tables can use an engine that loads the whole XML DOM in-memory, while very large tables can use an engine that manipulates a memory-mapped file. Only one engine is implemented for version 1.
  • Indexing on XPath expressions (to be implemented)

    • Engines can take advantage of indexes that are based on any arbitrary XPath expression. The expression selects a part of the Element that is converted to a Comparable (such as an Integer), then the engine can map that Comparable to the row and binary search indexes to improve performance.
  • Sharding by ID (implemented) or on arbitrary XPath expressions (to be implemented)

    • A table can be sharded across multiple files based on a sharding key selected by an XPath expression. The expression selects a part of the Element that is converted to a Comparable, then a RangeProvider determines which file to store the Element in.
  • Transactions

    • XFlat supports Transactions that by default span all tables in the database. Currently XFlat only implements snapshot-isolation transactions, serializable transactions are planned for a future version.

Required dependencies:

  • Java 7

  • JDOM 2

    • jdom-2.0.4.jar
  • Hamcrest matchers 1.3

    • hamcrest-core-1.3.jar
    • hamcrest-library-1.3.jar
  • Apache Commons Logging 1.1

    • commons-logging-1.1.1.jar

Optional dependencies:

  • Jaxen-1.1.4 - for compiling XPath strings into expressions

    • jaxen-1.1.4.jar
  • JAXB reference implementation 1.0 - for automatic POJO mapping


Insert an instance of Foo into the table "Foo" stored in "myDataDirectory/Foo.xml".

XFlatDatabase db = new XFlatDatabase(new File("myDataDirectory"));
//initialize with default config

Foo myFoo = new Foo();
Table<Foo> fooTable = db.getTable(Foo.class);
fooTable.insert(myFoo);  //inserts with unique automatically-generated ID
System.out.println("Stored foo in table Foo with ID " + myFoo.getId());

Foo myFoo2 = fooTable.find(myFoo.getId());
//myFoo2 is a new instance with the same data as myFoo

See "" for more examples

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