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@gcanti @osdiab @eivindml

Model

interface Decoder<I, A> {
  readonly decode: (i: I) => E.Either<DecodeError, A>
}

Example

A decoder representing string can be defined as

import * as D from 'io-ts/Decoder'

export const string: D.Decoder<unknown, string> = {
  decode: (u) => (typeof u === 'string' ? D.success(u) : D.failure(u, 'string'))
}

and we can use it as follows:

import { isRight } from 'fp-ts/Either'

console.log(isRight(string.decode('a'))) // => true
console.log(isRight(string.decode(null))) // => false

More generally the result of calling decode can be handled using fold along with pipe (which is similar to the pipeline operator)

import { pipe } from 'fp-ts/function'
import { fold } from 'fp-ts/Either'

console.log(
  pipe(
    string.decode(null),
    fold(
      // failure handler
      (errors) => `error: ${JSON.stringify(errors)}`,
      // success handler
      (a) => `success: ${JSON.stringify(a)}`
    )
  )
)
// => error: {"_tag":"Of","value":{"_tag":"Leaf","actual":null,"error":"string"}}

Built-in primitive decoders

  • string: Decoder<unknown, string>
  • number: Decoder<unknown, number>
  • boolean: Decoder<unknown, boolean>
  • UnknownArray: Decoder<unknown, Array<unknown>>
  • UnknownRecord: Decoder<unknown, Record<string, unknown>>

Combinators

We can combine these primitive decoders through combinators to build composite types which represent entities like domain models, request payloads etc. in our applications.

The literal constructor

The literal constructor describes one or more literals.

export const MyLiteral: D.Decoder<unknown, 'a'> = D.literal('a')
export const MyLiterals: D.Decoder<unknown, 'a' | 'b'> = D.literal('a', 'b')

The nullable combinator

The nullable combinator describes a nullable value

export const NullableString: D.Decoder<unknown, null | string> = D.nullable(D.string)

The struct combinator

The struct combinator describes an object with required fields.

export const Person = D.struct({
  name: D.string,
  age: D.number
})

console.log(isRight(Person.decode({ name: 'name', age: 42 }))) // => true
console.log(isRight(Person.decode({ name: 'name' }))) // => false

The struct combinator will strip additional fields while decoding

console.log(Person.decode({ name: 'name', age: 42, rememberMe: true }))
// => { _tag: 'Right', right: { name: 'name', age: 42 } }

The partial combinator

The partial combinator describes an object with optional fields.

export const Person = D.partial({
  name: D.string,
  age: D.number
})

console.log(isRight(Person.decode({ name: 'name', age: 42 }))) // => true
console.log(isRight(Person.decode({ name: 'name' }))) // => true

The partial combinator will strip additional fields while decoding

console.log(Person.decode({ name: 'name', rememberMe: true }))
// => { _tag: 'Right', right: { name: 'name' } }

The record combinator

The record combinator describes a Record<string, ?>

export const MyRecord: D.Decoder<unknown, Record<string, number>> = D.record(D.number)

console.log(isRight(MyRecord.decode({ a: 1, b: 2 }))) // => true

The array combinator

The array combinator describes an array Array<?>

export const MyArray: D.Decoder<unknown, Array<number>> = D.array(D.number)

console.log(isRight(MyArray.decode([1, 2, 3]))) // => true

The tuple combinator

The tuple combinator describes a n-tuple

export const MyTuple: D.Decoder<unknown, [string, number]> = D.tuple(D.string, D.number)

console.log(isRight(MyTuple.decode(['a', 1]))) // => true

The tuple combinator will strip additional components while decoding

console.log(MyTuple.decode(['a', 1, true])) // => { _tag: 'Right', right: [ 'a', 1 ] }

The intersect combinator

The intersect combinator is useful in order to mix required and optional props

export const Person = pipe(
  D.struct({
    name: D.string
  }),
  D.intersect(
    D.partial({
      age: D.number
    })
  )
)

console.log(isRight(Person.decode({ name: 'name' }))) // => true
console.log(isRight(Person.decode({}))) // => false

The sum combinator

The sum combinator describes tagged unions (aka sum types)

export const MySum: D.Decoder<
  unknown,
  | {
      type: 'A'
      a: string
    }
  | {
      type: 'B'
      b: number
    }
  //        v--- tag name
> = D.sum('type')({
  //             +----- all union members in the dictionary must own a field named like the chosen tag ("type" in this case)
  //             |
  //             v               v----- this value must be equal to its corresponding dictionary key ("A" in this case)
  A: D.struct({ type: D.literal('A'), a: D.string }),
  //                             v----- this value must be equal to its corresponding dictionary key ("B" in this case)
  B: D.struct({ type: D.literal('B'), b: D.number })
})

non-string tag values

In case of non-string tag values, the respective key must be enclosed in brackets

export const MySum: D.Decoder<
  unknown,
  | {
      type: 1 // non-`string` tag value
      a: string
    }
  | {
      type: 2 // non-`string` tag value
      b: number
    }
> = D.sum('type')({
  [1]: D.struct({ type: D.literal(1), a: D.string }),
  [2]: D.struct({ type: D.literal(2), b: D.number })
})

The union combinator

The union combinator describes untagged unions

const MyUnion = D.union(D.string, D.number)

console.log(isRight(MyUnion.decode('a'))) // => true
console.log(isRight(MyUnion.decode(1))) // => true
console.log(isRight(MyUnion.decode(null))) // => false

The lazy combinator

The lazy combinator allows to define recursive and mutually recursive decoders

Recursive

interface Category {
  title: string
  subcategory: null | Category
}

const Category: D.Decoder<unknown, Category> = D.lazy('Category', () =>
  D.struct({
    title: D.string,
    subcategory: D.nullable(Category)
  })
)

Mutually recursive

interface Foo {
  foo: string
  bar: null | Bar
}

interface Bar {
  bar: number
  foo: null | Foo
}

const Foo: D.Decoder<unknown, Foo> = D.lazy('Foo', () =>
  D.struct({
    foo: D.string,
    bar: D.nullable(Bar)
  })
)

const Bar: D.Decoder<unknown, Bar> = D.lazy('Bar', () =>
  D.struct({
    bar: D.number,
    foo: D.nullable(Foo)
  })
)

The refine combinator

The refine combinator allows to define refinements, for example a branded type

import { pipe } from 'fp-ts/function'

export interface PositiveBrand {
  readonly Positive: unique symbol
}

export type Positive = number & PositiveBrand

export const Positive: D.Decoder<unknown, Positive> = pipe(
  D.number,
  D.refine((n): n is Positive => n > 0, 'Positive')
)

console.log(isRight(Positive.decode(1))) // => true
console.log(isRight(Positive.decode(-1))) // => false

The parse combinator

The parse combinator is more powerful than refine in that you can change the output type

import { pipe } from 'fp-ts/function'
import { isRight } from 'fp-ts/Either'

export const NumberFromString: D.Decoder<unknown, number> = pipe(
  D.string,
  D.parse((s) => {
    const n = parseFloat(s)
    return isNaN(n) ? D.failure(s, 'NumberFromString') : D.success(n)
  })
)

console.log(isRight(NumberFromString.decode('1'))) // => true
console.log(isRight(NumberFromString.decode('a'))) // => false

Extracting static types from decoders

Static types can be extracted from decoders using the TypeOf and InputOf operators

export const Person = D.struct({
  name: D.string,
  age: D.number
})

export type Person = D.TypeOf<typeof Person>
/*
type Person = {
    name: string;
    age: number;
}
*/

type PersonInputType = D.InputOf<typeof Person>
/*
type PersonInputType = unknown
*/

Note that you can define an interface instead of a type alias

export interface Person extends D.TypeOf<typeof Person> {}

Built-in error reporter

import { isLeft } from 'fp-ts/Either'

export const Person = D.struct({
  name: D.string,
  age: D.number
})

const result = Person.decode({})
if (isLeft(result)) {
  console.log(D.draw(result.left))
}
/*
required property "name"
└─ cannot decode undefined, should be string
required property "age"
└─ cannot decode undefined, should be number
*/