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A high-performance, bindless graphics API for Rust.
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bors and aleksijuvani Merge #2838
2838: [vk] create `CAMetalLayer` for `NSView` if it doesn't exist r=kvark a=aleksijuvani

Fixes `VK_ERROR_INITIALIZATION_FAILED: vkCreate_PLATFORM_SurfaceMVK(): On-screen rendering requires a layer of type CAMetalLayer` with MoltenVK.

PR checklist:
- [ ] `make` succeeds (on *nix)
- [ ] `make reftests` succeeds
- [x] tested examples with the following backends: vk
- [ ] `rustfmt` run on changed code

Co-authored-by: Aleksi Juvani <>
Latest commit 3ee2883 Jun 17, 2019

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Getting Started | Documentation | Blog


PLEASE BE AWARE: this is home to the gfx-hal crate/API. The Old gfx Crate Is Now Deprecated.

gfx-rs is a low-level, cross-platform graphics and compute abstraction library in Rust. It consists of the following components:

  • gfx-hal which is gfx's hardware abstraction layer: a Vulkan-ic mostly unsafe API which translates to native graphics backends.
  • gfx-backend-* which contains graphics backends for various platforms:
  • gfx-warden which is a data-driven reference test framework, used to verify consistency across all graphics backends.

The gfx crate

This repository was originally home to the gfx crate, which is now deprecated. You can find the latest versions of the code for that crate in the pre-ll branch of this repository.

The master branch of this repository is now focused on developing gfx-hal and its associated backend and helper libraries, as described above. gfx-hal is a complete rewrite of gfx, but it is not necessarily the direct successor to gfx. Instead, it serves a different purpose than the original gfx crate, by being "lower level" than the original. Hence, the name of gfx-hal was originally ll, which stands for "lower level", and the original gfx is now referred to as pre-ll.

The spiritual successor to the original gfx is actually wgpu, which stands on a similar level of abstraction to the old gfx crate, but with a modernized API that is more fit for being used over Vulkan/DX12/Metal. If you want something similar to the old gfx crate that is being actively developed, wgpu is probably what you're looking for, rather than gfx-hal.


To run an example, simply cd to the examples directory, then use cargo run with --features {backend} to specify the backend (where {backend} is either vulkan, dx12, dx11, metal, or gl). For example:

# Clone the gfx repository
git clone
# Change directory to `examples`
cd gfx/examples
# Vulkan
cargo run --bin quad --features vulkan
# Metal (macOS/iOS)
cargo run --bin quad --features metal
# DirectX12 (Windows)
cargo run --bin compute --features dx12 1 2 3 4

This runs the quad example using the Vulkan backend, and then the compute example using the DirectX 12 backend.

These examples assume that necessary dependencies for the graphics backend are already installed. For more information about installation and usage, refer to the Getting Started guide.

Hardware Abstraction Layer

The Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL), is a thin, low-level graphics and compute layer which translates API calls to various backends, which allows for cross-platform support. The API of this layer is based on the Vulkan API, adapted to be more Rust-friendly.

Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL)

Currently HAL has backends for Vulkan, DirectX 12/11, Metal, and OpenGL/OpenGL ES/WebGL.

The HAL layer is consumed directly by user applications or libraries. HAL is also used in efforts such as gfx-portability.

Previously Released Crates and API (pre-LL)

The code in master is a complete low-level rewrite of gfx based on HAL as described above.

The previously released crates (gfx_core, gfx, gfx_device_*, gfx_window_) are still being developed and published from the pre-ll (pre-low level rewrite) branch.


This repository is licensed under either of

at your option.


Unless you explicitly state otherwise, any contribution intentionally submitted for inclusion in the work by you, as defined in the Apache-2.0 license, shall be dual licensed as above, without any additional terms or conditions.

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