:mod:`sqlite3` --- DB-API 2.0 interface for SQLite databases
.. module:: sqlite3 :synopsis: A DB-API 2.0 implementation using SQLite 3.x.
.. sectionauthor:: Gerhard HÃ¤ring <email@example.com>
SQLite is a C library that provides a lightweight disk-based database that doesn't require a separate server process and allows accessing the database using a nonstandard variant of the SQL query language. Some applications can use SQLite for internal data storage. It's also possible to prototype an application using SQLite and then port the code to a larger database such as PostgreSQL or Oracle.
pysqlite was written by Gerhard Häring and provides a SQL interface compliant with the DB-API 2.0 specification described by PEP 249.
conn = sqlite3.connect('/tmp/example')
You can also supply the special name
:memory: to create a database in RAM.
c = conn.cursor() # Create table c.execute('''create table stocks (date text, trans text, symbol text, qty real, price real)''') # Insert a row of data c.execute("""insert into stocks values ('2006-01-05','BUY','RHAT',100,35.14)""") # Save (commit) the changes conn.commit() # We can also close the cursor if we are done with it c.close()
Usually your SQL operations will need to use values from Python variables. You shouldn't assemble your query using Python's string operations because doing so is insecure; it makes your program vulnerable to an SQL injection attack.
Instead, use the DB-API's parameter substitution. Put
? as a placeholder
wherever you want to use a value, and then provide a tuple of values as the
second argument to the cursor's :meth:`~Cursor.execute` method. (Other database
modules may use a different placeholder, such as
# Never do this -- insecure! symbol = 'IBM' c.execute("... where symbol = '%s'" % symbol) # Do this instead t = (symbol,) c.execute('select * from stocks where symbol=?', t) # Larger example for t in [('2006-03-28', 'BUY', 'IBM', 1000, 45.00), ('2006-04-05', 'BUY', 'MSOFT', 1000, 72.00), ('2006-04-06', 'SELL', 'IBM', 500, 53.00), ]: c.execute('insert into stocks values (?,?,?,?,?)', t)
To retrieve data after executing a SELECT statement, you can either treat the cursor as an :term:`iterator`, call the cursor's :meth:`~Cursor.fetchone` method to retrieve a single matching row, or call :meth:`~Cursor.fetchall` to get a list of the matching rows.
This example uses the iterator form:
>>> c = conn.cursor() >>> c.execute('select * from stocks order by price') >>> for row in c: ... print row ... (u'2006-01-05', u'BUY', u'RHAT', 100, 35.14) (u'2006-03-28', u'BUY', u'IBM', 1000, 45.0) (u'2006-04-06', u'SELL', u'IBM', 500, 53.0) (u'2006-04-05', u'BUY', u'MSOFT', 1000, 72.0) >>>
.. seealso:: http://github.com/ghaering/pysqlite The pysqlite web page -- sqlite3 is developed externally under the name "pysqlite". http://www.sqlite.org The SQLite web page; the documentation describes the syntax and the available data types for the supported SQL dialect. :pep:`249` - Database API Specification 2.0 PEP written by Marc-André Lemburg.
Module functions and constants
.. data:: PARSE_DECLTYPES This constant is meant to be used with the *detect_types* parameter of the :func:`connect` function. Setting it makes the :mod:`sqlite3` module parse the declared type for each column it returns. It will parse out the first word of the declared type, i. e. for "integer primary key", it will parse out "integer", or for "number(10)" it will parse out "number". Then for that column, it will look into the converters dictionary and use the converter function registered for that type there.
.. data:: PARSE_COLNAMES This constant is meant to be used with the *detect_types* parameter of the :func:`connect` function. Setting this makes the SQLite interface parse the column name for each column it returns. It will look for a string formed [mytype] in there, and then decide that 'mytype' is the type of the column. It will try to find an entry of 'mytype' in the converters dictionary and then use the converter function found there to return the value. The column name found in :attr:`Cursor.description` is only the first word of the column name, i. e. if you use something like ``'as "x [datetime]"'`` in your SQL, then we will parse out everything until the first blank for the column name: the column name would simply be "x".
.. function:: connect(database[, timeout, isolation_level, detect_types, factory, flags]) Opens a connection to the SQLite database file *database*. You can use ``":memory:"`` to open a database connection to a database that resides in RAM instead of on disk. When a database is accessed by multiple connections, and one of the processes modifies the database, the SQLite database is locked until that transaction is committed. The *timeout* parameter specifies how long the connection should wait for the lock to go away until raising an exception. The default for the timeout parameter is 5.0 (five seconds). For the *isolation_level* parameter, please see the :attr:`Connection.isolation_level` property of :class:`Connection` objects. SQLite natively supports only the types TEXT, INTEGER, REAL, BLOB and NULL. If you want to use other types you must add support for them yourself. The *detect_types* parameter and the using custom **converters** registered with the module-level :func:`register_converter` function allow you to easily do that. *detect_types* defaults to 0 (i. e. off, no type detection), you can set it to any combination of :const:`PARSE_DECLTYPES` and :const:`PARSE_COLNAMES` to turn type detection on. By default, the :mod:`sqlite3` module uses its :class:`Connection` class for the connect call. You can, however, subclass the :class:`Connection` class and make :func:`connect` use your class instead by providing your class for the *factory* parameter. Consult the section :ref:`sqlite3-types` of this manual for details. The :mod:`sqlite3` module internally uses a statement cache to avoid SQL parsing overhead. If you want to explicitly set the number of statements that are cached for the connection, you can set the *cached_statements* parameter. The currently implemented default is to cache 100 statements. The *flags* parameter can be set to change the behaviour of the wrapped sqlite3_open_v2 call. It defaults to *SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE | SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE*. Please consult the SQLite documentation for the possible values: https://www.sqlite.org/c3ref/open.html
.. function:: register_converter(typename, callable) Registers a callable to convert a bytestring from the database into a custom Python type. The callable will be invoked for all database values that are of the type *typename*. Confer the parameter *detect_types* of the :func:`connect` function for how the type detection works. Note that the case of *typename* and the name of the type in your query must match!
.. function:: register_adapter(type, callable) Registers a callable to convert the custom Python type *type* into one of SQLite's supported types. The callable *callable* accepts as single parameter the Python value, and must return a value of the following types: int, long, float, str (UTF-8 encoded), unicode or buffer.
.. function:: complete_statement(sql) Returns :const:`True` if the string *sql* contains one or more complete SQL statements terminated by semicolons. It does not verify that the SQL is syntactically correct, only that there are no unclosed string literals and the statement is terminated by a semicolon. This can be used to build a shell for SQLite, as in the following example: .. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/complete_statement.py
.. function:: enable_callback_tracebacks(flag) By default you will not get any tracebacks in user-defined functions, aggregates, converters, authorizer callbacks etc. If you want to debug them, you can call this function with *flag* as True. Afterwards, you will get tracebacks from callbacks on ``sys.stderr``. Use :const:`False` to disable the feature again.
A SQLite database connection has the following attributes and methods:
.. attribute:: Connection.isolation_level Get or set the current isolation level. :const:`None` for autocommit mode or one of "DEFERRED", "IMMEDIATE" or "EXCLUSIVE". See section :ref:`sqlite3-controlling-transactions` for a more detailed explanation.
.. method:: Connection.cursor([cursorClass]) The cursor method accepts a single optional parameter *cursorClass*. If supplied, this must be a custom cursor class that extends :class:`sqlite3.Cursor`.
.. method:: Connection.commit() This method commits the current transaction. If you don't call this method, anything you did since the last call to ``commit()`` is not visible from from other database connections. If you wonder why you don't see the data you've written to the database, please check you didn't forget to call this method.
.. method:: Connection.rollback() This method rolls back any changes to the database since the last call to :meth:`commit`.
.. method:: Connection.close() This closes the database connection. Note that this does not automatically call :meth:`commit`. If you just close your database connection without calling :meth:`commit` first, your changes will be lost!
.. method:: Connection.execute(sql, [parameters]) This is a nonstandard shortcut that creates an intermediate cursor object by calling the cursor method, then calls the cursor's :meth:`execute<Cursor.execute>` method with the parameters given.
.. method:: Connection.executemany(sql, [parameters]) This is a nonstandard shortcut that creates an intermediate cursor object by calling the cursor method, then calls the cursor's :meth:`executemany<Cursor.executemany>` method with the parameters given.
.. method:: Connection.executescript(sql_script) This is a nonstandard shortcut that creates an intermediate cursor object by calling the cursor method, then calls the cursor's :meth:`executescript<Cursor.executescript>` method with the parameters given.
.. method:: Connection.create_function(name, num_params, func) Creates a user-defined function that you can later use from within SQL statements under the function name *name*. *num_params* is the number of parameters the function accepts, and *func* is a Python callable that is called as the SQL function. The function can return any of the types supported by SQLite: unicode, str, int, long, float, buffer and None. Example: .. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/md5func.py
.. method:: Connection.create_aggregate(name, num_params, aggregate_class) Creates a user-defined aggregate function. The aggregate class must implement a ``step`` method, which accepts the number of parameters *num_params*, and a ``finalize`` method which will return the final result of the aggregate. The ``finalize`` method can return any of the types supported by SQLite: unicode, str, int, long, float, buffer and None. Example: .. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/mysumaggr.py
.. method:: Connection.create_collation(name, callable) Creates a collation with the specified *name* and *callable*. The callable will be passed two string arguments. It should return -1 if the first is ordered lower than the second, 0 if they are ordered equal and 1 if the first is ordered higher than the second. Note that this controls sorting (ORDER BY in SQL) so your comparisons don't affect other SQL operations. Note that the callable will get its parameters as Python bytestrings, which will normally be encoded in UTF-8. The following example shows a custom collation that sorts "the wrong way": .. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/collation_reverse.py To remove a collation, call ``create_collation`` with None as callable:: con.create_collation("reverse", None)
.. method:: Connection.interrupt() You can call this method from a different thread to abort any queries that might be executing on the connection. The query will then abort and the caller will get an exception.
.. method:: Connection.set_authorizer(authorizer_callback) This routine registers a callback. The callback is invoked for each attempt to access a column of a table in the database. The callback should return :const:`SQLITE_OK` if access is allowed, :const:`SQLITE_DENY` if the entire SQL statement should be aborted with an error and :const:`SQLITE_IGNORE` if the column should be treated as a NULL value. These constants are available in the :mod:`sqlite3` module. The first argument to the callback signifies what kind of operation is to be authorized. The second and third argument will be arguments or :const:`None` depending on the first argument. The 4th argument is the name of the database ("main", "temp", etc.) if applicable. The 5th argument is the name of the inner-most trigger or view that is responsible for the access attempt or :const:`None` if this access attempt is directly from input SQL code. Please consult the SQLite documentation about the possible values for the first argument and the meaning of the second and third argument depending on the first one. All necessary constants are available in the :mod:`sqlite3` module.
.. method:: Connection.get_limit(limit_id) This routine returns the current value of the limit specified by the constant limit_id. Please consult the SQLite documentation about the possible values for the limit_id parameter.
.. method:: Connection.set_limit(limit_id, new_value) This routine sets a new value for the limit specified by the constant limit_id. Please consult the SQLite documentation about the possible values for the limit_id parameter.
.. method:: Connection.set_progress_handler(handler, n) This routine registers a callback. The callback is invoked for every *n* instructions of the SQLite virtual machine. This is useful if you want to get called from SQLite during long-running operations, for example to update a GUI. If you want to clear any previously installed progress handler, call the method with :const:`None` for *handler*.
.. method:: Connection.enable_load_extension(enabled) This routine allows/disallows the SQLite engine to load SQLite extensions from shared libraries. SQLite extensions can define new functions, aggregates or whole new virtual table implementations. One well-known extension is the fulltext-search extension distributed with SQLite. .. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/load_extension.py
.. method:: Connection.load_extension(path) This routine loads a SQLite extension from a shared library. You have to enable extension loading with ``enable_load_extension`` before you can use this routine.
.. attribute:: Connection.row_factory You can change this attribute to a callable that accepts the cursor and the original row as a tuple and will return the real result row. This way, you can implement more advanced ways of returning results, such as returning an object that can also access columns by name. Example: .. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/row_factory.py If returning a tuple doesn't suffice and you want name-based access to columns, you should consider setting :attr:`row_factory` to the highly-optimized :class:`sqlite3.Row` type. :class:`Row` provides both index-based and case-insensitive name-based access to columns with almost no memory overhead. It will probably be better than your own custom dictionary-based approach or even a db_row based solution. .. XXX what's a db_row-based solution?
.. attribute:: Connection.text_factory Using this attribute you can control what objects are returned for the ``TEXT`` data type. By default, this attribute is set to :class:`unicode` and the :mod:`sqlite3` module will return Unicode objects for ``TEXT``. If you want to return bytestrings instead, you can set it to :class:`str`. For efficiency reasons, there's also a way to return Unicode objects only for non-ASCII data, and bytestrings otherwise. To activate it, set this attribute to :const:`sqlite3.OptimizedUnicode`. You can also set it to any other callable that accepts a single bytestring parameter and returns the resulting object. See the following example code for illustration: .. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/text_factory.py
.. attribute:: Connection.total_changes Returns the total number of database rows that have been modified, inserted, or deleted since the database connection was opened.
.. attribute:: Connection.iterdump Returns an iterator to dump the database in an SQL text format. Useful when saving an in-memory database for later restoration. This function provides the same capabilities as the :kbd:`.dump` command in the :program:`sqlite3` shell. Example:: # Convert file existing_db.db to SQL dump file dump.sql import sqlite3, os con = sqlite3.connect('existing_db.db') full_dump = os.linesep.join([line for line in con.iterdump()]) f = open('dump.sql', 'w') f.writelines(full_dump) f.close()
A :class:`Cursor` instance has the following attributes and methods:
A SQLite database cursor has the following attributes and methods:
.. method:: Cursor.close() Close the cursor now (rather than whenever __del__ is called). The cursor will be unusable from this point forward; an Error (or subclass) exception will be raised if any operation is attempted with the cursor.
.. method:: Cursor.execute(sql, [parameters]) Executes an SQL statement. The SQL statement may be parametrized (i. e. placeholders instead of SQL literals). The :mod:`sqlite3` module supports two kinds of placeholders: question marks (qmark style) and named placeholders (named style). This example shows how to use parameters with qmark style: .. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/execute_1.py This example shows how to use the named style: .. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/execute_2.py :meth:`execute` will only execute a single SQL statement. If you try to execute more than one statement with it, it will raise a Warning. Use :meth:`executescript` if you want to execute multiple SQL statements with one call.
.. method:: Cursor.executemany(sql, seq_of_parameters) Executes an SQL command against all parameter sequences or mappings found in the sequence *sql*. The :mod:`sqlite3` module also allows using an :term:`iterator` yielding parameters instead of a sequence. .. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/executemany_1.py Here's a shorter example using a :term:`generator`: .. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/executemany_2.py
.. method:: Cursor.executescript(sql_script) This is a nonstandard convenience method for executing multiple SQL statements at once. It issues a ``COMMIT`` statement first, then executes the SQL script it gets as a parameter. *sql_script* can be a bytestring or a Unicode string. Example: .. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/executescript.py
.. method:: Cursor.fetchone() Fetches the next row of a query result set, returning a single sequence, or :const:`None` when no more data is available.
.. method:: Cursor.fetchmany([size=cursor.arraysize]) Fetches the next set of rows of a query result, returning a list. An empty list is returned when no more rows are available. The number of rows to fetch per call is specified by the *size* parameter. If it is not given, the cursor's arraysize determines the number of rows to be fetched. The method should try to fetch as many rows as indicated by the size parameter. If this is not possible due to the specified number of rows not being available, fewer rows may be returned. Note there are performance considerations involved with the *size* parameter. For optimal performance, it is usually best to use the arraysize attribute. If the *size* parameter is used, then it is best for it to retain the same value from one :meth:`fetchmany` call to the next.
.. method:: Cursor.fetchall() Fetches all (remaining) rows of a query result, returning a list. Note that the cursor's arraysize attribute can affect the performance of this operation. An empty list is returned when no rows are available.
.. attribute:: Cursor.rowcount Although the :class:`Cursor` class of the :mod:`sqlite3` module implements this attribute, the database engine's own support for the determination of "rows affected"/"rows selected" is quirky. For ``DELETE`` statements, SQLite reports :attr:`rowcount` as 0 if you make a ``DELETE FROM table`` without any condition. For :meth:`executemany` statements, the number of modifications are summed up into :attr:`rowcount`. As required by the Python DB API Spec, the :attr:`rowcount` attribute "is -1 in case no ``executeXX()`` has been performed on the cursor or the rowcount of the last operation is not determinable by the interface". This includes ``SELECT`` statements because we cannot determine the number of rows a query produced until all rows were fetched.
.. attribute:: Cursor.lastrowid This read-only attribute provides the rowid of the last modified row. It is only set if you issued a ``INSERT`` statement using the :meth:`execute` method. For operations other than ``INSERT`` or when :meth:`executemany` is called, :attr:`lastrowid` is set to :const:`None`.
.. attribute:: Cursor.description This read-only attribute provides the column names of the last query. To remain compatible with the Python DB API, it returns a 7-tuple for each column where the last six items of each tuple are :const:`None`. It is set for ``SELECT`` statements without any matching rows as well.
It supports mapping access by column name and index, iteration, representation, equality testing and :func:`len`.
If two :class:`Row` objects have exactly the same columns and their members are equal, they compare equal.
.. versionchanged:: 2.6 Added iteration and equality (hashability).
.. method:: keys This method returns a tuple of column names. Immediately after a query, it is the first member of each tuple in :attr:`Cursor.description`. .. versionadded:: 2.6
Let's assume we initialize a table as in the example given above:
conn = sqlite3.connect(":memory:") c = conn.cursor() c.execute('''create table stocks (date text, trans text, symbol text, qty real, price real)''') c.execute("""insert into stocks values ('2006-01-05','BUY','RHAT',100,35.14)""") conn.commit() c.close()
Now we plug :class:`Row` in:
>>> conn.row_factory = sqlite3.Row >>> c = conn.cursor() >>> c.execute('select * from stocks') <sqlite3.Cursor object at 0x7f4e7dd8fa80> >>> r = c.fetchone() >>> type(r) <type 'sqlite3.Row'> >>> r (u'2006-01-05', u'BUY', u'RHAT', 100.0, 35.14) >>> len(r) 5 >>> r u'RHAT' >>> r.keys() ['date', 'trans', 'symbol', 'qty', 'price'] >>> r['qty'] 100.0 >>> for member in r: print member ... 2006-01-05 BUY RHAT 100.0 35.14
SQLite and Python types
SQLite natively supports the following types:
The following Python types can thus be sent to SQLite without any problem:
|Python type||SQLite type|
This is how SQLite types are converted to Python types by default:
|SQLite type||Python type|
||:class:`int` or :class:`long`, depending on size|
||depends on :attr:`~Connection.text_factory`, :class:`unicode` by default|
The type system of the :mod:`sqlite3` module is extensible in two ways: you can store additional Python types in a SQLite database via object adaptation, and you can let the :mod:`sqlite3` module convert SQLite types to different Python types via converters.
Using adapters to store additional Python types in SQLite databases
As described before, SQLite supports only a limited set of types natively. To use other Python types with SQLite, you must adapt them to one of the sqlite3 module's supported types for SQLite: one of NoneType, int, long, float, str, unicode, buffer.
There are two ways to enable the :mod:`sqlite3` module to adapt a custom Python type to one of the supported ones.
Letting your object adapt itself
This is a good approach if you write the class yourself. Let's suppose you have a class like this:
class Point(object): def __init__(self, x, y): self.x, self.y = x, y
Now you want to store the point in a single SQLite column. First you'll have to
choose one of the supported types first to be used for representing the point.
Let's just use str and separate the coordinates using a semicolon. Then you need
to give your class a method
__conform__(self, protocol) which must return
the converted value. The parameter protocol will be :class:`PrepareProtocol`.
.. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/adapter_point_1.py
Registering an adapter callable
The other possibility is to create a function that converts the type to the string representation and register the function with :meth:`register_adapter`.
.. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/adapter_point_2.py
The :mod:`sqlite3` module has two default adapters for Python's built-in :class:`datetime.date` and :class:`datetime.datetime` types. Now let's suppose we want to store :class:`datetime.datetime` objects not in ISO representation, but as a Unix timestamp.
.. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/adapter_datetime.py
Converting SQLite values to custom Python types
Writing an adapter lets you send custom Python types to SQLite. But to make it really useful we need to make the Python to SQLite to Python roundtrip work.
Let's go back to the :class:`Point` class. We stored the x and y coordinates separated via semicolons as strings in SQLite.
First, we'll define a converter function that accepts the string as a parameter and constructs a :class:`Point` object from it.
Converter functions always get called with a string, no matter under which data type you sent the value to SQLite.
def convert_point(s): x, y = map(float, s.split(";")) return Point(x, y)
Now you need to make the :mod:`sqlite3` module know that what you select from the database is actually a point. There are two ways of doing this:
- Implicitly via the declared type
- Explicitly via the column name
The following example illustrates both approaches.
.. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/converter_point.py
Default adapters and converters
There are default adapters for the date and datetime types in the datetime module. They will be sent as ISO dates/ISO timestamps to SQLite.
This way, you can use date/timestamps from Python without any additional fiddling in most cases. The format of the adapters is also compatible with the experimental SQLite date/time functions.
The following example demonstrates this.
.. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/pysqlite_datetime.py
By default, the :mod:`sqlite3` module opens transactions implicitly before a
Data Modification Language (DML) statement (i.e.
.. versionchanged:: 2.8.0 pysqlite used to implicitly commit an open transaction before DDL statements. This is no longer the case.
So if you are within a transaction and issue a command like
PRAGMA, the :mod:`sqlite3` module will commit implicitly
before executing that command. There are two reasons for doing that. The first
is that some of these commands don't work within transactions. The other reason
is that pysqlite needs to keep track of the transaction state (if a transaction
is active or not).
You can control which kind of
BEGIN statements sqlite3 implicitly executes
(or none at all) via the isolation_level parameter to the :func:`connect`
call, or via the :attr:`isolation_level` property of connections.
If you want autocommit mode, then set :attr:`isolation_level` to None.
Otherwise leave it at its default, which will result in a plain "BEGIN" statement, or set it to one of SQLite's supported isolation levels: "DEFERRED", "IMMEDIATE" or "EXCLUSIVE".
Using shortcut methods
Using the nonstandard :meth:`execute`, :meth:`executemany` and
:meth:`executescript` methods of the :class:`Connection` object, your code can
be written more concisely because you don't have to create the (often
superfluous) :class:`Cursor` objects explicitly. Instead, the :class:`Cursor`
objects are created implicitly and these shortcut methods return the cursor
objects. This way, you can execute a
SELECT statement and iterate over it
directly using only a single call on the :class:`Connection` object.
.. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/shortcut_methods.py
Accessing columns by name instead of by index
Rows wrapped with this class can be accessed both by index (like tuples) and case-insensitively by name:
.. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/rowclass.py
Using the connection as a context manager
With Python 2.5 or higher, connection objects can be used as context managers that automatically commit or rollback transactions. In the event of an exception, the transaction is rolled back; otherwise, the transaction is committed:
.. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/ctx_manager.py
Older SQLite versions had issues with sharing connections between threads. That's why the Python module disallows sharing connections and cursors between threads. If you still try to do so, you will get an exception at runtime.
The only exception is calling the :meth:`~Connection.interrupt` method, which only makes sense to call from a different thread.