A utility for mocking out the Python Requests library.
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README.rst

Responses

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A utility library for mocking out the requests Python library.

Note

Responses requires Python 2.7 or newer, and requests >= 2.0

Installing

pip install responses

Basics

The core of responses comes from registering mock responses:

import responses
import requests

@responses.activate
def test_simple():
    responses.add(responses.GET, 'http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar',
                  json={'error': 'not found'}, status=404)

    resp = requests.get('http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar')

    assert resp.json() == {"error": "not found"}

    assert len(responses.calls) == 1
    assert responses.calls[0].request.url == 'http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar'
    assert responses.calls[0].response.text == '{"error": "not found"}'

If you attempt to fetch a url which doesn't hit a match, responses will raise a ConnectionError:

import responses
import requests

from requests.exceptions import ConnectionError

@responses.activate
def test_simple():
    with pytest.raises(ConnectionError):
        requests.get('http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar')

Lastly, you can pass an Exception as the body to trigger an error on the request:

import responses
import requests

@responses.activate
def test_simple():
    responses.add(responses.GET, 'http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar',
                  body=Exception('...'))
    with pytest.raises(Exception):
        requests.get('http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar')

Response Parameters

Responses are automatically registered via params on add, but can also be passed directly:

import responses

responses.add(
    responses.Response(
        method='GET',
        url='http://example.com',
    ),
)

The following attributes can be passed to a Response mock:

method (str)
The HTTP method (GET, POST, etc).
url (str or compiled regular expression)
The full resource URL.
match_querystring (bool)
Include the query string when matching requests. Enabled by default if the response URL contains a query string, disabled if it doesn't or the URL is a regular expression.
body (str or BufferedReader)
The response body.
json
A Python object representing the JSON response body. Automatically configures the appropriate Content-Type.
status (int)
The HTTP status code.
content_type (content_type)
Defaults to text/plain.
headers (dict)
Response headers.
stream (bool)
Disabled by default. Indicates the response should use the streaming API.

Dynamic Responses

You can utilize callbacks to provide dynamic responses. The callback must return a tuple of (status, headers, body).

import json

import responses
import requests

@responses.activate
def test_calc_api():

    def request_callback(request):
        payload = json.loads(request.body)
        resp_body = {'value': sum(payload['numbers'])}
        headers = {'request-id': '728d329e-0e86-11e4-a748-0c84dc037c13'}
        return (200, headers, json.dumps(resp_body))

    responses.add_callback(
        responses.POST, 'http://calc.com/sum',
        callback=request_callback,
        content_type='application/json',
    )

    resp = requests.post(
        'http://calc.com/sum',
        json.dumps({'numbers': [1, 2, 3]}),
        headers={'content-type': 'application/json'},
    )

    assert resp.json() == {'value': 6}

    assert len(responses.calls) == 1
    assert responses.calls[0].request.url == 'http://calc.com/sum'
    assert responses.calls[0].response.text == '{"value": 6}'
    assert (
        responses.calls[0].response.headers['request-id'] ==
        '728d329e-0e86-11e4-a748-0c84dc037c13'
    )

If you want to pass extra keyword arguments to the callback function, for example when reusing a callback function to give a slightly different result, you can use functools.partial:

from functools import partial

...

    def request_callback(request, id=None):
        payload = json.loads(request.body)
        resp_body = {'value': sum(payload['numbers'])}
        headers = {'request-id': id}
        return (200, headers, json.dumps(resp_body))

    responses.add_callback(
        responses.POST, 'http://calc.com/sum',
        callback=partial(request_callback, id='728d329e-0e86-11e4-a748-0c84dc037c13'),
        content_type='application/json',
    )

Responses as a context manager

import responses
import requests

def test_my_api():
    with responses.RequestsMock() as rsps:
        rsps.add(responses.GET, 'http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar',
                 body='{}', status=200,
                 content_type='application/json')
        resp = requests.get('http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar')

        assert resp.status_code == 200

    # outside the context manager requests will hit the remote server
    resp = requests.get('http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar')
    resp.status_code == 404

Assertions on declared responses

When used as a context manager, Responses will, by default, raise an assertion error if a url was registered but not accessed. This can be disabled by passing the assert_all_requests_are_fired value:

import responses
import requests

def test_my_api():
    with responses.RequestsMock(assert_all_requests_are_fired=False) as rsps:
        rsps.add(responses.GET, 'http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar',
                 body='{}', status=200,
                 content_type='application/json')

Multiple Responses

You can also add multiple responses for the same url:

import responses
import requests

@responses.activate
def test_my_api():
    responses.add(responses.GET, 'http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar', status=500)
    responses.add(responses.GET, 'http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar',
                  body='{}', status=200,
                  content_type='application/json')

    resp = requests.get('http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar')
    assert resp.status_code == 500
    resp = requests.get('http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar')
    assert resp.status_code == 200

Using a callback to modify the response

If you use customized processing in requests via subclassing/mixins, or if you have library tools that interact with requests at a low level, you may need to add extended processing to the mocked Response object to fully simulate the environment for your tests. A response_callback can be used, which will be wrapped by the library before being returned to the caller. The callback accepts a response as it's single argument, and is expected to return a single response object.

import responses
import requests

def response_callback(resp):
    resp.callback_processed = True
    return resp

with responses.RequestsMock(response_callback=response_callback) as m:
    m.add(responses.GET, 'http://example.com', body=b'test')
    resp = requests.get('http://example.com')
    assert resp.text == "test"
    assert hasattr(resp, 'callback_processed')
    assert resp.callback_processed is True

Passing thru real requests

In some cases you may wish to allow for certain requests to pass thru responses and hit a real server. This can be done with the 'passthru' methods:

import responses

@responses.activate
def test_my_api():
    responses.add_passthru('https://percy.io')

This will allow any requests matching that prefix, that is otherwise not registered as a mock response, to passthru using the standard behavior.

Contributing

Responses uses several linting and autoformatting utilities, so it's important that when submitting patches you use the appropriate toolchain:

Clone the repository:

git clone https://github.com/getsentry/responses.git

Create an environment (e.g. with virtualenv):

virtualenv .env && source .env/bin/activate

Configure development requirements:

make develop