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Custom Constraints

This Grails plugin allows you to create custom domain Constraints for validating Domain objects.

Without this plugin, if you have a custom validation that you want to perform on a Domain object, you have to use a generic validator constraint and define it inline. With this plugin, you can create reusable, shareable constraints that you can use on multiple Domain objects. You can then package Constraints in plugins of their own and reuse them across projects as well.

Please Note:

Plugins are not loaded during Unit Tests, so you cannot test constraints in your unit tests. They should work during integration tests though, so you can test them there.

Get Started

  1. Create a groovy file in /grails-app/utils/ called *Constraint.groovy
  2. Implement a validate closure
  3. Add appropriate messages to /grails-app/i18n/
  4. Apply the validation to a Domain class

Create a Constraint with a validate closure

Under /grails-app/utils/:

class UsPhoneConstraint {
	def validate = { val -> 
		return val ==~ /^[01]?[- .]?(\([2-9]\d{2}\)|[2-9]\d{2})[- .]?\d{3}[- .]?\d{4}$/

Add messages to

Unless you set the defaultMessage static property, then it is a good idea to add an entry to with a default format string to show the user if validation fails.

The default format is: default.invalid.constraintName.message

Apply the Constraint to a domain class

class Person {
    String phone

	static constraints = {
	    phone(usPhone: true)


Constraint parameters

Any parameters passed to the constraint will be available in your Constraint object via the params property.

e.g. class FooDomain { String prop static constraints = { prop(someConstraint: ['a':1, 'b':2]) } }

def validate = { val ->
	def a = params.a
	def b = params.b
	return val == a + b

validate closure (required)

The validate closure is the main part of the algorithm where validation is performed. It should return a value to indicate if the validation was successful.

Successful validation is indicated by the return of:

  1. true
  2. null

An unsuccessful validation is indicated by the return of:

  1. false
  2. A String which is used as the error message to show the user
  3. A Collection with first element being message code, and following elements being message parameters
  4. An Array with first element being message code, and following elements being message parameters

The validate closure takes up to 3 parameters:

  1. The value to be validated
  2. The target object being validated
  3. The validation errors collection

e.g. def validate = { thePropertyValue, theTargetObject, errorsListYouProbablyWontEverNeed -> return null != thePropertyValue && }

supports closure (optional)

Your Constraint can optionally implement a supports closure that will allow you to restrict the types of the properties that the Constraint can be applied to. This closure will be passed a single argument, a Class that represents the type of the property that the constraint was applied to.


class Foo {
    Integer bar
    static constraints = {
        bar(custom: true)

The CustomConstraint will get an Integer class passed to its supports closure to check.

name property (optional)

The default name of the Constraint to use in your Domain object is the name of the class, camelCased, without the tailing Constraint.


  1. MyConstraint -> my
  2. UsPhoneConstraint -> usPhone

You can override this by providing a static name variable in your constraint definition:

static name = "customName"

defaultMessageCode property (optional)

The defaultMessageCode property defines the default key that will be used to look up the error message in the grails-app/i18n/ files.

The default value is default.$name.invalid.message You can override this by providing a static variable:

static defaultMessageCode = "default.something.unset.message"

failureCode property (optional)

The failureCode property defines a key that can be used to lookup error messages in the grails-app/i18n/ files. The value of this property is appended to the end of the name that the Constraint is applied to.

The default value is invalid.$name e.g.: With a CustomConstraint defined the default entry in will be something like: Person.firstName.custom.invalid

You can override this by providing a static variable:

static failureCode = "unset.constraint"

defaultMessage property (optional)

If no value is found in for the defaultMessageCode or the failureCode then this message will be used if it is supplied.

expectsParams property (optional)

The expectsParams static property allows you to define the required parameters for the Constraint. The expectsParams can be one of:

  1. Boolean true, saying a parameter is expected
  2. A List of the named parameters that are expected in a map
  3. A Closure allowing you to validate the parameters yourself


static expectsParams = ['start', 'end']
static expectsParams = true
static expectsParams = { parameters -> // ... do something }

persistent property (optional)

If you need access to the database to perform your validation, you can make your Constraint a persistent constraint by setting the static property persist = true in your Constraint class.

This will make a hibernateTemplate property available to your Constraint that you can use to access the database. Generally these will be more complicated to write because they require knowledge of the details of the Domain

Set this property in your Constraint class with:

static persistent = true


Persistent constraints are only supported when using the Hibernate plugin.

Simple Example

class SsnConstraint {

    static name = "social"
    static defaultMessageCode = ""

    def supports = { type ->
        return type!= null && String.class.isAssignableFrom(type);

    def validate = { propertyValue ->
        return propertyValue ==~ /\d{3}(-)?\d{2}(-)?\d{4}/

class Person {
	String ssn
	static constraints = {
		ssn(social: true)

Example With Params

class StartsAndEndsWithConstraint {
   	static expectsParams = ['start', 'end']

	def validate = { propertyValue, target ->
	   return propertyValue[0] == params.start && propertyValue[-1] == params.end

class MyDomain {
	String foo
	static constraints = {
		foo(startsAndEndsWith: [start: 'G', end: 'f'])

Example Persistent Constraint

import org.codehaus.groovy.grails.commons.DomainClassArtefactHandler;
import org.hibernate.Criteria;
import org.hibernate.FlushMode;
import org.hibernate.HibernateException;
import org.hibernate.Session;
import org.hibernate.criterion.Restrictions;
import org.springframework.orm.hibernate3.HibernateCallback;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.List;

class UniqueEgConstraint {

    static persistent = true

    def dbCall = { propertyValue, Session session -> 

        try {
            boolean shouldValidate = true;
            if(propertyValue != null && DomainClassArtefactHandler.isDomainClass(propertyValue.getClass())) {
                shouldValidate = session.contains(propertyValue)
            if(shouldValidate) {
                Criteria criteria = session.createCriteria( constraintOwningClass )
                        .add(Restrictions.eq( constraintPropertyName, propertyValue ))
                return criteria.list()
            } else {
                return null
        } finally {

    def validate = { propertyValue -> 
        dbCall.delegate = delegate
        def _v = dbCall.curry(propertyValue) as HibernateCallback
        def result = hibernateTemplate.executeFind(_v)
        return result ? false : true    // If we find a result, then non-unique


Dependency Injection

Constraints are standard Grails Artefacts which means that standard things like dependency injection are supported. You can inject a service or other Spring managed beans into your Constraint class if you need to use it.


class MyCustomConstraint {
	def someService
	def validate = { val -> 
		return someService.someMethod(val)


Like dependency injection, your constraints classes will have access to the log property if you want to do logging in them.


class MyCustomConstraint {
	def validate = { val -> 
		log.debug "Calling MyCustomConstraint with value [${val}]"
		// ...


@TestMixin support has been added to make Constraints easy to test using Unit tests.


class UsPhoneConstraintTest {
    void testUsPhoneValidation() {
        def constraint = testFor(UsPhoneConstraint)

        // Params are automatically mixed in to the test class and exposed
        // to the constraint with the call above.
        params = true

        assertTrue constraint.validate("5135551212")
        assertFalse constraint.validate("bad")


Custom constraints plugin for Grails applications







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