Skip to content

HTTPS clone URL

Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with HTTPS or Subversion.

Download ZIP
Fetching contributors…

Cannot retrieve contributors at this time

5647 lines (4117 sloc) 229.391 kb
.. |(version)| replace:: 1.23
=======
Geany
=======
-------------------------
A fast, light, GTK+ IDE
-------------------------
:Authors: Enrico Tröger,
Nick Treleaven,
Frank Lanitz,
Colomban Wendling,
Matthew Brush
:Date: 2012-06-18
:Version: |(version)|
Copyright © 2005-2012
This document is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public
License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
of the License, or (at your option) any later version. A copy of this
license can be found in the file COPYING included with the source code
of this program, and also in the chapter `GNU General Public License`_.
.. contents::
Introduction
============
About Geany
-----------
Geany is a small and lightweight Integrated Development Environment. It
was developed to provide a small and fast IDE, which has only a few
dependencies on other packages. Another goal was to be as independent
as possible from a particular Desktop Environment like KDE or GNOME -
Geany only requires the GTK2 runtime libraries.
Some basic features of Geany:
* Syntax highlighting
* Code folding
* Autocompletion of symbols/words
* Construct completion/snippets
* Auto-closing of XML and HTML tags
* Calltips
* Many supported filetypes including C, Java, PHP, HTML, Python, Perl,
Pascal, and others
* Symbol lists
* Code navigation
* Build system to compile and execute your code
* Simple project management
* Plugin interface
Where to get it
---------------
You can obtain Geany from http://www.geany.org/ or perhaps also from
your distribution. For a list of available packages, please see
http://www.geany.org/Download/ThirdPartyPackages.
License
-------
Geany is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License
as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of
the License, or (at your option) any later version. A copy of this
license can be found in the file COPYING included with the source
code of this program and in the chapter, `GNU General Public License`_.
The included Scintilla library (found in the subdirectory
``scintilla/``) has its own license, which can be found in the chapter,
`License for Scintilla and SciTE`_.
About this document
-------------------
This documentation is available in HTML and text formats.
The latest version can always be found at http://www.geany.org/.
If you want to contribute to it, see `Contributing to this document`_.
Installation
============
Requirements
------------
You will need the GTK (>= 2.16.0) libraries and their dependencies
(Pango, GLib and ATK). Your distro should provide packages for these,
usually installed by default. For Windows, you can download an installer
from the website which bundles these libraries.
Binary packages
---------------
There are many binary packages available. For an up-to-date but maybe
incomplete list see http://www.geany.org/Download/ThirdPartyPackages.
Source compilation
------------------
Compiling Geany is quite easy.
To do so, you need the GTK (>= 2.16.0) libraries and header files.
You also need the Pango, GLib and ATK libraries and header files.
All these files are available at http://www.gtk.org, but very often
your distro will provide development packages to save the trouble of
building these yourself.
Furthermore you need, of course, a C and C++ compiler. The GNU versions
of these tools are recommended.
Autotools based build system
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
The Autotools based build system is very mature and has been well tested.
To use it, you just need the Make tool, preferably GNU Make.
Then run the following commands::
$ ./configure
$ make
Then as root::
% make install
Waf based build system
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
The Waf build system is still quite young and under heavy development but already in a
usable state. In contrast to the Autotools system, Waf needs Python. So before using Waf, you need
to install Python on your system.
The advantage of the Waf build system over the Autotools based build system is that the whole
build process might be a bit faster. Especially when you use the Waf
cache feature for repetitive builds (e.g. when changing only a few source files
to test something) will become much faster since Waf will cache and re-use the
unchanged built files and only compile the changed code again. See `Waf Cache`_ for details.
To build Geany with Waf as run::
$ ./waf configure
$ ./waf build
Then as root::
% ./waf install
Waf cache
`````````
The Waf build system has a nice and interesting feature which can help to avoid
a lot of unnecessary rebuilding of unchanged code. This often happens when developing new features
or trying to debug something in Geany.
Waf is able to store and retrieve the object files from a cache. This cache is declared
using the environment variable ``WAFCACHE``.
A possible location of the cache directory could be ``~/.cache/waf``. In order to make use of
this, you first need to create this directory::
$ mkdir -p ~/.cache/waf
then add the environment variable to your shell configuration (the following example is for
Bash and should be adjusted to your used shell)::
export WAFCACHE=/home/username/.cache/waf
Remember to replace ``username`` with your actual username.
More information about the Waf cache feature are available at
http://code.google.com/p/waf/wiki/CacheObjectFiles.
Cleaning the cache
******************
You should be careful about the size of the cache directory as it may
grow rapidly over time.
Waf doesn't do any cleaning or other house-keeping of the cache yet, so you need to keep it
clean by yourself.
An easy way to keep it clean is to run the following command regularly to remove old
cached files::
$ find /home/username/.cache/waf -mtime +14 -exec rm {} \;
This will delete all files in the cache directory which are older than 14 days.
For details about the ``find`` command and its options, check its manual page.
Custom installation
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
The configure script supports several common options, for a detailed
list, type::
$ ./configure --help
or::
$ ./waf --help
(depending on which build system you use).
You may also want to read the INSTALL file for advanced installation
options.
* See also `Compile-time options`_.
Dynamic linking loader support and VTE
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
In the case that your system lacks dynamic linking loader support, you
probably want to pass the option ``--disable-vte`` to the ``configure``
script. This prevents compiling Geany with dynamic linking loader
support for automatically loading ``libvte.so.4`` if available.
Build problems
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
If there are any errors during compilation, check your build
environment and try to find the error, otherwise contact the mailing
list or one the authors. Sometimes you might need to ask for specific
help from your distribution.
Installation prefix
-------------------
If you want to find Geany's system files after installation you may
want to know the installation prefix.
Pass the ``--print-prefix`` option to Geany to check this - see
`Command line options`_. The first path is the prefix.
On Unix-like systems this is commonly ``/usr`` if you installed from
a binary package, or ``/usr/local`` if you build from source.
.. note::
Editing system files is not necessary as you should use the
per-user configuration files instead, which don't need root
permissions. See `Configuration files`_.
Usage
=====
Getting started
---------------
You can start Geany in the following ways:
* From the Desktop Environment menu:
Choose in your application menu of your used Desktop Environment:
Development --> Geany.
* From the command line:
To start Geany from a command line, type the following and press
Return::
% geany
The Geany workspace
-------------------
The Geany window is shown in the following figure:
.. image:: ./images/main_window.png
The workspace has the following parts:
* The menu.
* An optional toolbar.
* An optional sidebar that can show the following tabs:
* Documents - A document list, and
* Symbols - A list of symbols in your code.
* The main editor window.
* An optional message window which can show the following tabs:
* Status - A list of status messages.
* Compiler - The output of compiling or building programs.
* Messages - Results of 'Find Usage', 'Find in Files' and other actions
* Scribble - A text scratchpad for any use.
* Terminal - An optional terminal window.
* A status bar
Most of these can be configured in the `Interface preferences`_, the
`View menu`_, or the popup menu for the relevant area.
Additional tabs may be added to the sidebar and message window by plugins.
The position of the tabs can be selected in the interface preferences.
The sizes of the sidebar and message window can be adjusted by
dragging the dividers.
Command line options
--------------------
============ ======================= =================================================
Short option Long option Function
============ ======================= =================================================
*none* +number Set initial line number for the first opened file
(same as --line, do not put a space between the + sign
and the number). E.g. "geany +7 foo.bar" will open the
file foo.bar and place the cursor in line 7.
*none* --column Set initial column number for the first opened file.
-c dir_name --config=directory_name Use an alternate configuration directory. The default
configuration directory is ``~/.config/geany/`` and that
is where ``geany.conf`` and other configuration files
reside.
*none* --ft-names Print a list of Geany's internal filetype names (useful
for snippets configuration).
-g --generate-tags Generate a global tags file (see
`Generating a global tags file`_).
-P --no-preprocessing Don't preprocess C/C++ files when generating tags.
-i --new-instance Do not open files in a running instance, force opening
a new instance. Only available if Geany was compiled
with support for Sockets.
-l --line Set initial line number for the first opened file.
*none* --list-documents Return a list of open documents in a running Geany
instance.
This can be used to read the currently opened documents in
Geany from an external script or tool. The returned list
is separated by newlines (LF) and consists of the full,
UTF-8 encoded filenames of the documents.
Only available if Geany was compiled with support for
Sockets.
-m --no-msgwin Do not show the message window. Use this option if you
do not need compiler messages or VTE support.
-n --no-ctags Do not load symbol completion and call tip data. Use this
option if you do not want to use them.
-p --no-plugins Do not load plugins or plugin support.
*none* --print-prefix Print installation prefix, the data directory, the lib
directory and the locale directory (in that order) to
stdout, one line each. This is mainly intended for plugin
authors to detect installation paths.
-r --read-only Open all files given on the command line in read-only mode.
This only applies to files opened explicitly from the command
line, so files from previous sessions or project files are
unaffected.
-s --no-session Do not load the previous session's files.
-t --no-terminal Do not load terminal support. Use this option if you do
not want to load the virtual terminal emulator widget
at startup. If you do not have ``libvte.so.4`` installed,
then terminal-support is automatically disabled. Only
available if Geany was compiled with support for VTE.
*none* --socket-file Use this socket filename for communication with a
running Geany instance. This can be used with the following
command to execute Geany on the current workspace::
geany --socket-file=/tmp/geany-sock-$(xprop -root _NET_CURRENT_DESKTOP | awk '{print $3}')
*none* --vte-lib Specify explicitly the path including filename or only
the filename to the VTE library, e.g.
``/usr/lib/libvte.so`` or ``libvte.so``. This option is
only needed when the auto-detection does not work. Only
available if Geany was compiled with support for VTE.
-v --verbose Be verbose (print useful status messages).
-V --version Show version information and exit.
-? --help Show help information and exit.
*none* [files ...] Open all given files at startup. This option causes
Geany to ignore loading stored files from the last
session (if enabled).
Geany also recognizes line and column information when
appended to the filename with colons, e.g.
"geany foo.bar:10:5" will open the file foo.bar and
place the cursor in line 10 at column 5.
Projects can also be opened but a project file (\*.geany)
must be the first non-option argument. All additionally
given files are ignored.
============ ======================= =================================================
You can also pass line number and column number information, e.g.::
geany some_file.foo:55:4
Geany supports all generic GTK options, a list is available on the
help screen.
General
-------
Startup
^^^^^^^
At startup, Geany loads all files from the last time Geany was
launched. You can disable this feature in the preferences dialog
(see `General Startup preferences`_).
You can start several instances of Geany, but only the first will
load files from the last session. In the subsequent instances, you
can find these files in the file menu under the "Recent files" item.
By default this contains the last 10 recently opened files. You can
change the number of recently opened files in the preferences dialog.
To run a second instance of Geany, do not specify any filenames on
the command-line, or disable opening files in a running instance
using the appropriate command line option.
Opening files from the command-line in a running instance
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Geany detects if there is an an instance of itself already running and opens files
from the command-line in that instance. So, Geany can
be used to view and edit files by opening them from other programs
such as a file manager.
You can also pass line number and column number information, e.g.::
geany some_file.foo:55:4
This would open the file ``some_file.foo`` with the cursor on line 55,
column 4.
If you do not like this for some reason, you can disable using the first
instance by using the appropriate command line option -- see the section
called `Command line options`_.
Virtual terminal emulator widget (VTE)
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
If you have installed ``libvte.so`` on your system, it is loaded
automatically by Geany, and you will have a terminal widget in the
notebook at the bottom.
If Geany cannot find any ``libvte.so`` at startup, the terminal widget
will not be loaded. So there is no need to install the package containing
this file in order to run Geany. Additionally, you can disable the use
of the terminal widget by command line option, for more information
see the section called `Command line options`_.
You can use this terminal (from now on called VTE) much as you would
a terminal program like xterm. There is basic clipboard support. You
can paste the contents of the clipboard by pressing the right mouse
button to open the popup menu, and choosing Paste. To copy text from
the VTE, just select the desired text and then press the right mouse
button and choose Copy from the popup menu. On systems running the
X Window System you can paste the last selected text by pressing the
middle mouse button in the VTE (on 2-button mice, the middle button
can often be simulated by pressing both mouse buttons together).
In the preferences dialog you can specify a shell which should be
started in the VTE. To make the specified shell a login shell just
use the appropriate command line options for the shell. These options
should be found in the manual page of the shell. For zsh and bash
you can use the argument ``--login``.
.. note::
Geany tries to load ``libvte.so``. If this fails, it tries to load
some other filenames. If this fails too, you should check whether you
installed libvte correctly. Again note, Geany will run without this
library.
It could be, that the library is called something else than
``libvte.so`` (e.g. on FreeBSD 6.0 it is called ``libvte.so.8``). If so
please set a link to the correct file (as root)::
# ln -s /usr/lib/libvte.so.X /usr/lib/libvte.so
Obviously, you have to adjust the paths and set X to the number of your
``libvte.so``.
You can also specify the filename of the VTE library to use on the command
line (see the section called `Command line options`_) or at compile time
by specifying the command line option ``--with-vte-module-path`` to
./configure.
Defining own widget styles using .gtkrc-2.0
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
You can define your widget style for many of Geany's GUI parts. To
do this, just edit your ``.gtkrc-2.0`` (usually found in your home
directory on UNIX-like systems and in the etc subdirectory of your
Geany installation on Windows).
To have a defined style used by Geany you must assign it to
at least one of Geany's widgets. For example use the following line::
widget "Geany*" style "geanyStyle"
This would assign your style "geany_style" to all Geany
widgets. You can also assign styles only to specific widgets. At the
moment you can use the following widgets:
* GeanyMainWindow
* GeanyEditMenu
* GeanyToolbarMenu
* GeanyDialog
* GeanyDialogPrefs
* GeanyDialogProject
* GeanyDialogSearch
* GeanyMenubar
* GeanyToolbar
An example of a simple ``.gtkrc-2.0``::
style "geanyStyle"
{
font_name="Sans 12"
}
widget "GeanyMainWindow" style "geanyStyle"
style "geanyStyle"
{
font_name="Sans 10"
}
widget "GeanyPrefsDialog" style "geanyStyle"
Documents
---------
Switching between documents
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
The documents list and the editor tabs are two different ways
to switch between documents using the mouse. When you hit the key
combination to move between tabs, the order is determined by the tab
order. It is not alphabetical as shown in the documents list
(regardless of whether or not editor tabs are visible).
See the `Notebook tab keybindings`_ section for useful
shortcuts including for Most-Recently-Used document switching.
Character sets and Unicode Byte-Order-Mark (BOM)
------------------------------------------------
Using character sets
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Geany provides support for detecting and converting character sets. So
you can open and save files in different character sets, and even
convert a file from one character set to another. To do this,
Geany uses the character conversion capabilities of the GLib library.
Only text files are supported, i.e. opening files which contain
NULL-bytes may fail. Geany will try to open the file anyway but it is
likely that the file will be truncated because it can only be read up
to the first occurrence of a NULL-byte. All characters after this
position are lost and are not written when you save the file.
Geany tries to detect the encoding of a file while opening it, but
auto-detecting the encoding of a file is not easy and sometimes an
encoding might not be detected correctly. In this case you have to
set the encoding of the file manually in order to display it
correctly. You can this in the file open dialog by selecting an
encoding in the drop down box or by reloading the file with the
file menu item "Reload as". The auto-detection works well for most
encodings but there are also some encodings where it is known that
auto-detection has problems.
There are different ways to set different encodings in Geany:
* Using the file open dialog
This opens the file with the encoding specified in the encoding drop
down box. If the encoding is set to "Detect from file" auto-detection
will be used. If the encoding is set to "Without encoding (None)" the
file will be opened without any character conversion and Geany will
not try to auto-detect the encoding (see below for more information).
* Using the "Reload as" menu item
This item reloads the current file with the specified encoding. It can
help if you opened a file and found out that the wrong encoding was used.
* Using the "Set encoding" menu item
Contrary to the above two options, this will not change or reload
the current file unless you save it. It is useful when you want to
change the encoding of the file.
* Specifying the encoding in the file itself
As mentioned above, auto-detecting the encoding of a file may fail on
some encodings. If you know that Geany doesn't open a certain file,
you can add the specification line, described in the next section,
to the beginning of the file to force Geany to use a specific
encoding when opening the file.
In-file encoding specification
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Geany detects meta tags of HTML files which contain charset information
like::
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-15" />
and the specified charset is used when opening the file. This is useful if the
encoding of the file cannot be detected properly.
For non-HTML files you can also define a line like::
/* geany_encoding=ISO-8859-15 */
or::
# geany_encoding=ISO-8859-15 #
to force an encoding to be used. The #, /\* and \*/ are examples
of filetype-specific comment characters. It doesn't matter which
characters are around the string " geany_encoding=ISO-8859-15 " as long
as there is at least one whitespace character before and after this
string. Whitespace characters are in this case a space or tab character.
An example to use this could be you have a file with ISO-8859-15
encoding but Geany constantly detects the file encoding as ISO-8859-1.
Then you simply add such a line to the file and Geany will open it
correctly the next time.
Since Geany 0.15 you can also use lines which match the
regular expression used to find the encoding string:
``coding[\t ]*[:=][\t ]*([a-z0-9-]+)[\t ]*``
.. note::
These specifications must be in the first 512 bytes of the file.
Anything after the first 512 bytes will not be recognized.
Some examples are::
# encoding = ISO-8859-15
or::
# coding: ISO-8859-15
Special encoding "None"
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
There is a special encoding "None" which uses no
encoding. It is useful when you know that Geany cannot auto-detect
the encoding of a file and it is not displayed correctly. Especially
when the file contains NULL-bytes this can be useful to skip auto
detection and open the file properly at least until the occurrence
of the first NULL-byte. Using this encoding opens the file as it is
without any character conversion.
Unicode Byte-Order-Mark (BOM)
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Furthermore, Geany detects a Unicode Byte Order Mark (see
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byte_Order_Mark for details). Of course,
this feature is only available if the opened file is in a Unicode
encoding. The Byte Order Mark helps to detect the encoding of a file,
e.g. whether it is UTF-16LE or UTF-16BE and so on. On Unix-like systems
using a Byte Order Mark could cause some problems for programs not
expecting it, e.g. the compiler gcc stops
with stray errors, PHP does not parse a script containing a BOM and
script files starting with a she-bang maybe cannot be started. In the
status bar you can easily see whether the file starts with a BOM or
not.
If you want to set a BOM for a file or if you want to remove it
from a file, just use the document menu and toggle the checkbox.
.. note::
If you are unsure what a BOM is or if you do not understand where
to use it, then it is probably not important for you and you can
safely ignore it.
Editing
-------
Folding
^^^^^^^
Geany provides basic code folding support. Folding means the ability to
show and hide parts of the text in the current file. You can hide
unimportant code sections and concentrate on the parts you are working on
and later you can show hidden sections again. In the editor window there is
a small grey margin on the left side with [+] and [-] symbols which
show hidden parts and hide parts of the file respectively. By
clicking on these icons you can simply show and hide sections which are
marked by vertical lines within this margin. For many filetypes nested
folding is supported, so there may be several fold points within other
fold points.
.. note::
You can customize the folding icon and line styles - see the
filetypes.common `Folding Settings`_.
If you don't like it or don't need it at all, you can simply disable
folding support completely in the preferences dialog.
The folding behaviour can be changed with the "Fold/Unfold all children of
a fold point" option in the preference dialog. If activated, Geany will
unfold all nested fold points below the current one if they are already
folded (when clicking on a [+] symbol).
When clicking on a [-] symbol, Geany will fold all nested fold points
below the current one if they are unfolded.
This option can be inverted by pressing the Shift
key while clicking on a fold symbol. That means, if the "Fold/Unfold all
children of a fold point" option is enabled, pressing Shift will disable
it for this click and vice versa.
Column mode editing (rectangular selections)
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
There is basic support for column mode editing. To use it, create a
rectangular selection by holding down the Control and Shift keys
(or Alt and Shift on Windows) while selecting some text.
Once a rectangular selection exists you can start editing the text within
this selection and the modifications will be done for every line in the
selection.
It is also possible to create a zero-column selection - this is
useful to insert text on multiple lines.
Drag and drop of text
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
If you drag selected text in the editor widget of Geany the text is
moved to the position where the mouse pointer is when releasing the
mouse button. Holding Control when releasing the mouse button will
copy the text instead. This behaviour was changed in Geany 0.11 -
before the selected text was copied to the new position.
Indentation
^^^^^^^^^^^
Geany allows each document to indent either with a tab character,
multiple spaces or a combination of both. The default indent
settings are set in `Editor Indentation preferences`_ (see the link
for more information).
The default settings can be overridden per-document using the
Document menu. They can also be overridden by projects - see
`Project management`_.
The indent mode for the current document is shown on the status bar
as follows:
TAB
Indent with Tab characters.
SP
Indent with spaces.
T/S
Indent with tabs and spaces, depending on how much indentation is
on a line.
Applying new indentation settings
`````````````````````````````````
After changing the default settings you may wish to apply the new
settings to every document in the current session. To do this use the
*Project->Apply Default Indentation* menu item.
Detecting indent type
`````````````````````
The *Detect from file* indentation preference can be used to
scan each file as it's opened and set the indent type based on
how many lines start with a tab vs. 2 or more spaces.
Auto-indentation
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
When enabled, auto-indentation happens when pressing *Enter* in the
Editor. It adds a certain amount of indentation to the new line so the
user doesn't always have to indent each line manually.
Geany has four types of auto-indentation:
None
Disables auto-indentation completely.
Basic
Adds the same amount of whitespace on a new line as on the last line.
Current chars
Does the same as *Basic* but also indents a new line after an opening
brace '{', and de-indents when typing a closing brace '}'. For Python,
a new line will be indented after typing ':' at the end of the
previous line.
Match braces
Similar to *Current chars* but the closing brace will be aligned to
match the indentation of the line with the opening brace.
There is also XML-tag auto-indentation. This is enabled when the
mode is more than just Basic, and is also controlled by a filetype
setting - see `xml_indent_tags`_.
Bookmarks
^^^^^^^^^
Geany provides a handy bookmarking feature that lets you mark one
or more lines in a document, and return the cursor to them using a
key combination.
To place a mark on a line, either left-mouse-click in the left margin
of the editor window, or else use Ctrl-m. This will
produce a small green plus symbol in the margin. You can have as many
marks in a document as you like. Click again (or use Ctrl-m again)
to remove the bookmark. To remove all the marks in a given document,
use "Remove Markers" in the Document menu.
To navigate down your document, jumping from one mark to the next,
use Ctrl-. (control period). To go in the opposite direction on
the page, use Ctrl-, (control comma). Using the bookmarking feature
together with the commands to switch from one editor tab to another
(Ctrl-PgUp/PgDn and Ctrl-Tab) provides a particularly fast way to
navigate around multiple files.
Code navigation history
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
To ease navigation in source files and especially between
different files, Geany lets you jump between different navigation
points. Currently, this works for the following:
* `Go to tag declaration`_
* `Go to tag definition`_
* Symbol list items
* Build errors
* Message items
When using one of these actions, Geany remembers your current position
and jumps to the new one. If you decide to go back to your previous
position in the file, just use "Navigate back a location". To
get back to the new position again, just use "Navigate forward a
location". This makes it easier to navigate in e.g. foreign code
and between different files.
Sending text through custom commands
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
You can define several custom commands in Geany and send the current
selection to one of these commands using the *Edit->Format->Send
Selection to* menu or keybindings. The output of the command will be
used to replace the current selection. This makes it possible to use
text formatting tools with Geany in a general way.
The selected text will be sent to the standard input of the executed
command, so the command should be able to read from it and it should
print all results to its standard output which will be read by
Geany. To help finding errors in executing the command, the output
of the program's standard error will be printed on Geany's standard
output.
If there is no selection, the whole current line is used instead.
To add a custom command, use the *Send Selection to->Set Custom
Commands* menu item. Click on *Add* to get a new item and type the
command. You can also specify some command line options. Empty
commands are not saved.
Normal shell quoting is supported, so you can do things like:
* ``sed 's/\./(dot)/g'``
The above example would normally be done with the `Replace all`_
function, but it can be handy to have common commands already set up.
Context actions
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
You can execute the context action command on the current word at the
cursor position or the available selection. This word or selection
can be used as an argument to the command.
The context action is invoked by a menu entry in the popup menu of the
editor and also a keyboard shortcut (see the section called
`Keybindings`_).
The command can be specified in the preferences dialog and also for
each filetype (see "context_action_cmd" in the section called
`Filetype configuration`_). When the context action is invoked, the filetype
specific command is used if available, otherwise the command
specified in the preferences dialog is executed.
The current word or selection can be referred with the wildcard "%s"
in the command, it will be replaced by the current word or
selection before the command is executed.
For example a context action can be used to open API documentation
in a browser window, the command to open the PHP API documentation
would be::
firefox "http://www.php.net/%s"
when executing the command, the %s is substituted by the word near
the cursor position or by the current selection. If the cursor is at
the word "echo", a browser window will open(assumed your browser is
called firefox) and it will open the address: http://www.php.net/echo.
Autocompletion
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Geany can offer a list of possible completions for symbols defined in the
tags and for all words in a document.
The autocompletion list for symbols is presented when the first few
characters of the symbol are typed (configurable, see `Editor Completions
preferences`_, default 4) or when the *Complete word*
keybinding is pressed (configurable, see `Editor keybindings`_,
default Ctrl-Space).
When the defined keybinding is typed and the *Autocomplete all words in
document* preference (in `Editor Completions preferences`_)
is selected then the autocompletion list will show all matching words
in the document, if there are no matching symbols.
If you don't want to use autocompletion it can be dismissed until
the next symbol by pressing Escape. The autocompletion list is updated
as more characters are typed so that it only shows completions that start
with the characters typed so far. If no symbols begin with the sequence,
the autocompletion window is closed.
The up and down arrows will move the selected item. The highlighted
item on the autocompletion list can be chosen from the list by pressing
Enter/Return. You can also double-click to select an item. The sequence
will be completed to match the chosen item, and if the *Drop rest of
word on completion* preference is set (in `Editor Completions
preferences`_) then any characters after the cursor that match
a symbol or word are deleted.
Word part completion
````````````````````
By default, pressing Tab will complete the selected item by word part;
useful e.g. for adding the prefix ``gtk_combo_box_entry_`` without typing it
manually:
* gtk_com<TAB>
* gtk_combo_<TAB>
* gtk_combo_box_<e><TAB>
* gtk_combo_box_entry_<s><ENTER>
* gtk_combo_box_entry_set_text_column
The key combination can be changed from Tab - See `Editor keybindings`_.
If you clear/change the key combination for word part completion, Tab
will complete the whole word instead, like Enter.
Scope autocompletion
````````````````````
E.g.::
struct
{
int i;
char c;
} foo;
When you type ``foo.`` it will show an autocompletion list with 'i' and
'c' symbols.
It only works for languages that set parent scope names for e.g. struct
members. Currently this means C-like languages. The C tag parser only
parses global scopes, so this won't work for structs or objects declared
in local scope.
User-definable snippets
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Snippets are small strings or code constructs which can be replaced or
completed to a more complex string. So you can save a lot of time when
typing common strings and letting Geany do the work for you.
To know what to complete or replace Geany reads a configuration file
called ``snippets.conf`` at startup.
Maybe you need to often type your name, so define a snippet like this::
[Default]
myname=Enrico Tröger
Every time you write ``myname`` <TAB> in Geany, it will replace "myname"
with "Enrico Tröger". The key to start autocompletion can be changed
in the preferences dialog, by default it is TAB. The corresponding keybinding
is called `Complete snippet`.
**Paths**
You can override the default snippets using the user
``snippets.conf`` file. Use the *Tools->Configuration
Files->snippets.conf* menu item. See also `Configuration file paths`_.
This adds the default settings to the user file if the file doesn't
exist. Alternatively the file can be created manually, adding only
the settings you want to change. All missing settings will be read
from the system snippets file.
**Snippet groups**
The file ``snippets.conf`` contains sections defining snippets that
are available for particular filetypes and in general.
The two sections "Default" and "Special" apply to all filetypes.
"Default" contains all snippets which are available for every
filetype and "Special" contains snippets which can only be used in
other snippets. So you can define often used parts of snippets and
just use the special snippet as a placeholder (see the
``snippets.conf`` for details).
You can define sections with the name of a filetype eg "C++". The
snippets in that section are only available for use in files with that
filetype. Snippets in filetype sections will hide snippets with the
same name in the "Default" section when used in a file of that
filetype.
**Substitution sequences for snippets**
To define snippets you can use several special character sequences which
will be replaced when using the snippet:
================ =========================================================
\\n or %newline% Insert a new line (it will be replaced by the used EOL
char(s): LF, CR/LF, or CR).
\\t or %ws% Insert an indentation step, it will be replaced according
to the current document's indent mode.
\\s \\s to force whitespace at beginning or end of a value
('key= value' won't work, use 'key=\\svalue')
%cursor% Place the cursor at this position after completion has
been done. You can define multiple %cursor% wildcards
and use the keybinding `Move cursor in snippet` to jump
to the next defined cursor position in the completed
snippet.
%...% "..." means the name of a key in the "Special" section.
If you have defined a key "brace_open" in the "Special"
section you can use %brace_open% in any other snippet.
================ =========================================================
Snippet names must not contain spaces otherwise they won't
work correctly. But beside that you can define almost any
string as a snippet and use it later in Geany. It is not limited
to existing contructs of certain programming languages(like ``if``,
``for``, ``switch``). Define whatever you need.
**Template wildcards**
Since Geany 0.15 you can also use most of the available templates wildcards
listed in `Template wildcards`_. All wildcards which are listed as
`available in snippets` can be used. For instance to improve the above example::
[Default]
myname=My name is {developer}
mysystem=My system: {command:uname -a}
this will replace ``myname`` with "My name is " and the value of the template
preference ``developer``.
**Word characters**
You can change the way Geany recognizes the word to complete,
that is how the start and end of a word is recognised when the
snippet completion is requested. The section "Special" may
contain a key "wordchars" which lists all characters a string may contain
to be recognized as a word for completion. Leave it commented to use
default characters or define it to add or remove characters to fit your
needs.
Snippet keybindings
```````````````````
Normally you would type the snippet name and press Tab. However, you
can define keybindings for snippets under the *Keybindings* group in
``snippets.conf``::
[Keybindings]
for=<Ctrl>7
block_cursor=<Ctrl>8
.. note::
Snippet keybindings may be overridden by Geany's configurable
keybindings.
Inserting Unicode characters
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
You can insert Unicode code points by hitting Ctrl-Shift-u, then still holding
Ctrl-Shift, type some hex digits representing the code point for the character
you want and hit Enter or Return (still holding Ctrl-Shift). If you release
Ctrl-Shift before hitting Enter or Return (or any other character), the code
insertion is completed, but the typed character is also entered. In the case
of Enter/Return, it is a newline, as you might expect.
In some earlier versions of Geany, you might need to first unbind Ctrl-Shift-u
in the `keybinding preferences`_, then select *Tools->Reload Configuration*
or restart Geany. Note that it works slightly differently from other GTK
applications, in that you'll need to continue to hold down the Ctrl and Shift
keys while typing the code point hex digits (and the Enter or Return to finish the code point).
Search, replace and go to
-------------------------
This section describes search-related commands from the Search menu
and the editor window's popup menu:
* Find
* Find selection
* Find usage
* Find in files
* Replace
* Go to tag definition
* Go to tag declaration
* Go to line
See also `Search`_ preferences.
Toolbar entries
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
There are also two toolbar entries:
* Search bar
* Go to line entry
There are keybindings to focus each of these - see `Focus
keybindings`_. Pressing Escape will then focus the editor.
Search bar
``````````
The quickest way to find some text is to use the search bar entry in
the toolbar. This performs a case-insensitive search in the current
document whilst you type. Pressing Enter will search again, and pressing
Shift-Enter will search backwards.
Find
^^^^
The Find dialog is used for finding text in one or more open documents.
.. image:: ./images/find_dialog.png
Matching options
````````````````
The syntax for the *Use regular expressions* option is shown in
`Regular expressions`_.
.. note::
*Use escape sequences* is implied for regular expressions.
The *Use escape sequences* option will transform any escaped characters
into their UTF-8 equivalent. For example, \\t will be transformed into
a tab character. Other recognized symbols are: \\\\, \\n, \\r, \\uXXXX
(Unicode characters).
Find all
````````
To find all matches, click on the Find All expander. This will reveal
several options:
* In Document
* In Session
* Mark
Find All In Document will show a list of matching lines in the
current document in the Messages tab of the Message Window. *Find All
In Session* does the same for all open documents.
Mark will highlight all matches in the current document with a
colored box. These markers can be removed by selecting the
Remove Markers command from the Document menu.
Change font in search dialog text fields
````````````````````````````````````````
All search related dialogs use a Monospace for the text input fields to
increase the readability of input text. This is useful when you are
typing input such as regular expressions with spaces, periods and commas which
might it hard to read with a proportional font.
If you want to change the font, you can do this easily
by inserting the following style into your ``.gtkrc-2.0``
(usually found in your home directory on UNIX-like systems and in the
etc subdirectory of your Geany installation on Windows)::
style "search_style"
{
font_name="Monospace 8"
}
widget "GeanyDialogSearch.*.GtkEntry" style:highest "search_style"
Please note the addition of ":highest" in the last line which sets the priority
of this style to the highest available. Otherwise, the style is ignored
for the search dialogs.
Find selection
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
The *Find Next/Previous Selection* commands perform a search for the
current selected text. If nothing is selected, by default the current
word is used instead. This can be customized by the
*find_selection_type* preference - see `Various preferences`_.
===== =============================================
Value *find_selection_type* behaviour
===== =============================================
0 Use the current word (default).
1 Try the X selection first, then current word.
2 Repeat last search.
===== =============================================
Find usage
^^^^^^^^^^
Find usage searches all open files. It is similar to the Find All In
Session option in the Find dialog.
If there is a selection, then it is used as the search text; otherwise
the current word is used. The current word is either taken from the
word nearest the edit cursor, or the word underneath the popup menu
click position when the popup menu is used. The search results are
shown in the Messages tab of the Message Window.
Find in files
^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Find in files is a more powerful version of Find usage that searches
all files in a certain directory using the Grep tool. The Grep tool
must be correctly set in Preferences to the path of the system's Grep
utility. GNU Grep is recommended (see note below).
.. image:: ./images/find_in_files_dialog.png
The *Search* field is initially set to the current word in the editor
(depending on `Search`_ preferences).
The *Files* setting allows to choose which files are included in the
search, depending on the mode:
All
Search in all files;
Project
Use the current project's patterns, see `Project properties`_;
Custom
Use custom patterns.
Both project and custom patterns use a glob-style syntax, each
pattern separated by a space. To search all ``.c`` and ``.h`` files,
use: ``*.c *.h``.
Note that an empty pattern list searches in all files rather
than none.
The *Directory* field is initially set to the current document's directory,
unless this field has already been edited and the current document has
not changed. Otherwise, the current document's directory is prepended to
the drop-down history. This can be disabled - see `Search`_ preferences.
The *Encoding* field can be used to define the encoding of the files
to be searched. The entered search text is converted to the chosen encoding
and the search results are converted back to UTF-8.
The *Extra options* field is used to pass any additional arguments to
the grep tool.
.. note::
The *Files* setting uses ``--include=`` when searching recursively,
*Recurse in subfolders* uses ``-r``; both are GNU Grep options and may
not work with other Grep implementations.
Filtering out version control files
```````````````````````````````````
When using the *Recurse in subfolders* option with a directory that's
under version control, you can set the *Extra options* field to filter
out version control files.
If you have GNU Grep >= 2.5.2 you can use the ``--exclude-dir``
argument to filter out CVS and hidden directories like ``.svn``.
Example: ``--exclude-dir=.svn --exclude-dir=CVS``
If you have an older Grep, you can try using the ``--exclude`` flag
to filter out filenames.
SVN Example: ``--exclude=*.svn-base``
The --exclude argument only matches the file name part, not the path.
Replace
^^^^^^^
The Replace dialog is used for replacing text in one or more open
documents.
.. image:: ./images/replace_dialog.png
The Replace dialog has the same options for matching text as the Find
dialog. See the section `Matching options`_.
The *Use regular expressions* option allows regular expressions to
be used in the search string and back references in the replacement
text -- see the entry for '\\n' in `Regular expressions`_.
Replace all
```````````
To replace several matches, click on the *Replace All* expander. This
will reveal several options:
* In Document
* In Session
* In Selection
*Replace All In Document* will replace all matching text in the
current document. *Replace All In Session* does the same for all open
documents. *Replace All In Selection* will replace all matching text
in the current selection of the current document.
Go to tag definition
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
If the current word or selection is the name of a tag definition
(e.g. a function name) and the file containing the tag definition is
open, this command will switch to that file and go to the
corresponding line number. The current word is either the word
nearest the edit cursor, or the word underneath the popup menu click
position when the popup menu is used.
.. note::
If the corresponding tag is on the current line, Geany will first
look for a tag declaration instead, as this is more useful.
Likewise *Go to tag declaration* will search for a tag definition
first in this case also.
Go to tag declaration
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Like *Go to tag definition*, but for a forward declaration such as a
C function prototype or ``extern`` declaration instead of a function
body.
Go to line
^^^^^^^^^^
Go to a particular line number in the current file.
Regular expressions
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
You can use regular expressions in the Find and Replace dialogs
by selecting the *Use regular expressions* check box (see `Matching
options`_). The syntax is Perl compatible. Basic syntax is described
in the table below. For full details, see
http://www.geany.org/manual/gtk/glib/glib-regex-syntax.html.
.. note::
1. The *Use escape sequences* dialog option always applies for regular
expressions.
2. Searching backwards with regular expressions is not supported.
**In a regular expression, the following characters are interpreted:**
======= ============================================================
. Matches any character.
( This marks the start of a region for tagging a match.
) This marks the end of a tagged region.
\\n Where n is 1 through 9 refers to the first through ninth tagged
region when searching or replacing.
Searching for (Wiki)\\1 matches WikiWiki.
If the search string was Fred([1-9])XXX and the
replace string was Sam\\1YYY, when applied to Fred2XXX this
would generate Sam2YYY.
\\0 When replacing, the whole matching text.
\\b This matches a word boundary.
\\c A backslash followed by d, D, s, S, w or W, becomes a
character class (both inside and outside sets []).
* d: decimal digits
* D: any char except decimal digits
* s: whitespace (space, \\t \\n \\r \\f \\v)
* S: any char except whitespace (see above)
* w: alphanumeric & underscore
* W: any char except alphanumeric & underscore
\\x This allows you to use a character x that would otherwise have
a special meaning. For example, \\[ would be interpreted as [
and not as the start of a character set. Use \\\\ for a literal
backslash.
[...] Matches one of the characters in the set. If the first
character in the set is ^, it matches the characters NOT in
the set, i.e. complements the set. A shorthand S-E (start
dash end) is used to specify a set of characters S up to E,
inclusive.
The special characters ] and - have no special
meaning if they appear first in the set. - can also be last
in the set. To include both, put ] first: []A-Z-].
Examples::
[]|-] matches these 3 chars
[]-|] matches from ] to | chars
[a-z] any lowercase alpha
[^]-] any char except - and ]
[^A-Z] any char except uppercase alpha
[a-zA-Z] any alpha
^ This matches the start of a line (unless used inside a set, see
above).
$ This matches the end of a line.
\* This matches 0 or more times. For example, Sa*m matches Sm, Sam,
Saam, Saaam and so on.
\+ This matches 1 or more times. For example, Sa+m matches Sam,
Saam, Saaam and so on.
\? This matches 0 or 1 time(s). For example, Joh?n matches John, Jon.
======= ============================================================
.. note::
This table is adapted from Scintilla and SciTE documentation,
distributed under the `License for Scintilla and SciTE`_.
View menu
---------
The View menu allows various elements of the main window to be shown
or hidden, and also provides various display-related editor options.
Color schemes menu
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
The Color schemes menu is available under the *View->Editor* submenu.
It lists various color schemes for editor highlighting styles,
including the default scheme first. Other items are available based
on what color scheme files Geany found at startup.
Color scheme files are read from the `Configuration file paths`_ under
the ``colorschemes`` subdirectory. They should have the extension
``.conf``. The default color scheme
is read from ``filetypes.common``.
The `[named_styles] section`_ and `[named_colors] section`_ are the
same as for ``filetypes.common``.
The ``[theme_info]`` section can contain information about the
theme. The ``name`` and ``description`` keys are read to set the
menu item text and tooltip, respectively. These keys can have
translations, e.g.::
key=Hello
key[de]=Hallo
key[fr_FR]=Bonjour
Tags
----
Tags are information that relates symbols in a program with the
source file location of the declaration and definition.
Geany has built-in functionality for generating tag information (aka
"workspace tags") for supported filetypes when you open a file. You
can also have Geany automatically load external tag files (aka "global
tags files") upon startup, or manually using *Tools --> Load Tags*.
Geany uses its own tag file format, similar to what ``ctags`` uses
(but is incompatible with ctags). You use Geany to generate global
tags files, as described below.
Workspace tags
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Tags for each document are parsed whenever a file is loaded, saved or
modified (see *Symbol list update frequency* preference in the `Editor
Completions preferences`_). These are shown in the Symbol list in the
Sidebar. These tags are also used for autocompletion of symbols and calltips
for all documents open in the current session that have the same filetype.
The *Go to Tag* commands can be used with all workspace tags. See
`Go to tag definition`_.
Global tags
^^^^^^^^^^^
Global tags are used to provide autocompletion of symbols and calltips
without having to open the corresponding source files. This is intended
for library APIs, as the tags file only has to be updated when you upgrade
the library.
You can load a custom global tags file in two ways:
* Using the *Load Tags* command in the Tools menu.
* By moving or symlinking tags files to the ``tags`` subdirectory of
one of the `configuration file paths`_ before starting Geany.
You can either download these files or generate your own. They have
the format::
name.lang_ext.tags
*lang_ext* is one of the extensions set for the filetype associated
with the tags. See the section called `Filetype extensions`_ for
more information.
Default global tags files
`````````````````````````
For some languages, a list of global tags is loaded when the
corresponding filetype is first used. Currently these are for:
* C
* Pascal
* PHP
* HTML -- &symbol; completion, e.g. for ampersand, copyright, etc.
* LaTeX
* Python
Global tags file format
```````````````````````
Global tags files can have two different formats:
* Tagmanager format
* Pipe-separated format
The first line of global tags files should be a comment, introduced
by ``#`` followed by a space and a string like ``format=pipe``
or ``format=tagmanager`` respectively, these are case-sensitive.
This helps Geany to read the file properly. If this line
is missing, Geany tries to auto-detect the used format but this
might fail.
The Tagmanager format is a bit more complex and is used for files
created by the ``geany -g`` command. There is one tag per line.
Different tag attributes like the return value or the argument list
are separated with different characters indicating the type of the
following argument.
Pipe-separated format
*********************
The Pipe-separated format is easier to read and write.
There is one tag per line and different tag attributes are separated
by the pipe character (``|``). A line looks like::
basename|string|(string path [, string suffix])|
| The first field is the tag name (usually a function name).
| The second field is the type of the return value.
| The third field is the argument list for this tag.
| The fourth field is the description for this tag but
currently unused and should be left empty.
Except for the first field (tag name), all other field can be left
empty but the pipe separator must appear for them.
You can easily write your own global tag files using this format.
Just save them in your tags directory, as described earlier in the
section `Global tags`_.
Generating a global tags file
`````````````````````````````
You can generate your own global tags files by parsing a list of
source files. The command is::
geany -g [-P] <Tag File> <File list>
* Tag File filename should be in the format described earlier --
see the section called `Global tags`_.
* File list is a list of filenames, each with a full path (unless
you are generating C/C++ tags and have set the CFLAGS environment
variable appropriately).
* ``-P`` or ``--no-preprocessing`` disables using the C pre-processor
to process ``#include`` directives for C/C++ source files. Use this
option if you want to specify each source file on the command-line
instead of using a 'master' header file. Also can be useful if you
don't want to specify the CFLAGS environment variable.
Example for the wxD library for the D programming language::
geany -g wxd.d.tags /home/username/wxd/wx/*.d
Generating C/C++ tag files
**************************
You may need to first setup the `C ignore.tags`_ file.
For C/C++ tag files gcc is required by default, so that header files
can be preprocessed to include any other headers they depend upon. If
you do not want this, use the ``-P`` option described above.
For preprocessing, the environment variable CFLAGS should be set with
appropriate ``-I/path`` include paths. The following example works with
the bash shell, generating tags for the GnomeUI library::
CFLAGS=`pkg-config --cflags libgnomeui-2.0` geany -g gnomeui.c.tags \
/usr/include/libgnomeui-2.0/gnome.h
You can adapt this command to use CFLAGS and header files appropriate
for whichever libraries you want.
Generating tag files on Windows
*******************************
This works basically the same as on other platforms::
"c:\program files\geany\bin\geany" -g c:\mytags.php.tags c:\code\somefile.php
C ignore.tags
^^^^^^^^^^^^^
You can ignore certain tags for C-based languages if they would lead
to wrong parsing of the code. Use the *Tools->Configuration
Files->ignore.tags* menu item to open the user ``ignore.tags`` file.
See also `Configuration file paths`_.
List all tag names you want to ignore in this file, separated by spaces
and/or newlines.
Example::
G_GNUC_NULL_TERMINATED
G_GNUC_PRINTF
G_GNUC_WARN_UNUSED_RESULT
This will parse code like:
``gchar **utils_strv_new(const gchar *first, ...)
G_GNUC_NULL_TERMINATED;``
More detailed information about ignore tags usage from the Exuberant Ctags
manual page:
Specifies a list of identifiers which are to be specially handled
while parsing C and C++ source files. This option is specifically
provided to handle special cases arising through the use of
pre-processor macros. When the identifiers listed are simple identifiers,
these identifiers will be ignored during parsing of the source files.
If an identifier is suffixed with a '+' character, ctags will also
ignore any parenthesis-enclosed argument list which may immediately
follow the identifier in the source files.
If two identifiers are separated with the '=' character, the first
identifiers is replaced by the second identifiers for parsing purposes.
For even more detailed information please read the manual page of
Exuberant Ctags.
Geany extends Ctags with a '*' character suffix - this means use
prefix matching, e.g. G_GNUC_* will match G_GNUC_NULL_TERMINATED, etc.
Note that prefix match items should be put after other items to ensure
that items like G_GNUC_PRINTF+ get parsed correctly.
Preferences
-----------
You may adjust Geany's settings using the Edit --> Preferences
dialog. Any changes you make there can be applied by hitting either
the Apply or the OK button. These settings will persist between Geany
sessions. Note that most settings here have descriptive popup bubble
help -- just hover the mouse over the item in question to get help
on it.
You may also adjust some View settings (under the View menu) that
persist between Geany sessions. The settings under the Document menu,
however, are only for the current document and revert to defaults
when restarting Geany.
.. note::
In the paragraphs that follow, the text describing a dialog tab
comes after the screenshot of that tab.
General Startup preferences
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. image:: ./images/pref_dialog_gen_startup.png
Startup
```````
Load files from the last session
On startup, load the same files you had open the last time you
used Geany.
Load virtual terminal support
Load the library for running a terminal in the message window area.
Enable plugin support
Allow plugins to be used in Geany.
Shutdown
````````
Save window position and geometry
Save the current position and size of the main window so next time
you open Geany it's in the same location.
Confirm Exit
Have a dialog pop up to confirm that you really want to quit Geany.
Paths
`````
Startup path
Path to start in when opening or saving files.
It must be an absolute path.
Project files
Path to start in when opening project files.
Extra plugin path
By default Geany looks in the system installation and the user
configuration - see `Plugins`_. In addition the path entered here will be
searched.
Usually you do not need to set an additional path to search for
plugins. It might be useful when Geany is installed on a multi-user machine
and additional plugins are available in a common location for all users.
Leave blank to not set an additional lookup path.
General Miscellaneous preferences
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. image:: ./images/pref_dialog_gen_misc.png
Miscellaneous
`````````````
Beep on errors when compilation has finished
Have the computer make a beeping sound when compilation of your program
has completed or any errors occurred.
Switch status message list at new message
Switch to the status message tab (in the notebook window at the bottom)
once a new status message arrives.
Suppress status messages in the status bar
Remove all messages from the status bar. The messages are still displayed
in the status messages window.
.. tip::
Another option is to use the *Switch to Editor* keybinding - it
reshows the document statistics on the status bar. See `Focus
keybindings`_.
Use Windows File Open/Save dialogs
Defines whether to use the native Windows File Open/Save dialogs or
whether to use the GTK default dialogs.
Auto-focus widgets (focus follows mouse)
Give the focus automatically to widgets below the mouse cursor.
This works for the main editor widget, the scribble, the toolbar search field
goto line fields and the VTE.
Search
``````
Always wrap search
Always wrap search around the document when finding a match.
Hide the Find dialog
Hide the `Find`_ dialog after clicking Find Next/Previous.
Use the current word under the cursor for Find dialogs
Use current word under the cursor when opening the Find, Find in Files or Replace dialog and
there is no selection. When this option is disabled, the search term last used in the
appropriate Find dialog is used.
Use the current file's directory for Find in Files
When opening the Find in Files dialog, set the directory to search to the directory of the current
active file. When this option is disabled, the directory of the last use of the Find in Files
dialog is used. See `Find in Files`_ for details.
Projects
````````
Use project-based session files
Save your current session when closing projects. You will be able to
resume different project sessions, automatically opening the files
you had open previously.
Store project file inside the project base directory
When creating new projects, the default path for the project file contains
the project base path. Without this option enabled, the default project file
path is one level above the project base path.
In either case, you can easily set the final project file path in the
*New Project* dialog. This option provides the more common
defaults automatically for convenience.
Interface preferences
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. image:: ./images/pref_dialog_interface_interface.png
Sidebar
```````
Show sidebar
Whether to show the sidebar at all.
Show symbol list
Show the list of functions, variables, and other information in the
current document you are editing.
Show documents list
Show all the documents you have open currently. This can be used to
change between documents (see `Switching between documents`_) and
to perform some common operations such as saving, closing and reloading.
Position
Whether to place the sidebar on the left or right of the editor window.
Fonts
`````
Editor
Change the font used to display documents.
Symbol list
Change the font used for the Symbols sidebar tab.
Message window
Change the font used for the message window area.
Miscellaneous
`````````````
Show status bar
Show the status bar at the bottom of the main window. It gives information about
the file you are editing like the line and column you are on, whether any
modifications were done, the file encoding, the filetype and other information.
Interface Notebook tab preferences
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. image:: ./images/pref_dialog_interface_notebook.png
Editor tabs
```````````
Show editor tabs
Show a notebook tab for all documents so you can switch between them
using the mouse (instead of using the Documents window).
Show close buttons
Make each tab show a close button so you can easily close open
documents.
Placement of new file tabs
Whether to create a document with its notebook tab to the left or
right of all existing tabs.
Next to current
Whether to place file tabs next to the current tab
rather than at the edges of the notebook.
Double-clicking hides all additional widgets
Whether to call the View->Toggle All Additional Widgets command
when double-clicking on a notebook tab.
Tab positions
`````````````
Editor
Set the positioning of the editor's notebook tabs to the right,
left, top, or bottom of the editing window.
Sidebar
Set the positioning of the sidebar's notebook tabs to the right,
left, top, or bottom of the sidebar window.
Message window
Set the positioning of the message window's notebook tabs to the
right, left, top, or bottom of the message window.
Interface Toolbar preferences
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Affects the main toolbar underneath the menu bar.
.. image:: ./images/pref_dialog_interface_toolbar.png
Toolbar
```````
Show Toolbar
Whether to show the toolbar.
Append Toolbar to the Menu
Allows to append the toolbar to the main menu bar instead of placing it below.
This is useful to save vertical space.
Customize Toolbar
See `Customizing the toolbar`_.
Appearance
``````````
Icon Style
Select the toolbar icon style to use - either icons and text, just
icons or just text.
The choice System default uses whatever icon style is set by GTK.
Icon size
Select the size of the icons you see (large, small or very small).
The choice System default uses whatever icon size is set by GTK.
Editor Features preferences
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. image:: ./images/pref_dialog_edit_features.png
Features
````````
Line wrapping
Show long lines wrapped around to new display lines.
.. _smart_home_key:
"Smart" home key
Whether to move the cursor to the first non-whitespace character
on the line when you hit the home key on your keyboard. Pressing it
again will go to the very start of the line.
Disable Drag and Drop
Do not allow the dragging and dropping of selected text in documents.
Code folding
Allow groups of lines in a document to be collapsed for easier
navigation/editing.
Fold/Unfold all children of a fold point
Whether to fold/unfold all child fold points when a parent line
is folded.
Use indicators to show compile errors
Underline lines with compile errors using red squiggles to indicate
them in the editor area.
Newline strip trailing spaces
Remove any white space at the end of the line when you hit the
Enter/Return key.
Line breaking column
The editor column number to insert a newline at when Line Breaking
is enabled for the current document.
Comment toggle marker
A string which is added when toggling a line comment in a source file.
It is used to mark the comment as toggled.
Editor Indentation preferences
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. image:: ./images/pref_dialog_edit_indentation.png
Indentation group
`````````````````
See `Indentation`_ for more information.
Width
The width of a single indent size in spaces. By default the indent
size is equivalent to 4 spaces.
Detect width from file
Try to detect and set the indent width based on file content, when
a file is opened.
Type
When Geany inserts indentation, whether to use:
* Just Tabs
* Just Spaces
* Tabs and Spaces, depending on how much indentation is on a line
The *Tabs and Spaces* indent type is also known as *Soft tab
support* in some other editors.
Detect type from file
Try to detect and set the indent type based on file content, when
a file is opened.
Auto-indent mode
The type of auto-indentation you wish to use after pressing Enter,
if any.
Basic
Just add the indentation of the previous line.
Current chars
Add indentation based on the current filetype and any characters at
the end of the line such as ``{``, ``}`` for C, ``:`` for Python.
Match braces
Like *Current chars* but for C-like languages, make a closing
``}`` brace line up with the matching opening brace.
Tab key indents
If set, pressing tab will indent the current line or selection, and
unindent when pressing Shift-tab. Otherwise, the tab key will
insert a tab character into the document (which can be different
from indentation, depending on the indent type).
.. note::
There are also separate configurable keybindings for indent &
unindent, but this preference allows the tab key to have different
meanings in different contexts - e.g. for snippet completion.
Editor Completions preferences
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. image:: ./images/pref_dialog_edit_completions.png
Completions
```````````
Snippet Completion
Whether to replace special keywords after typing Tab into a
pre-defined text snippet.
See `User-definable snippets`_.
XML/HTML tag auto-closing
When you open an XML/HTML tag automatically generate its
completion tag.
Automatic continuation multi-line comments
Continue automatically multi-line comments in languages like C, C++
and Java when a new line is entered inside such a comment.
With this option enabled, Geany will insert a ``*`` on every new line
inside a multi-line comment, for example when you press return in the
following C code::
/*
* This is a C multi-line comment, press <Return>
then Geany would insert::
*
on the next line with the correct indentation based on the previous line,
as long as the multi-line is not closed by ``*/``.
Autocomplete symbols
When you start to type a symbol name, look for the full string to
allow it to be completed for you.
Autocomplete all words in document
When you start to type a word, Geany will search the whole document for
words starting with the typed part to complete it, assuming there
are no tag names to show.
Drop rest of word on completion
Remove any word part to the right of the cursor when choosing a
completion list item.
Characters to type for autocompletion
Number of characters of a word to type before autocompletion is
displayed.
Completion list height
The number of rows to display for the autocompletion window.
Max. symbol name suggestions
The maximum number of items in the autocompletion list.
Symbol list update frequency
The minimum delay (in milliseconds) between two symbol list updates.
This option determines how frequently the tag list is updated for the
current document. The smaller the delay, the more up-to-date the symbol
list (and then the completions); but rebuilding the symbol list has a
cost in performance, especially with large files.
The default value is 250ms, which means the symbol list will be updated
at most four times per second, even if the document changes continuously.
A value of 0 disables automatic updates, so the symbol list will only be
updated upon document saving.
Auto-close quotes and brackets
``````````````````````````````
Geany can automatically insert a closing bracket and quote characters when
you open them. For instance, you type a ``(`` and Geany will automatically
insert ``)``. With the following options, you can define for which
characters this should work.
Parenthesis ( )
Auto-close parenthesis when typing an opening one
Curly brackets { }
Auto-close curly brackets (braces) when typing an opening one
Square brackets [ ]
Auto-close square brackets when typing an opening one
Single quotes ' '
Auto-close single quotes when typing an opening one
Double quotes " "
Auto-close double quotes when typing an opening one
Editor Display preferences
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
This is for visual elements displayed in the editor window.
.. image:: ./images/pref_dialog_edit_display.png
Display
```````
Invert syntax highlighting colors
Invert all colors, by default this makes white text on a black
background.
Show indendation guides
Show vertical lines to help show how much leading indentation there
is on each line.
Show whitespaces
Mark all tabs with an arrow "-->" symbol and spaces with dots to
show which kinds of whitespace are used.
Show line endings
Display a symbol everywhere that a carriage return or line feed
is present.
Show line numbers
Show or hide the Line Number margin.
Show markers margin
Show or hide the small margin right of the line numbers, which is used
to mark lines.
Stop scrolling at last line
When enabled Geany stops scrolling when at the last line of the document.
Otherwise you can scroll one more page even if there are no real lines.
Long line marker
````````````````
The long line marker helps to indicate overly-long lines, or as a hint
to the user for when to break the line.
Type
Line
Show a thin vertical line in the editor window at the given column
position.
Background
Change the background color of characters after the given column
position to the color set below. (This is recommended over the
*Line* setting if you use proportional fonts).
Disabled
Don't mark long lines at all.
Long line marker
Set this value to a value greater than zero to specify the column
where it should appear.
Long line marker color
Set the color of the long line marker.
Virtual spaces
``````````````
Virtual space is space beyond the end of each line.
The cursor may be moved into virtual space but no real space will be
added to the document until there is some text typed or some other
text insertion command is used.
Disabled
Do not show virtual spaces
Only for rectangular selections
Only show virtual spaces beyond the end of lines when drawing a rectangular selection
Always
Always show virtual spaces beyond the end of lines
Files preferences
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. image:: ./images/pref_dialog_files.png
New files
`````````
Open new documents from the command-line
Whether to create new documents when passing filenames that don't
exist from the command-line.
Default encoding (new files)
The type of file encoding you wish to use when creating files.
Used fixed encoding when opening files
Assume all files you are opening are using the type of encoding specified below.
Default encoding (existing files)
Opens all files with the specified encoding instead of auto-detecting it.
Use this option when it's not possible for Geany to detect the exact encoding.
Default end of line characters
The end of line characters to which should be used for new files.
On Windows systems, you generally want to use CR/LF which are the common
characters to mark line breaks.
On Unix-like systems, LF is default and CR is used on MAC systems.
Saving files
````````````
Perform formatting operations when a document is saved. These
can each be undone with the Undo command.
Ensure newline at file end
Add a newline at the end of the document if one is missing.
Ensure consistent line endings
Ensures that newline characters always get converted before
saving, avoiding mixed line endings in the same file.
Strip trailing spaces
Remove the trailing spaces on each line of the document.
Replace tabs by space
Replace all tabs in the document with the equivalent number of spaces.
.. note::
It is better to use spaces to indent than use this preference - see
`Indentation`_.
Miscellaneous
`````````````
Recent files list length
The number of files to remember in the recently used files list.
Disk check timeout
The number of seconds to periodically check the current document's
file on disk in case it has changed. Setting it to 0 will disable
this feature.
.. note::
These checks are only performed on local files. Remote files are
not checked for changes due to performance issues
(remote files are files in ``~/.gvfs/``).
Tools preferences
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. image:: ./images/pref_dialog_tools.png
Tool paths
``````````
Terminal
The location of your terminal executable.
Browser
The location of your web browser executable.
Grep
The location of the grep executable.
.. note::
For Windows users: at the time of writing it is recommended to use
the grep.exe from the UnxUtils project
(http://sourceforge.net/projects/unxutils). The grep.exe from the
Mingw project for instance might not work with Geany at the moment.
Commands
````````
Context action
Set this to a command to execute on the current word.
You can use the "%s" wildcard to pass the current word below the cursor
to the specified command.
Template preferences
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
This data is used as meta data for various template text to insert into
a document, such as the file header. You only need to set fields that
you want to use in your template files.
.. image:: ./images/pref_dialog_templ.png
Template data
`````````````
Developer
The name of the developer who will be creating files.
Initials
The initials of the developer.
Mail address
The email address of the developer.
.. note::
You may wish to add anti-spam markup, e.g. ``name<at>site<dot>ext``.
Company
The company the developer is working for.
Initial version
The initial version of files you will be creating.
Year
Specify a format for the the {year} wildcard. You can use any conversion specifiers
which can be used with the ANSI C strftime function. For details please see
http://man.cx/strftime.
Date
Specify a format for the the {date} wildcard. You can use any conversion specifiers
which can be used with the ANSI C strftime function. For details please see
http://man.cx/strftime.
Date & Time
Specify a format for the the {datetime} wildcard. You can use any conversion specifiers
which can be used with the ANSI C strftime function. For details please see
http://man.cx/strftime.
Keybinding preferences
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. image:: ./images/pref_dialog_keys.png
There are some commands listed in the keybinding dialog that are not, by default,
bound to a key combination, and may not be available as a menu item.
.. note::
For more information see the section `Keybindings`_.
Printing preferences
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. image:: ./images/pref_dialog_printing.png
Use external command for printing
Use a system command to print your file out.
Use native GTK printing
Let the GTK GUI toolkit handle your print request.
Print line numbers
Print the line numbers on the left of your paper.
Print page number
Print the page number on the bottom right of your paper.
Print page header
Print a header on every page that is sent to the printer.
Use base name of the printed file
Don't use the entire path for the header, only the filename.
Date format
How the date should be printed. You can use the same format
specifiers as in the ANSI C function strftime(). For details please
see http://man.cx/strftime.
Various preferences
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
.. image:: ./images/pref_dialog_various.png
Rarely used preferences, explained in the table below. A few of them require
restart to take effect, and a few other will only affect newly opened or created
documents before restart.
================================ ========================================= ========== ===========
Key Description Default Applies
================================ ========================================= ========== ===========
**Editor related**
use_gtk_word_boundaries Whether to look for the end of a word true to new
when using word-boundary related documents
Scintilla commands (see `Scintilla
keyboard commands`_).
brace_match_ltgt Whether to highlight <, > angle brackets. false immediately
complete_snippets_whilst_editing Whether to allow completion of snippets false immediately
when editing an existing line (i.e. there
is some text after the current cursor
position on the line). Only used when the
keybinding `Complete snippet` is set to
``Space``.
show_editor_scrollbars Whether to display scrollbars. If set to true immediately
false, the horizontal and vertical
scrollbars are hidden completely.
indent_hard_tab_width The size of a tab character. Don't change 8 immediately
it unless you really need to; use the
indentation settings instead.
**Interface related**
show_symbol_list_expanders Whether to show or hide the small true to new
expander icons on the symbol list documents
allow_always_save treeview. Whether files can be saved false immediately
always, even if they don't have any
changes. By default, the Save button and
menu item are disabled when a file is
unchanged. When setting this option to
true, the Save button and menu item are
always active and files can be saved.
compiler_tab_autoscroll Whether to automatically scroll to the true immediately
last line of the output in the Compiler
tab.
statusbar_template The status bar statistics line format. See below. immediately
(Search in src/ui_utils.c for details).
new_document_after_close Whether to open a new document after all false immediately
documents have been closed.
msgwin_status_visible Whether to show the Status tab in the true immediately
Messages Window
msgwin_compiler_visible Whether to show the Compiler tab in the true immediately
Messages Window
msgwin_messages_visible Whether to show the Messages tab in the true immediately
Messages Window
msgwin_scribble_visible Whether to show the Scribble tab in the true immediately
Messages Window
================================ ========================================= ========== ===========
By default, statusbar_template is empty. This tells Geany to use its
internal default, which is currently:
``line: %l / %L\t col: %c\t sel: %s\t %w %t %mmode: %M encoding: %e filetype: %f scope: %S``
Note that ``\t`` = tab.
================================ =========================================== ========== ===========
Key Description Default Applies
================================ =========================================== ========== ===========
**VTE related**
emulation Terminal emulation mode. Only change this xterm immediately
if you have VTE termcap files other than
``vte/termcap/xterm``.
send_selection_unsafe By default, Geany strips any trailing false immediately
newline characters from the current
selection before sending it to the terminal
to not execute arbitrary code. This is
mainly a security feature.
If, for whatever reasons, you really want
it to be executed directly, set this option
to true.
send_cmd_prefix String with which prefix the commands sent Empty immediately
to the shell. This may be used to tell
some shells (BASH with ``HISTCONTROL`` set
to ``ignorespace``, ZSH with
``HIST_IGNORE_SPACE`` enabled, etc.) from
putting these commands in their history by
setting this to a space. Note that leading
spaces must be escaped using `\s` in the
configuration file.
**File related**
use_atomic_file_saving Defines the mode how Geany saves files to false immediately
disk. If disabled, Geany directly writes
the content of the document to disk. This
might cause loss of data when there is
no more free space on disk to save the
file. When set to true, Geany first saves
the contents into a temporary file and if
this succeeded, the temporary file is
moved to the real file to save.
This gives better error checking in case of
no more free disk space. But it also
destroys hard links of the original file
and its permissions (e.g. executable flags
are reset). Use this with care as it can
break things seriously.
The better approach would be to ensure your
disk won't run out of free space.
use_gio_unsafe_file_saving Whether to use GIO as the unsafe file true immediately
saving backend. It is better on most
situations but is known not to work
correctly on some complex setups.
gio_unsafe_save_backup Make a backup when using GIO unsafe file false immediately
saving. Backup is named `filename~`.
**Filetype related**
extract_filetype_regex Regex to extract filetype name from file See below. immediately
via capture group one.
**Search related**
find_selection_type See `Find selection`_. 0 immediately
**Build Menu related**
number_ft_menu_items The maximum number of menu items in the 2 on restart
filetype section of the Build menu.
number_non_ft_menu_items The maximum number of menu items in the 3 on restart
independent section of the Build menu.
number_exec_menu_items The maximum number of menu items in the 2 on restart
execute section of the Build menu.
================================ =========================================== ========== ===========
The extract_filetype_regex has the default value GEANY_DEFAULT_FILETYPE_REGEX.
Terminal (VTE) preferences
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
See also: `Virtual terminal emulator widget (VTE)`_.
.. image:: ./images/pref_dialog_vte.png
Terminal widget
```````````````
Terminal font
Select the font that will be used in the terminal emulation control.
Foreground color
Select the font color.
Background color
Select the background color of the terminal.
Scrollback lines
The number of lines buffered so that you can scroll though the history.
Shell
The location of the shell on your system.
Scroll on keystroke
Scroll the terminal to the prompt line when pressing a key.
Scroll on output
Scroll the output down.
Cursor blinks
Let the terminal cursor blink.
Override Geany keybindings
Allow the VTE to receive keyboard shortcuts (apart from focus commands).
Disable menu shortcut key (F10 by default)
Disable the menu shortcut when you are in the virtual terminal.
Follow path of the current file
Make the path of the terminal change according to the path of the
current file.
Execute programs in VTE
Execute programs in the virtual terminal instead of using the external
terminal tool. Note that if you run multiple execute commands at once
the output may become mixed together in the VTE.
Don't use run script
Don't use the simple run script which is usually used to display
the exit status of the executed program.
This can be useful if you already have a program running in the VTE
like a Python console (e.g. ipython). Use this with care.
Project management
------------------
Project management is optional in Geany. Currently it can be used for:
* Storing and opening session files on a project basis.
* Overriding default settings with project equivalents.
* Configuring the Build menu on a project basis.
A list of session files can be stored and opened with the project
when the *Use project-based session files* preference is enabled,
in the *Project* group of the `Preferences`_ dialog.
As long as a project is open, the Build menu will use
the items defined in project's settings, instead of the defaults.
See `Build Menu Configuration`_ for information on configuring the menu.
The current project's settings are saved when it is closed, or when
Geany is shutdown. When restarting Geany, the previously opened project
file that was in use at the end of the last session will be reopened.
The project menu items are detailed below.
New project
^^^^^^^^^^^
To create a new project, fill in the *Name* field. By default this
will setup a new project file ``~/projects/name.geany``. Usually it's
best to store all your project files in the same directory (they are
independent of any source directory trees).
The Base path text field is setup to use ``~/projects/name``. This
can safely be set to any existing path -- it will not touch the file
structure contained in it.
Project properties
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
You can set an optional description for the project. Currently it's
only used for a template wildcard - see `Template wildcards`_.
The *Base path* field is used as the directory to run the Build menu commands.
The specified path can be an absolute path or it is considered to be
relative to the project's file name.
The *File patterns* field allows to specify a list of file patterns for the
project, which can be used in the `Find in files`_ dialog.
The *Indentation* tab allows you to override the default
`Indentation`_ settings.
Open project
^^^^^^^^^^^^
The Open command displays a standard file chooser, starting in
``~/projects``. Choose a project file named with the ``.geany``
extension.
When project session support is enabled, Geany will close the currently
open files and open the session files associated with the project.
Close project
^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Project file settings are saved when the project is closed.
When project session support is enabled, Geany will close the project
session files and open any previously closed default session files.
Build menu
----------
After editing code with Geany, the next step is to compile, link, build,
interpret, run etc. As Geany supports many languages each with a different
approach to such operations, and as there are also many language independent
software building systems, Geany does not have a built-in build system, nor
does it limit which system you can use. Instead the build menu provides
a configurable and flexible means of running any external commands to
execute your preferred build system.
This section provides a description of the default configuration of the
build menu and then covers how to configure it, and where the defaults fit in.
Running the commands from within Geany has two benefits:
* The current file is automatically saved before the command is run.
* The output is captured in the Compiler notebook tab and parsed for
warnings or errors.
Warnings and errors that can be parsed for line numbers will be shown in
red in the Compiler tab and you can click on them to switch to the relevant
source file (or open it) and mark the line number. Also lines with
warnings or errors are marked in the source, see `Indicators`_ below.
.. tip::
If Geany's default error message parsing does not parse errors for
the tool you're using, you can set a custom regex in the Build Commands
Dialog, see `Build Menu Configuration`_.
Indicators
^^^^^^^^^^
Indicators are red squiggly underlines which are used to highlight
errors which occurred while compiling the current file. So you can
easily see where your code failed to compile. You can remove them by
selecting *Remove Error Indicators* in the Document menu.
If you do not like this feature, you can disable it - see `Editor Features
preferences`_.
Default build menu items
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Depending on the current file's filetype, the default Build menu will contain
the following items:
* Compile
* Build
* Make All
* Make Custom Target
* Make Object
* Next Error
* Previous Error
* Execute
* Set Build Menu Commands
Compile
```````
The Compile command has different uses for different kinds of files.
For compilable languages such as C and C++, the Compile command is
set up to compile the current source file into a binary object file.
Java source files will be compiled to class file bytecode.
Interpreted languages such as Perl, Python, Ruby will compile to
bytecode if the language supports it, or will run a syntax check,
or if that is not available will run the file in its language interpreter.
Build
`````
For compilable languages such as C and C++, the Build command will link
the current source file's equivalent object file into an executable. If
the object file does not exist, the source will be compiled and linked
in one step, producing just the executable binary.
Interpreted languages do not use the Build command.
.. note::
If you need complex settings for your build system, or several
different settings, then writing a Makefile and using the Make
commands is recommended; this will also make it easier for users to
build your software.
Make
````
This runs "make" in the same directory as the
current file.
Make custom target
``````````````````
This is similar to running 'Make' but you will be prompted for
the make target name to be passed to the Make tool. For example,
typing 'clean' in the dialog prompt will run "make clean".
Make object
```````````
Make object will run "make current_file.o" in the same directory as
the current file, using the filename for 'current_file'. It is useful
for building just the current file without building the whole project.
Next error
``````````
The next error item will move to the next detected error in the file.
Previous error
``````````````
The previous error item will move to the previous detected error in the file.
Execute
```````
Execute will run the corresponding executable file, shell script or
interpreted script in a terminal window. Note that the Terminal tool
path must be correctly set in the Tools tab of the Preferences dialog -
you can use any terminal program that runs a Bourne compatible shell
and accept the "-e" command line argument to start a command or can be
selected to use the built-in VTE if it is available - see
`Virtual terminal emulator widget (VTE)`_.
After your program or script has finished executing, you will be
prompted to press the return key. This allows you to review any text
output from the program before the terminal window is closed.
.. note::
The execute command output is not parsed for errors.
Stopping running processes
``````````````````````````
When there is a running program, the Execute menu item in the menu and
the Run button in the toolbar
each become a stop button so you can stop the current running program (and
any child processes). This works by sending the SIGQUIT signal to the process.
Depending on the process you started it is possible that the process
cannot be stopped. For example this can happen when the process creates
more than one child process.
Terminal emulators
******************
Xterm is known to work properly. If you are using "Terminal"
(the terminal program of Xfce), you should add the command line
option ``--disable-server`` otherwise the started process cannot be
stopped. Just add this option in the preferences dialog on the Tools
tab in the terminal field.
Set build commands
``````````````````
By default Compile, Build and Execute are fairly basic commands. You
may wish to customise them using *Set Build Commands*.
E.g. for C you can add any include paths and compile flags for the
compiler, any library names and paths for the linker, and any
arguments you want to use when running Execute.
Build menu configuration
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
The build menu has considerable flexibility and configurability, allowing
both menu labels the commands they execute and the directory they execute
in to be configured.
For example, if you change one of the default make commands to run say 'waf'
you can also change the label to match.
These settings are saved automatically when Geany is shut down.
The build menu is divided into four groups of items each with different
behaviors:
* Filetype build commands - are configurable and depend on the filetype of the
current document; they capture output in the compiler tab and parse it for
errors.
* Independent build commands - are configurable and mostly don't depend on the
filetype of the current document; they also capture output in the
compiler tab and parse it for errors.
* Execute commands - are configurable and intended for executing your
program or other long running programs. The output is not parsed for errors
and is directed to the terminal selected in preferences.
* Fixed commands - these perform built-in actions:
* Go to the next error.
* Go to the previous error.
* Show the build menu commands dialog.
The maximum numbers of items in each of the configurable groups can be
configured in the `Various preferences`_. Even though the maximum number of
items may have been increased, only those menu items that have values
configured are shown in the menu.
The groups of menu items obtain their configuration from four potential
sources. The highest priority source that has the menu item defined will
be used. The sources in decreasing priority are:
* A project file if open
* The user preferences
* The system filetype definitions
* The defaults
The detailed relationships between sources and the configurable menu item groups
is shown in the following table.
+--------------+---------------------+--------------------------+-------------------+-------------------------------+
| Group | Project File | Preferences | System Filetype | Defaults |
+==============+=====================+==========================+===================+===============================+
| Filetype | Loads From: project | Loads From: | Loads From: | None |
| | file | filetypes.xxx file in | filetypes.xxx in | |
| | | ~/.config/geany/filedefs | Geany install | |
| | Saves To: project | | | |
| | file | Saves to: as above, | Saves to: as user | |
| | | creating if needed. | preferences left. | |
+--------------+---------------------+--------------------------+-------------------+-------------------------------+
| Filetype | Loads From: project | Loads From: | Loads From: | 1: |
| Independent | file | geany.conf file in | filetypes.xxx in | Label: _Make |
| | | ~/.config/geany | Geany install | Command: make |
| | Saves To: project | | | |
| | file | Saves to: as above, | Saves to: as user | 2: |
| | | creating if needed. | preferences left. | Label: Make Custom _Target |
| | | | | Command: make |
| | | | | |
| | | | | 3: |
| | | | | Label: Make _Object |
| | | | | Command: make %e.o |
+--------------+---------------------+--------------------------+-------------------+-------------------------------+
| Execute | Loads From: project | Loads From: | Loads From: | Label: _Execute |
| | file or else | geany.conf file in | filetypes.xxx in | Command: ./%e |
| | filetype defined in | ~/.config/geany or else | Geany install | |
| | project file | filetypes.xxx file in | | |
| | | ~/.config/geany/filedefs | Saves To: as user | |
| | Saves To: | | preferences left. | |
| | project file | Saves To: | | |
| | | filetypes.xxx file in | | |
| | | ~/.config/geany/filedefs | | |
+--------------+---------------------+--------------------------+-------------------+-------------------------------+
The following notes on the table reference cells by coordinate as (group,source):
* General - for filetypes.xxx substitute the appropriate extension for
the filetype of the current document for xxx - see `filenames`_.
* System Filetypes - Labels loaded from these sources are locale sensitive
and can contain translations.
* (Filetype, Project File) and (Filetype, Preferences) - preferences use a full
filetype file so that users can configure all other filetype preferences
as well. Projects can only configure menu items per filetype. Saving
in the project file means that there is only one file per project not
a whole directory.
* (Filetype-Independent, System Filetype) - although conceptually strange, defining
filetype-independent commands in a filetype file, this provides the ability to
define filetype dependent default menu items.
* (Execute, Project File) and (Execute, Preferences) - the project independent
execute and preferences independent execute commands can only be set by hand
editing the appropriate file, see `Preferences file format`_ and `Project file
format`_.
Build menu commands dialog
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Most of the configuration of the build menu is done through the Build Menu
Commands Dialog. You edit the configuration sourced from preferences in the
dialog opened from the Build->Build Menu Commands item and you edit the
configuration from the project in the build tab of the project preferences
dialog. Both use the same form shown below.
.. image:: ./images/build_menu_commands_dialog.png
The dialog is divided into three sections:
* Filetype build commands (selected based on the current document's filetype).
* Independent build commands (available regardless of filetype).
* Filetype execute commands.
The filetype and independent sections also each contain a field for the regular
expression used for parsing command output for error and warning messages.
The columns in the first three sections allow setting of the label, command,
and working directory to run the command in.
An item with an empty label will not be shown in the menu.
An empty working directory will default to the directory of the current document.
If there is no current document then the command will not run.
The dialog will always show the command selected by priority, not just the
commands configured in this configuration source. This ensures that you always
see what the menu item is going to do if activated.
If the current source of the menu item is higher priority than the
configuration source you are editing then the command will be shown
in the dialog but will be insensitive (greyed out). This can't happen
with the project source but can with the preferences source dialog.
The clear buttons remove the definition from the configuration source you are editing.
When you do this the command from the next lower priority source will be shown.
To hide lower priority menu items without having anything show in the menu
configure with a nothing in the label but at least one character in the command.
Substitutions in commands and working directories
`````````````````````````````````````````````````
The first occurence of each of the following character sequences in each of the
command and working directory fields is substituted by the items specified below
before the command is run.
* %d - substituted by the absolute path to the directory of the current file.
* %e - substituted by the name of the current file without the extension or path.
* %f - substituted by the name of the current file without the path.
* %p - if a project is open, substituted by the base path from the project.
.. note::
If the basepath set in the project preferences is not an absolute path , then it is
taken as relative to the directory of the project file. This allows a project file
stored in the source tree to specify all commands and working directories relative
to the tree itself, so that the whole tree including the project file, can be moved
and even checked into and out of version control without having to re-configure the
build menu.
Build menu keyboard shortcuts
`````````````````````````````
Keyboard shortcuts can be defined for the first two filetype menu items, the first three
independent menu items, the first two execute menu items and the fixed menu items.
In the keybindings configuration dialog (see `Keybinding preferences`_)
these items are identified by the default labels shown in the `Build Menu`_ section above.
It is currently not possible to bind keyboard shortcuts to more than these menu items.
You can also use underlines in the labels to set mnemonic characters.
Old settings
````````````
The configurable Build Menu capability was introduced in Geany 0.19 and
required a new section to be added to the configuration files (See
`Preferences file format`_). Geany will still load older format project,
preferences and filetype file settings and will attempt to map them into the new
configuration format. There is not a simple clean mapping between the formats.
The mapping used produces the most sensible results for the majority of cases.
However, if they do not map the way you want, you may have to manually
configure some settings using the Build Commands
Dialog or the Build tab of the project preferences dialog.
Any setting configured in either of these dialogs will override settings mapped from
older format configuration files.
Printing support
----------------
Since Geany 0.13 there has been printing support using GTK's printing API.
The printed page(s) will look nearly the same as on your screen in Geany.
Additionally, there are some options to modify the printed page(s).
.. note::
The background text color is set to white, except for text with
a white foreground. This allows dark color schemes to save ink
when printing.
You can define whether to print line numbers, page numbers at the bottom of
each page and whether to print a page header on each page. This header
contains the filename of the printed document, the current page number and
the date and time of printing. By default, the file name of the document
with full path information is added to the header. If you prefer to add
only the basename of the file(without any path information) you can set it
in the preferences dialog. You can also adjust the format of the date and
time added to the page header. The available conversion specifiers are the
same as the ones which can be used with the ANSI C strftime function.
All of these settings can also be changed in the print dialog just before
actual printing is done.
On Unix-like systems the provided print dialog offers a print preview. The
preview file is opened with a PDF viewer and by default GTK uses ``evince``
for print preview. If you have not installed evince or just want to use
another PDF viewer, you can change the program to use in the file
``.gtkrc-2.0`` (usually found in your home directory). Simply add a line
like::
gtk-print-preview-command = "epdfview %f"
at the end of the file. Of course, you can also use xpdf, kpdf or whatever
as the print preview command.
Geany also provides an alternative basic printing support using a custom
print command. However, the printed document contains no syntax highlighting.
You can adjust the command to which the filename is passed in the preferences
dialog. The default command is::
% lpr %f
``%f`` will be substituted by the filename of the current file. Geany
will not show errors from the command itself, so you should make
sure that it works before(e.g. by trying to execute it from the
command line).
A nicer example, which many prefer is::
% a2ps -1 --medium=A4 -o - %f | xfprint4
But this depends on a2ps and xfprint4. As a replacement for xfprint4,
gtklp or similar programs can be used.
Plugins
-------
Plugins are loaded at startup, if the *Enable plugin support*
general preference is set. There is also a command-line option,
``-p``, which prevents plugins being loaded. Plugins are scanned in
the following directories:
* ``$prefix/lib/geany`` on Unix-like systems (see `Installation prefix`_)
* The ``lib`` subfolder of the installation path on Windows.
* The ``plugins`` subfolder of the user configuration directory - see
`Configuration file paths`_.
* The `Extra plugin path` preference (usually blank) - see `Paths`_.
Most plugins add menu items to the *Tools* menu when they are loaded.
See also `Plugin documentation`_ for information about single plugins
which are included in Geany.
Plugin manager
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
The Plugin Manager dialog lets you choose which plugins
should be loaded at startup. You can also load and unload plugins on the
fly using this dialog. Once you click the checkbox for a specific plugin
in the dialog, it is loaded or unloaded according to its previous state.
By default, no plugins are loaded at startup until you select some.
You can also configure some plugin specific options if the plugin
provides any.
Keybindings
-----------
Geany supports the default keyboard shortcuts for the Scintilla
editing widget. For a list of these commands, see `Scintilla
keyboard commands`_. The Scintilla keyboard shortcuts will be overridden
by any custom keybindings with the same keyboard shortcut.
Switching documents
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
There are some non-configurable bindings to switch between documents,
listed below. These can also be overridden by custom keybindings.
=============== ==================================
Key Action
=============== ==================================
Alt-[1-9] Select left-most tab, from 1 to 9.
Alt-0 Select right-most tab.
=============== ==================================
See also `Notebook tab keybindings`_.
Configurable keybindings
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
For all actions listed below you can define your own keybindings. Open
the Preferences dialog, select the desired action and click on
change. In the resulting dialog you can press the key combination you
want to assign to the action and it will be saved when you press OK.
You can define only one key combination for each action and each key
combination can only be defined for one action.
Some of the default key combinations are common across many
applications, for example *Ctrl-N* for New and *Ctrl-O* for Open.
Because they are so common it is not advisable to change these, but
you can add other key combinations for these actions. For example
*Ctrl-O* is set to execute menu_open by default, but you can also
define *Alt-O*, so that the file open dialog is shown by pressing
either *Ctrl-O* or *Alt-O*.
The following tables list all customizable keyboard shortcuts, those
which are common to many applications are marked with (C) after the
shortcut.
File keybindings
````````````````
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Action Default shortcut Description
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
New Ctrl-N (C) Creates a new file.
Open Ctrl-O (C) Opens a file.
Open selected file Ctrl-Shift-O Opens the selected filename.
Re-open last closed tab Re-opens the last closed document tab.
Save Ctrl-S (C) Saves the current file.
Save As Saves the current file under a new name.
Save all Ctrl-Shift-S Saves all open files.
Close all Ctrl-Shift-W Closes all open files.
Close Ctrl-W (C) Closes the current file.
Reload file Ctrl-R (C) Reloads the current file. All unsaved changes
will be lost.
Print Ctrl-P (C) Prints the current file.
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Editor keybindings
``````````````````
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Action Default shortcut Description
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Undo Ctrl-Z (C) Un-does the last action.
Redo Ctrl-Y Re-does the last action.
Delete current line(s) Ctrl-K Deletes the current line (and any lines with a
selection).
Delete to line end Ctrl-Shift-Delete Deletes from the current caret position to the
end of the current line.
Duplicate line or selection Ctrl-D Duplicates the current line or selection.
Transpose current line Transposes the current line with the previous one.
Scroll to current line Ctrl-Shift-L Scrolls the current line into the centre of the
view. The cursor position and or an existing
selection will not be changed.
Scroll up by one line Alt-Up Scrolls the view.
Scroll down by one line Alt-Down Scrolls the view.
Complete word Ctrl-Space Shows the autocompletion list. If already showing
tag completion, it shows document word completion
instead, even if it is not enabled for automatic
completion. Likewise if no tag suggestions are
available, it shows document word completion.
Show calltip Ctrl-Shift-Space Shows a calltip for the current function or
method.
Show macro list Ctrl-Return Shows a list of available macros and variables in
the workspace.
Complete snippet Tab If you type a construct like if or for and press
this key, it will be completed with a matching
template.
Suppress snippet completion If you type a construct like if or for and press
this key, it will not be completed, and a space or
tab will be inserted, depending on what the
construct completion keybinding is set to. For
example, if you have set the construct completion
keybinding to space, then setting this to
Shift+space will prevent construct completion and
insert a space.
Context Action Executes a command and passes the current word
(near the cursor position) or selection as an
argument. See the section called `Context
actions`_.
Move cursor in snippet Jumps to the next defined cursor positions in a
completed snippets if multiple cursor positions
where defined.
Word part completion Tab When the autocompletion list is visible, complete
the currently selected item up to the next word
part.
Move line(s) up Alt-PageUp Move the current line or selected lines up by
one line.
Move line(s) down Alt-PageDown Move the current line or selected lines down by
one line.
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Clipboard keybindings
`````````````````````
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Action Default shortcut Description
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Cut Ctrl-X (C) Cut the current selection to the clipboard.
Copy Ctrl-C (C) Copy the current selection to the clipboard.
Paste Ctrl-V (C) Paste the clipboard text into the current document.
Cut current line(s) Ctrl-Shift-X Cuts the current line (and any lines with a
selection) to the clipboard.
Copy current line(s) Ctrl-Shift-C Copies the current line (and any lines with a
selection) to the clipboard.
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Select keybindings
``````````````````
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Action Default shortcut Description
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Select all Ctrl-A (C) Makes a selection of all text in the current
document.
Select current word Alt-Shift-W Selects the current word under the cursor.
Select current paragraph Alt-Shift-P Selects the current paragraph under the cursor
which is defined by two empty lines around it.
Select current line(s) Alt-Shift-L Selects the current line under the cursor (and any
partially selected lines).
Select to previous word part (Extend) selection to previous word part boundary.
Select to next word part (Extend) selection to next word part boundary.
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Insert keybindings
``````````````````
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Action Default shortcut Description
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Insert date Shift-Alt-D Inserts a customisable date.
Insert alternative whitespace Inserts a tab character when spaces should
be used for indentation and inserts space
characters of the amount of a tab width when
tabs should be used for indentation.
Insert New Line Before Current Inserts a new line with indentation.
Insert New Line After Current Inserts a new line with indentation.
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Format keybindings
``````````````````
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Action Default shortcut Description
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Toggle case of selection Ctrl-Alt-U Changes the case of the selection. A lowercase
selection will be changed into uppercase and vice
versa. If the selection contains lower- and
uppercase characters, all will be converted to
lowercase.
Comment line Comments current line or selection.
Uncomment line Uncomments current line or selection.
Toggle line commentation Ctrl-E Comments a line if it is not commented or removes
a comment if the line is commented.
Increase indent Ctrl-I Indents the current line or selection by one tab
or by spaces in the amount of the tab width
setting.
Decrease indent Ctrl-U Removes one tab or the amount of spaces of
the tab width setting from the indentation of the
current line or selection.
Increase indent by one space Indents the current line or selection by one
space.
Decrease indent by one space Deindents the current line or selection by one
space.
Smart line indent Indents the current line or all selected lines
with the same indentation as the previous line.
Send to Custom Command 1 (2,3) Ctrl-1 (2,3) Passes the current selection to a configured
external command (available for the first
three configured commands, see
`Sending text through custom commands`_ for
details).
Send Selection to Terminal Sends the current selection or the current
line (if there is no selection) to the
embedded Terminal (VTE).
Reflow lines/block Reformat selected lines or current
(indented) text block,
breaking lines at the long line marker or the
line breaking column if line breaking is
enabled for the current document.
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Settings keybindings
````````````````````
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Action Default shortcut Description
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Preferences Ctrl-Alt-P Opens preferences dialog.
Plugin Preferences Opens plugin preferences dialog.
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Search keybindings
``````````````````
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Action Default shortcut Description
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Find Ctrl-F (C) Opens the Find dialog.
Find Next Ctrl-G Finds next result.
Find Previous Ctrl-Shift-G Finds previous result.
Find Next Selection Finds next occurence of selected text.
Find Previous Selection Finds previous occurence of selected text.
Replace Ctrl-H (C) Opens the Replace dialog.
Find in files Ctrl-Shift-F Opens the Find in files dialog.
Next message Jumps to the line with the next message in
the Messages window.
Previous message Jumps to the line with the previous message
in the Messages window.
Find Usage Ctrl-Shift-E Finds all occurrences of the current word (near
the keyboard cursor) or selection in all open
documents and displays them in the messages
window.
Find Document Usage Ctrl-Shift-D Finds all occurrences of the current word (near
the keyboard cursor) or selection in the current
document and displays them in the messages
window.
Mark All Ctrl-Shift-M Highlight all matches of the current
word/selection in the current document
with a colored box. If there's nothing to
find, highlighted matches will be cleared.
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Go to keybindings
`````````````````
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Action Default shortcut Description
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Navigate forward a location Alt-Right (C) Switches to the next location in the navigation
history. See the section called `Code Navigation
History`_.
Navigate back a location Alt-Left (C) Switches to the previous location in the
navigation history. See the section called
`Code navigation history`_.
Go to line Ctrl-L Focuses the Go to Line entry (if visible) or
shows the Go to line dialog.
Goto matching brace Ctrl-B If the cursor is ahead or behind a brace, then it
is moved to the brace which belongs to the current
one. If this keyboard shortcut is pressed again,
the cursor is moved back to the first brace.
Toggle marker Ctrl-M Set a marker on the current line, or clear the
marker if there already is one.
Goto next marker Ctrl-. Goto the next marker in the current document.
Goto previous marker Ctrl-, Goto the previous marker in the current document.
Go to tag definition Ctrl-T Jump to the definition of the current word or
selection. See `Go to tag definition`_.
Go to tag declaration Ctrl-Shift-T Jump to the declaration of the current word or
selection. See `Go to tag declaration`_.
Go to Start of Line Home Move the caret to the start of the line.
Behaves differently if smart_home_key_ is set.
Go to End of Line End Move the caret to the end of the line.
Go to Start of Display Line Alt-Home Move the caret to the start of the display line.
This is useful when you use line wrapping and
want to jump to the start of the wrapped, virtual
line, not the real start of the whole line.
If the line is not wrapped, it behaves like
`Go to Start of Line`.
Go to End of Display Line Alt-End Move the caret to the end of the display line.
If the line is not wrapped, it behaves like
`Go to End of Line`.
Go to Previous Word Part Ctrl-/ Goto the previous part of the current word.
Go to Next Word Part Ctrl-\\ Goto the next part of the current word.
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
View keybindings
````````````````
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Action Default shortcut Description
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Fullscreen F11 (C) Switches to fullscreen mode.
Toggle Messages Window Toggles the message window (status and compiler
messages) on and off.
Toggle Sidebar Shows or hides the sidebar.
Toggle all additional widgets Hide and show all additional widgets like the
notebook tabs, the toolbar, the messages window
and the status bar.
Zoom In Ctrl-+ (C) Zooms in the text.
Zoom Out Ctrl-- (C) Zooms out the text.
Zoom Reset Ctrl-0 Reset any previous zoom on the text.
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Focus keybindings
`````````````````
================================ ========================= ==================================================
Action Default shortcut Description
================================ ========================= ==================================================
Switch to Editor F2 Switches to editor widget.
Also reshows the document statistics line
(after a short timeout).
Switch to Search Bar F7 Switches to the search bar in the toolbar (if
visible).
Switch to Message Window Focus the Message Window's current tab.
Switch to Compiler Focus the Compiler message window tab.
Switch to Messages Focus the Messages message window tab.
Switch to Scribble F6 Switches to scribble widget.
Switch to VTE F4 Switches to VTE widget.
Switch to Sidebar Focus the Sidebar.
Switch to Sidebar Symbol List Focus the Symbol list tab in the Sidebar
(if visible).
Switch to Sidebar Document List Focus the Document list tab in the Sidebar
(if visible).
================================ ========================= ==================================================
Notebook tab keybindings
````````````````````````
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Action Default shortcut Description
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Switch to left document Ctrl-PageUp (C) Switches to the previous open document.
Switch to right document Ctrl-PageDown (C) Switches to the next open document.
Switch to last used document Ctrl-Tab Switches to the previously shown document (if it's
still open).
Holding Ctrl (or another modifier if the keybinding
has been changed) will show a dialog, then repeated
presses of the keybinding will switch to the 2nd-last
used document, 3rd-last, etc. Also known as
Most-Recently-Used documents switching.
Move document left Ctrl-Shift-PageUp Changes the current document with the left hand
one.
Move document right Ctrl-Shift-PageDown Changes the current document with the right hand
one.
Move document first Moves the current document to the first position.
Move document last Moves the current document to the last position.
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Document keybindings
````````````````````
==================================== ==================== ==================================================
Action Default shortcut Description
==================================== ==================== ==================================================
Replace tabs by space Replaces all tabs with the right amount of spaces.
Replace spaces by tabs Replaces leading spaces with tab characters.
Toggle current fold Toggles the folding state of the current code block.
Fold all Folds all contractible code blocks.
Unfold all Unfolds all contracted code blocks.
Reload symbol list Ctrl-Shift-R Reloads the tag/symbol list.
Toggle Line wrapping Enables or disables wrapping of long lines.
Toggle Line breaking Enables or disables automatic breaking of long
lines at a configurable column.
Remove Markers Remove any markers on lines or words which
were set by using 'Mark All' in the
search dialog or by manually marking lines.
Remove Error Indicators Remove any error indicators in the
current document.
Remove Markers and Error Indicators Combines ``Remove Markers`` and
``Remove Error Indicators``.
==================================== ==================== ==================================================
Project keybindings
```````````````````
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Action Default shortcut Description
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
New Create a new project.
Open Opens a project file.
Properties Shows project properties.
Close Close the current project.
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Build keybindings
`````````````````
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Action Default shortcut Description
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Compile F8 Compiles the current file.
Build F9 Builds (compiles if necessary and links) the
current file.
Make all Shift-F9 Builds the current file with the Make tool.
Make custom target Ctrl-Shift-F9 Builds the current file with the Make tool and a
given target.
Make object Shift-F8 Compiles the current file with the Make tool.
Next error Jumps to the line with the next error from the
last build process.
Previous error Jumps to the line with the previous error from
the last build process.
Run F5 Executes the current file in a terminal emulation.
Set Build Commands Opens the build commands dialog.
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Tools keybindings
`````````````````
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Action Default shortcut Description
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Show Color Chooser Opens the Color Chooser dialog.
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Help keybindings
````````````````
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Action Default shortcut Description
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Help F1 (C) Opens the manual.
=============================== ========================= ==================================================
Configuration files
===================
.. warning::
You must use UTF-8 encoding *without BOM* for configuration files.
Configuration file paths
------------------------
Geany has default configuration files installed for the system and
also per-user configuration files.
The system files should not normally be edited because they will be
overwritten when upgrading Geany.
The user configuration directory can be overridden with the ``-c``
switch, but this is not normally done. See `Command line options`_.
.. note::
Any missing subdirectories in the user configuration directory
will be created when Geany starts.
You can check the paths Geany is using with *Help->Debug Messages*.
Near the top there should be 2 lines with something like::
Geany-INFO: System data dir: /usr/share/geany
Geany-INFO: User config dir: /home/username/.config/geany
Paths on Unix-like systems
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
The system path is ``$prefix/share/geany``, where ``$prefix`` is the
path where Geany is installed (see `Installation prefix`_).
The user configuration directory is normally:
``/home/username/.config/geany``
Paths on Windows
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
The system path is the ``data`` subfolder of the installation path
on Windows.
The user configuration directory might vary, but on Windows XP it's:
``C:\Documents and Settings\UserName\Application Data\geany``
Tools menu items
----------------
There's a *Configuration files* submenu in the *Tools* menu that
contains items for some of the available user configuration files.
Clicking on one opens it in the editor for you to update. Geany will
reload the file after you have saved it.
.. note::
Other configuration files not shown here will need to be opened
manually, and will not be automatically reloaded when saved.
(see *Reload Configuration* below).
There's also a *Reload Configuration* item which can be used if you
updated one of the other configuration files, or modified or added
template files.
*Reload Configuration* is also necessary to update syntax highlighting colors.
.. note::
Syntax highlighting colors aren't updated in open documents after
saving filetypes.common as this may take a significant
amount of time.
Global configuration file
-------------------------
System administrators can add a global configuration file for Geany
which will be used when starting Geany and a user configuration file
does not exist.
The global configuration file is read from ``geany.conf`` in the
system configuration path - see `Configuration file paths`_. It can
contain any settings which are found in the usual configuration file
created by Geany, but does not have to contain all settings.
.. note::
This feature is mainly intended for package maintainers or system
admins who want to set up Geany in a multi user environment and
set some sane default values for this environment. Usually users won't
need to do that.
Filetype definition files
-------------------------
All color definitions and other filetype specific settings are
stored in the filetype definition files. Those settings are colors
for syntax highlighting, general settings like comment characters or
word delimiter characters as well as compiler and linker settings.
See also `Configuration file paths`_.
Filenames
^^^^^^^^^
Each filetype has a corresponding filetype definition file. The format
for built-in filetype `Foo` is::
filetypes.foo
The extension is normally just the filetype name in lower case.
However there are some exceptions:
=============== =========
Filetype Extension
=============== =========
C++ cpp
C# cs
Make makefile
Matlab/Octave matlab
=============== =========
There is also the `special file filetypes.common`_.
For `custom filetypes`_, the filename for `Foo` is different::
filetypes.Foo.conf
See the link for details.
System files
^^^^^^^^^^^^
The system-wide filetype configuration files can be found in the
system configuration path and are called ``filetypes.$ext``,
where $ext is the name of the filetype. For every
filetype there is a corresponding definition file. There is one
exception: ``filetypes.common`` -- this file is for general settings,
which are not specific to a certain filetype.
.. warning::
It is not recommended that users edit the system-wide files,
because they will be overridden when Geany is updated.
User files
^^^^^^^^^^
To change the settings, copy a file from the system configuration
path to the subdirectory ``filedefs`` in your user configuration
directory. Then you can edit the file and the changes will still be
available after an update of Geany.
Alternatively, you can create the file yourself and add only the
settings you want to change. All missing settings will be read from
the corresponding system configuration file.
Custom filetypes
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
At startup Geany looks for ``filetypes.*.conf`` files in the system and
user filetype paths, adding any filetypes found with the name matching
the '``*``' wildcard - e.g. ``filetypes.Bar.conf``.
Custom filetypes are not as powerful as built-in filetypes, but
support for the following has been implemented:
* Recognizing and setting the filetype (after the user has manually edited
``filetype_extensions.conf``).
* Reading filetype settings in the ``[settings]`` section, including:
* Using an existing syntax highlighting lexer (`lexer_filetype`_ key).
* Using an existing tag parser (``tag_parser`` key).
* Build commands (``[build-menu]`` section).
* Loading global tags files (sharing the ``tag_parser`` namespace).
See `Filetype configuration`_ for details on each setting.
Creating a custom filetype from an existing filetype
````````````````````````````````````````````````````
Because most filetype settings will relate to the syntax
highlighting (e.g. styling, keywords, ``lexer_properties``
sections), it is best to copy an existing filetype file that uses
the lexer you wish to use as the basis of a custom filetype, using
the correct filename extension format shown above, e.g.::
cp filetypes.foo filetypes.Bar.conf
Then add the ``lexer_filetype=Foo`` setting (if not already present)
and add/adjust other settings.
.. warning::
The ``[styling]`` and ``[keywords]`` sections have key names
specific to each filetype/lexer. You must follow the same
names - in particular, some lexers only support one keyword
list, or none.
Filetype configuration
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
As well as the sections listed below, each filetype file can contain
a [build-menu] section as described in `[build-menu] section`_.
[styling] section
`````````````````
In this section the colors for syntax highlighting are defined. The
manual format is:
* ``key=foreground_color;background_color;bold_flag;italic_flag``
Colors have to be specified as RGB hex values prefixed by
0x or # similar to HTML/CSS hex triplets. For example, all of the following
are valid values for pure red; 0xff0000, 0xf00, #ff0000, or #f00. The
values are case-insensitive but it is a good idea to use lower-case.
Note that you can also use *named colors* as well by substituting the
color value with the name of a color as defined in the ``[named_colors]``
section, see the `[named_colors] Section`_ for more information.
Bold and italic are flags and should only be "true" or "false". If their
value is something other than "true" or "false", "false" is assumed.
You can omit fields to use the values from the style named ``"default"``.
E.g. ``key=0xff0000;;true``
This makes the key style have red foreground text, default background
color text and bold emphasis.
Using a named style
*******************
The second format uses a *named style* name to reference a style
defined in filetypes.common.
* ``key=named_style``
* ``key2=named_style2,bold,italic``
The bold and italic parts are optional, and if present are used to
toggle the bold or italic flags to the opposite of the named style's
flags. In contrast to style definition booleans, they are a literal
",bold,italic" and commas are used instead of semi-colons.
E.g. ``key=comment,italic``
This makes the key style match the ``"comment"`` named style, but with
italic emphasis.
To define named styles, see the filetypes.common `[named_styles]
Section`_.
Reading styles from another filetype
************************************
You can automatically copy all of the styles from another filetype
definition file by using the following syntax for the ``[styling]``
group::
[styling=Foo]
Where Foo is a filetype name. The corresponding ``[styling]``
section from ``filetypes.foo`` will be read.
This is useful when the same lexer is being used for multiple
filetypes (e.g. C/C++/C#/Java/etc). For example, to make the C++
styling the same as the C styling, you would put the following in
``filetypes.cpp``::
[styling=C]
[keywords] section
``````````````````
This section contains keys for different keyword lists specific to
the filetype. Some filetypes do not support keywords, so adding a
new key will not work. You can only add or remove keywords to/from
an existing list.
.. important::
The keywords list must be in one line without line ending characters.
[lexer_properties] section
``````````````````````````
Here any special properties for the Scintilla lexer can be set in the
format ``key.name.field=some.value``.
Properties Geany uses are listed in the system filetype files. To find
other properties you need Geany's source code::
egrep -o 'GetProperty\w*\("([^"]+)"[^)]+\)' scintilla/Lex*.cxx
[settings] section
``````````````````
extension
This is the default file extension used when saving files, not
including the period character (``.``). The extension used should
match one of the patterns associated with that filetype (see
`Filetype extensions`_).
*Example:* ``extension=cxx``
wordchars
These characters define word boundaries when making selections
and searching using word matching options.
*Example:* (look at system filetypes.\* files)
.. note::
This overrides the *whitespace_chars* filetypes.common setting.
comment_single
A character or string which is used to comment code. If you want to use
multiline comments only, don't set this but rather comment_open and
comment_close.
Single-line comments are used in priority over multiline comments to
comment a line, e.g. with the `Comment/Uncomment line` command.
*Example:* ``comment_single=//``
comment_open
A character or string which is used to comment code. You need to also
set comment_close to really use multiline comments. If you want to use
single-line comments, prefer setting comment_single.
Multiline comments are used in priority over single-line comments to
comment a block, e.g. template comments.
*Example:* ``comment_open=/*``
comment_close
If multiline comments are used, this is the character or string to
close the comment.
*Example:* ``comment_close=*/``
comment_use_indent
Set this to false if a comment character or string should start at
column 0 of a line. If set to true it uses any indentation of the
line.
Note: Comment indentation
``comment_use_indent=true`` would generate this if a line is
commented (e.g. with Ctrl-D)::
#command_example();
``comment_use_indent=false`` would generate this if a line is
commented (e.g. with Ctrl-D)::
# command_example();
Note: This setting only works for single line comments (like '//',
'#' or ';').
*Example:* ``comment_use_indent=true``
context_action_cmd
A command which can be executed on the current word or the current
selection.
Example usage: Open the API documentation for the
current function call at the cursor position.
The command can
be set for every filetype or if not set, a global command will
be used. The command itself can be specified without the full
path, then it is searched in $PATH. But for security reasons,
it is recommended to specify the full path to the command. The
wildcard %s will be replaced by the current word at the cursor
position or by the current selection.
Hint: for PHP files the following could be quite useful:
context_action_cmd=firefox "http://www.php.net/%s"
*Example:* ``context_action_cmd=devhelp -s "%s"``
tag_parser
The TagManager language name, e.g. "C". Usually the same as the
filetype name.
.. _lexer_filetype:
lexer_filetype
A filetype name to setup syntax highlighting from another filetype.
This must not be recursive, i.e. it should be a filetype name that
doesn't use the *lexer_filetype* key itself, e.g.::
lexer_filetype=C
#lexer_filetype=C++
The second line is wrong, because ``filetypes.cpp`` itself uses
``lexer_filetype=C``, which would be recursive.
symbol_list_sort_mode
What the default symbol list sort order should be.
===== =====================================
Value Meaning
===== =====================================
0 Sort tags by name
1 Sort tags by appearance (line number)
===== =====================================
.. _xml_indent_tags:
xml_indent_tags
If this setting is set to *true*, a new line after a line ending with an
unclosed XML/HTML tag will be automatically indented. This only applies
to filetypes for which the HTML or XML lexer is used. Such filetypes have
this setting in their system configuration files.
[indentation] section
`````````````````````
This section allows definition of default indentation settings specific to
the file type, overriding the ones configured in the preferences. This can
be useful for file types requiring specific indentation settings (e.g. tabs
only for Makefile). These settings don't override auto-detection if activated.
width
The forced indentation width.
type
The forced indentation type.
===== =======================
Value Indentation type
===== =======================
0 Spaces only
1 Tabs only
2 Mixed (tabs and spaces)
===== =======================
[build_settings] section
````````````````````````
As of Geany 0.19 this section is supplemented by the `[build-menu] section`_.
Values that are set in the [build-menu] section will override those in this section.
error_regex
This is a regular expression to parse a filename
and line number from build output. If undefined, Geany will fall
back to its default error message parsing.
Only the first two matches will be read by Geany. Geany will look for
a match that is purely digits, and use this for the line number. The
remaining match will be used as the filename.
*Example:* ``error_regex=(.+):([0-9]+):[0-9]+``
This will parse a message such as:
``test.py:7:24: E202 whitespace before ']'``
**Build commands**
If any build menu item settings have been configured in the Build Menu Commands
dialog or the Build tab of the project preferences dialog then these
settings are stored in the [build-menu] section and override the settings in
this section for that item.
compiler
This item specifies the command to compile source code files. But
it is also possible to use it with interpreted languages like Perl
or Python. With these filetypes you can use this option as a kind of
syntax parser, which sends output to the compiler message window.
You should quote the filename to also support filenames with
spaces. The following wildcards for filenames are available:
* %f -- complete filename without path
* %e -- filename without path and without extension
*Example:* ``compiler=gcc -Wall -c "%f"``
linker
This item specifies the command to link the file. If the file is not
already compiled, it will be compiled while linking. The -o option
is automatically added by Geany. This item works well with GNU gcc,
but may be problematic with other compilers (esp. with the linker).
*Example:* ``linker=gcc -Wall "%f"``
run_cmd
Use this item to execute your file. It has to have been built
already. Use the %e wildcard to have only the name of the executable
(i.e. without extension) or use the %f wildcard if you need the
complete filename, e.g. for shell scripts.
*Example:* ``run_cmd="./%e"``
Special file filetypes.common
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
There is a special filetype definition file called
filetypes.common. This file defines some general non-filetype-specific
settings.
You can open the user filetypes.common with the
*Tools->Configuration Files->filetypes.common* menu item. This adds
the default settings to the user file if the file doesn't exist.
Alternatively the file can be created manually, adding only the
settings you want to change. All missing settings will be read from
the system file.
.. note::
See the `Filetype configuration`_ section for how to define styles.
[named_styles] section
``````````````````````
Named styles declared here can be used in the [styling] section of any
filetypes.* file.
For example:
*In filetypes.common*::
[named_styles]
foo=0xc00000;0xffffff;false;true
bar=foo
*In filetypes.c*::
[styling]
comment=foo
This saves copying and pasting the whole style definition into several
different files.
.. note::
You can define aliases for named styles, as shown with the ``bar``
entry in the above example, but they must be declared after the
original style.
[named_colors] section
``````````````````````
Named colors declared here can be used in the ``[styling]`` or
``[named_styles]`` section of any filetypes.* file or color scheme.
For example::
[named_colors]
my_red_color=#FF0000
my_blue_color=#0000FF
[named_styles]
foo=my_red_color;my_blue_color;false;true
This allows to define a color pallete by name so that to change a color
scheme-wide only involves changing the hex value in a single location.
[styling] section
`````````````````
default
This is the default style. It is used for styling files without a
filetype set.
*Example:* ``default=0x000000;0xffffff;false;false``
selection
The style for coloring selected text. The format is:
* Foreground color
* Background color
* Use foreground color
* Use background color
The colors are only set if the 3rd or 4th argument is true. When
the colors are not overridden, the default is a dark grey
background with syntax highlighted foreground text.
*Example:* ``selection=0xc0c0c0;0x00007F;true;true``
brace_good
The style for brace highlighting when a matching brace was found.
*Example:* ``brace_good=0xff0000;0xFFFFFF;true;false``
brace_bad
The style for brace highlighting when no matching brace was found.
*Example:* ``brace_bad=0x0000ff;0xFFFFFF;true;false``
caret
The style for coloring the caret(the blinking cursor). Only first
and third argument is interpreted.
Set the third argument to true to change the caret into a block caret.
*Example:* ``caret=0x000000;0x0;false;false``
caret_width
The width for the caret(the blinking cursor). Only the first
argument is interpreted. The width is specified in pixels with
a maximum of three pixel. Use the width 0 to make the caret
invisible.
*Example:* ``caret=1;0;false;false``
current_line
The style for coloring the background of the current line. Only
the second and third arguments are interpreted. The second argument
is the background color. Use the third argument to enable or
disable background highlighting for the current line (has to be
true/false).
*Example:* ``current_line=0x0;0xe5e5e5;true;false``
indent_guide
The style for coloring the indentation guides. Only the first and
second arguments are interpreted.
*Example:* ``indent_guide=0xc0c0c0;0xffffff;false;false``
white_space
The style for coloring the white space if it is shown. The first
both arguments define the foreground and background colors, the
third argument sets whether to use the defined foreground color
or to use the color defined by each filetype for the white space.
The fourth argument defines whether to use the background color.
*Example:* ``white_space=0xc0c0c0;0xffffff;true;true``
margin_linenumber
Line number margin foreground and background colors.
.. _Folding Settings:
margin_folding
Fold margin foreground and background colors.
fold_symbol_highlight
Highlight color of folding symbols.
folding_style
The style of folding icons. Only first and second arguments are
used.
Valid values for the first argument are:
* 1 -- for boxes
* 2 -- for circles
* 3 -- for arrows
* 4 -- for +/-
Valid values for the second argument are:
* 0 -- for no lines
* 1 -- for straight lines
* 2 -- for curved lines
*Default:* ``folding_style=1;1;``
*Arrows:* ``folding_style=3;0;``
folding_horiz_line
Draw a thin horizontal line at the line where text is folded. Only
first argument is used.
Valid values for the first argument are:
* 0 -- disable, do not draw a line
* 1 -- draw the line above folded text
* 2 -- draw the line below folded text
*Example:* ``folding_horiz_line=0;0;false;false``
line_wrap_visuals
First argument: drawing of visual flags to indicate a line is wrapped.
This is a bitmask of the values:
* 0 -- No visual flags
* 1 -- Visual flag at end of subline of a wrapped line
* 2 -- Visual flag at begin of subline of a wrapped line. Subline is
indented by at least 1 to make room for the flag.
Second argument: wether the visual flags to indicate a line is wrapped
are drawn near the border or near the text. This is a bitmask of the values:
* 0 -- Visual flags drawn near border
* 1 -- Visual flag at end of subline drawn near text
* 2 -- Visual flag at begin of subline drawn near text
Only first and second arguments are interpreted.
*Example:* ``line_wrap_visuals=3;0;false;false``
line_wrap_indent
First argument: sets the size of indentation of sublines for wrapped lines
in terms of the width of a space, only used when the second argument is ``0``.
Second argument: wrapped sublines can be indented to the position of their
first subline or one more indent level. Possible values:
* 0 - Wrapped sublines aligned to left of window plus amount set by the first argument
* 1 - Wrapped sublines are aligned to first subline indent (use the same indentation)
* 2 - Wrapped sublines are aligned to first subline indent plus one more level of indentation
Only first and second arguments are interpreted.
*Example:* ``line_wrap_indent=0;1;false;false``
translucency
Translucency for the current line (first argument) and the selection
(second argument). Values between 0 and 256 are accepted.
Note for Windows 95, 98 and ME users:
keep this value at 256 to disable translucency otherwise Geany might crash.
Only the first and second arguments are interpreted.
*Example:* ``translucency=256;256;false;false``
marker_line
The style for a highlighted line (e.g when using Goto line or goto tag).
The foreground color (first argument) is only used when the Markers margin
is enabled (see View menu).
Only the first and second arguments are interpreted.
*Example:* ``marker_line=0x000000;0xffff00;false;false``
marker_search
The style for a marked search results (when using "Mark" in Search dialogs).
The second argument sets the background color for the drawn rectangle.
Only the second argument is interpreted.
*Example:* ``marker_search=0x000000;0xb8f4b8;false;false``
marker_mark
The style for a marked line (e.g when using the "Toggle Marker" keybinding
(Ctrl-M)). The foreground color (first argument) is only used
when the Markers margin is enabled (see View menu).
Only the first and second arguments are interpreted.
*Example:* ``marker_mark=0x000000;0xb8f4b8;false;false``
marker_translucency
Translucency for the line marker (first argument) and the search marker
(second argument). Values between 0 and 256 are accepted.
Note for Windows 95, 98 and ME users:
keep this value at 256 to disable translucency otherwise Geany might crash.
Only the first and second arguments are interpreted.
*Example:* ``marker_translucency=256;256;false;false``
line_height
Amount of space to be drawn above and below the line's baseline.
The first argument defines the amount of space to be drawn above the line, the second
argument defines the amount of space to be drawn below.
Only the first and second arguments are interpreted.
*Example:* ``line_height=0;0;false;false``
calltips
The style for coloring the calltips. The first two arguments
define the foreground and background colors, the third and fourth
arguments set whether to use the defined colors.
*Example:* ``calltips=0xc0c0c0;0xffffff;false;false``
[settings] section
``````````````````
whitespace_chars
Characters to treat as whitespace. These characters are ignored
when moving, selecting and deleting across word boundaries
(see `Scintilla keyboard commands`_).
This should include space (\\s) and tab (\\t).
*Example:* ``whitespace_chars=\s\t!\"#$%&'()*+,-./:;<=>?@[\\]^`{|}~``
Filetype extensions
-------------------
To change the default filetype extension used when saving a new file,
see `Filetype definition files`_.
You can override the list of file extensions that Geany uses to detect
filetypes using the user ``filetype_extensions.conf`` file. Use the
*Tools->Configuration Files->filetype_extensions.conf* menu item. See
also `Configuration file paths`_.
You should only list lines for filetype extensions that you want to
override in the user configuration file and remove or comment out
others. The patterns are listed after the ``=`` sign, using a
semi-colon separated list of patterns which should be matched for
that filetype.
For example, to override the filetype extensions for Make, the file
should look like::
[Extensions]
Make=Makefile*;*.mk;Buildfile;
Filetype group membership
-------------------------
Group membership is also stored in ``filetype_extensions.conf``. This
file is used to store information Geany needs at startup, whereas the
separate filetype definition files hold information only needed when
a document with their filetype is used.
The format looks like::
[Groups]
Programming=C;C++;
Script=Perl;Python;
Markup=HTML;XML;
Misc=Diff;Conf;
None=None;
The key names cannot be configured.
.. note::
Group membership is only read at startup.
Preferences file format