Implementation of newtypes in TypeScript
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README.md

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Motivation

A common programming practice is to define a type whose representation is identical to an existing one but which has a separate identity in the type system.

type USD = number
type EUR = number

const myamount: USD = 1

declare function change(usd: USD): EUR
declare function saveAmount(eur: EUR): void

saveAmount(change(myamount)) // ok
saveAmount(myamount) // opss... this is also ok because both EUR and USD are type alias of number!

Usage

Newtypes

Let's define a newtype for the EUR currency

import { Newtype, iso } from 'newtype-ts'

interface EUR extends Newtype<{ readonly EUR: unique symbol }, number> {}

// isoEUR: Iso<EUR, number>
const isoEUR = iso<EUR>()

// myamount: EUR
const myamount = isoEUR.wrap(0.85)

// n: number = 0.85
const n = isoEUR.unwrap(myamount)

declare function saveAmount(eur: EUR): void

saveAmount(0.85) // static error: Argument of type '0.85' is not assignable to parameter of type 'EUR'
saveAmount(myamount) // ok

By definition a "newtype" must have the exact same runtime representation as the value that it stores, e.g. a value of type EUR is just a number at runtime.

For the Iso type, see the monocle-ts documentation.

Refinements

An Integer is a refinement of number

import { Newtype, prism } from 'newtype-ts'

interface Integer extends Newtype<{ readonly Integer: unique symbol }, number> {}

const isInteger = (n: number) => Number.isInteger(n);

// prismInteger: Prism<number, Integer>
const prismInteger = prism<Integer>(isInteger)

// oi: Option<Integer>
const oi = prismInteger.getOption(2)

declare function f(i: Integer): void

f(2) // static error: Argument of type '2' is not assignable to parameter of type 'Integer'
oi.map(f) // ok

For the Prism type, see the monocle-ts documentation.

Builtin refinements

  • Char
  • Integer
  • Negative
  • NegativeInteger
  • NonNegative
  • NonNegativeInteger
  • NonPositive
  • NonPositiveInteger
  • NonEmptyString
  • NonZero
  • NonZeroInteger
  • Positive
  • PositiveInteger
import { NonZero, prismNonZero } from 'newtype-ts/lib/NonZero'

// a total function
const safeDivide = (numerator: number, denominator: NonZero): number => {
  return numerator / prismNonZero.reverseGet(denominator)
}

// result: Option<number>
const result = prismNonZero.getOption(2).map(denominator => safeDivide(2, denominator))

TypeScript compatibility

The stable version is tested against TypeScript 3.1.6

Performance

const double = n => n * 2
const doubleEUR = eurIso.modify(double)

Test double(2) vs doubleEUR(eurIso.wrap(2))

Results (node v8.9.3)

double x 538,301,203 ops/sec ±0.45% (87 runs sampled)
doubleEUR x 536,575,600 ops/sec ±0.27% (87 runs sampled)

Recipes

How to lift a function

const double = (n: number): number => n * 2

// doubleEUR: (s: EUR) => EUR
const doubleEUR = eurIso.modify(double)

How to operate over newtypes

import { over } from 'newtype-ts'

interface USD extends Newtype<{ readonly USD: unique symbol }, number> {}

const USDFromEUR = (n: number): number => n * 1.18

// getter: Getter<EUR, USD>
const getter = over<EUR, USD>(USDFromEUR)

// usd: USD
const usd = getter.get(eur)

For the Getter type, see monocle-ts documentation.