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This directory contains scripts to create the server certificates. To make a set of default (i.e. test) certificates, simply type: $ ./bootstrap The "openssl" command will be run against the sample configuration files included here, and will make a self-signed certificate authority (i.e. root CA), and a server certificate. This "root CA" should be installed on any client machine needing to do EAP-TLS, PEAP, or EAP-TTLS. The Microsoft "XP Extensions" will be automatically included in the server certificate. Without those extensions Windows clients will refuse to authenticate to FreeRADIUS. In general, you should use self-signed certificates for 802.1x (EAP) authentication. When you list root CAs from other organizations in the "CA_file", you permit them to masquerade as you, to authenticate your users, and to issue client certificates for EAP-TLS. If FreeRADIUS was configured to use OpenSSL, then simply starting the server in root in debugging mode should also create test certificates, i.e.: $ radiusd -X That will cause the EAP-TLS module to run the "bootstrap" script in this directory. The script will be executed only once, the first time the server has been installed on a particular machine. This bootstrap script SHOULD be run on installation of any pre-built binary package for your OS. In any case, the script will ensure that it is not run twice, and that it does not over-write any existing certificates. If you already have CA and server certificates, rename (or delete) this directory, and create a new "certs" directory containing your certificates. Note that the "make install" command will NOT over-write your existing "raddb/certs" directory, which means that the "bootstrap" command will not be run. NEW INSTALLATIONS OF FREERADIUS We suggest that new installations use the test certificates for initial tests, and then create real certificates to use for normal user authentication. See the instructions below for how to create the various certificates. The old test certificates can be deleted by running the following command: $ rm -f *.pem *.der *.csr *.crt *.key *.p12 serial* index.txt* Then, follow the instructions below for creating real certificates. Once the final certificates have been created, you can delete the "bootstrap" command from this directory, and delete the "make_cert_command" configuration from the "tls" sub-section of eap.conf. If you do not want to enable EAP-TLS, PEAP, or EAP-TTLS, then delete the relevant sub-sections from the "eap.conf" file. MAKING A ROOT CERTIFICATE $ vi ca.cnf Edit the "input_password" and "output_password" fields to be the password for the CA certificate. Edit the [certificate_authority] section to have the correct values for your country, state, etc. $ make ca.pem This step creates the CA certificate. $ make ca.der This step creates the DER format of the self-signed certificate, which is can be imported into Windows. MAKING A SERVER CERTIFICATE $ vi server.cnf Edit the "input_password" and "output_password" fields to be the password for the server certificate. Edit the [server] section to have the correct values for your country, state, etc. Be sure that the commonName field here is different from the commonName for the CA certificate. $ make server.pem This step creates the server certificate. If you have an existing certificate authority, and wish to create a certificate signing request for the server certificate, edit server.cnf as above, and type the following command. $ make server.csr You will have to ensure that the certificate contains the XP extensions needed by Microsoft clients. MAKING A CLIENT CERTIFICATE Client certificates are used by EAP-TLS, and optionally by EAP-TTLS and PEAP. The following steps outline how to create a client certificate that is signed by the server certificate created above. You will have to have the password for the server certificate in the "input_password" and "output_password" fields of the server.cnf file. $ vi client.cnf Edit the "input_password" and "output_password" fields to be the password for the client certificate. You will have to give these passwords to the end user who will be using the certificates. Edit the [client] section to have the correct values for your country, state, etc. Be sure that the commonName field here is the User-Name that will be used for logins! $ make client.pem The users certificate will be in "emailAddress.pem", i.e. "firstname.lastname@example.org". To create another client certificate, just repeat the steps for making a client certificate, being sure to enter a different login name for "commonName", and a different password. PERFORMANCE EAP performance for EAP-TLS, TTLS, and PEAP is dominated by SSL calculations. That is, a normal system can handle PAP authentication at a rate of 10k packets/s. However, SSL involves RSA calculations, which are very expensive. To benchmark your system, do: $ openssl speed rsa or $ openssl speed rsa2048 to test 2048 bit keys. A 1GHz system will likely do 30 calculations/s. A 2Ghz system may do 50 calculations/s, or more. That number is also the number of authentications/s that can be done for EAP-TLS (or TTLS, or PEAP). COMPATIBILITY The certificates created using this method are known to be compatible with ALL operating systems. Some common issues are: - Windows requires certain OID's in the certificates. If it doesn't see them, it will stop doing EAP. The most visibile effect is that the client starts EAP, gets a few Access-Challenge packets, and then a little while later re-starts EAP. If this happens, see the FAQ, and the comments in raddb/eap.conf for how to fix it. - Windows requires the root certificates to be on the client PC. If it doesn't have them, you will see the same issue as above. - Windows XP post SP2 has a bug where it has problems with certificate chains. i.e. if the server certificate is an intermediate one, and not a root one, then authentication will silently fail, as above. - Some versions of Windows CE cannot handle 4K RSA certificates. They will (again) silently fail, as above. - In none of these cases will Windows give the end user any reasonable error message describing what went wrong. This leads people to blame the RADIUS server. That blame is misplaced. - Certificate chains of more than 64K bytes are known to not work. This is a problem in FreeRADIUS. However, most clients cannot handle 64K certificate chains. Most Access Points will shut down the EAP session after about 50 round trips, while 64K certificate chains will take about 60 round trips. So don't use large certificate chains. They will only work after everyone upgrade everything in the network. - All other operating systems are known to work with EAP and FreeRADIUS. This includes Linux, *BSD, Mac OS X, Solaris, Symbian, along with all known embedded systems, phones, WiFi devices, etc. - Someone needs to ask Microsoft to please stop making life hard for their customers. SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS The default certificate configuration files used to use MD5 for message digests, to maintain compatibility with network equipment that supports only this algorithm. They now use SHA1. MD5 has known weaknesses and is discouraged in favor of SHA1 (see http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/836068 for details). If your network equipment requires the MD5 signature algorithm, we recommend that you change the "ca.cnf", "server.cnf", and "client.cnf" files to specify the use of SHA1 for the certificates. To do this, change the 'default_md' entry in those files from 'sha1' to 'md5'.