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README.rst: documented coordinate frames and transforms

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+Installation
+============
+
Fill me in
+Coordinate Systems
+==================
+
+MapFasten uses two main coordinate systems:
+
+ * The image coordinate system measures position in pixels (x, y) where
+ (0, 0) is the upper-left corner of the image, x increases to the
+ right, and y increases down.
+ * The Spherical Mercator coordinate system expresses position on the
+ Earth's surface. (x, y) coordinates. Roughly speaking, x increases to
+ the east and y increases to the north. The origin matches the origin
+ in lat/lon coordinates. The scale of the units approximates
+ displacement in meters. This system is also known as EPSG:3857 or
+ EPSG:900913.
+
+Two-way conversions between lat/lon and Spherical Mercator can be found
+in the ``latLonToMeters`` and ``metersToLatLon`` functions:
+
+ * `JavaScript coordinate conversions <https://github.com/geocam/geocamTiePoint/blob/master/geocamTiePoint/static/geocamTiePoint/js/coords.js>`_
+ * `Python coordinate conversions <https://github.com/geocam/geocamTiePoint/blob/master/geocamTiePoint/quadTree.py>`_
+
+Some other references:
+
+ * `Google Maps Coordinates, Tile Bounds, and Projection <http://www.maptiler.org/google-maps-coordinates-tile-bounds-projection/>`_
+ * `PROJ.4 FAQ: Google Mercator <http://trac.osgeo.org/proj/wiki/FAQ#ChangingEllipsoidWhycantIconvertfromWGS84toGoogleEarthVirtualGlobeMercator>`_
+
+Export Format
+=============
+
+Exporting an overlay produces a gzip-compressed tar archive containing
+Google Maps image pyramid tiles from the aligned overlay along with
+additional meta-data files. *NOTE: We may change the format of these
+files going forward.*
+
+Meta-Data Format: meta.json
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The ``transform`` field represents a best-fit transform that maps image
+coordinates to Spherical Mercator coordinates. Depending on the number
+of tie points specified, the transform can be expressed in two forms:
+
+ * ``"type": "projective"``. This is a 2D projective transform. Used when
+ fewer than 7 tie point pairs are specified. The ``matrix`` field is a
+ 3x3 transformation matrix ``M`` specified in row-major order. To apply
+ the transform:
+
+ * Start with image coordinates ``(x, y)``.
+
+ * Convert to a length-3 column vector ``u`` in homogeneous coordinates: ``u = (x, y, 1)``
+
+ * Matrix multiply ``(x0, y0, w) = M * u``.
+
+ * Normalize homogeneous coordinates: ``x' = x0 / w``, ``y' = y0 / w``.
+
+ * The resulting Spherical Mercator coordinates are ``(x', y')``.
+
+ * ``"type": "quadratic2"``. This transform is similar to the projective
+ transform but adds higher-order terms to achieve a better fit when
+ the overlay image uses a different map projection from the base
+ layer. Used when 7 or more tie point pairs are specified. Please
+ refer to the code for full details. Some points of interest:
+
+ * Note that despite the name, this transform is *not* exactly
+ quadratic. In order to ensure the transform has a simple analytical
+ inverse, corrections are applied serially, which incidentally
+ introduces some 4th-order and 6th-order terms.
+
+ * The ``matrix`` field has essentially the same interpretation as for
+ the 'projective' transform.
+
+ * In order to help with numerical stability during optimization, the
+ last step of the transform is to scale the result by 1e+7. Because
+ of this, the matrix entries will appear much smaller than those in
+ the projective transform.
+
+ * The coefficients for higher-order terms are encoded in the
+ ``quadraticTerms`` field. If all of those terms are 0, the
+ ``quadratic2`` transform reduces to a ``projective`` transform.
+
+See the alignment transform reference implementations in the
+``ProjectiveTransform`` and ``QuadraticTransform2`` classes:
+
+ * `JavaScript alignment transforms <https://github.com/geocam/geocamTiePoint/blob/master/geocamTiePoint/static/geocamTiePoint/js/transform.js>`_
+ * `Python alignment transforms <https://github.com/geocam/geocamTiePoint/blob/master/geocamTiePoint/transform.py>`_
+
.. o __BEGIN_LICENSE__
.. o Copyright (C) 2008-2010 United States Government as represented by
.. o the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

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