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{-# LANGUAGE Trustworthy #-}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- |
-- Module : Data.Foldable
-- Copyright : Ross Paterson 2005
-- License : BSD-style (see the LICENSE file in the distribution)
--
-- Maintainer : libraries@haskell.org
-- Stability : experimental
-- Portability : portable
--
-- Class of data structures that can be folded to a summary value.
--
-- Many of these functions generalize "Prelude", "Control.Monad" and
-- "Data.List" functions of the same names from lists to any 'Foldable'
-- functor. To avoid ambiguity, either import those modules hiding
-- these names or qualify uses of these function names with an alias
-- for this module.
--
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
module Data.Foldable (
-- * Folds
Foldable(..),
-- ** Special biased folds
foldrM,
foldlM,
-- ** Folding actions
-- *** Applicative actions
traverse_,
for_,
sequenceA_,
asum,
-- *** Monadic actions
mapM_,
forM_,
sequence_,
msum,
-- ** Specialized folds
toList,
concat,
concatMap,
and,
or,
any,
all,
sum,
product,
maximum,
maximumBy,
minimum,
minimumBy,
-- ** Searches
elem,
notElem,
find
) where
import Prelude hiding (foldl, foldr, foldl1, foldr1, mapM_, sequence_,
elem, notElem, concat, concatMap, and, or, any, all,
sum, product, maximum, minimum)
import qualified Prelude (foldl, foldr, foldl1, foldr1)
import qualified Data.List as List (foldl')
import Control.Applicative
import Control.Monad (MonadPlus(..))
import Data.Maybe (fromMaybe, listToMaybe)
import Data.Monoid
import Data.Proxy
import GHC.Exts (build)
import GHC.Arr
-- | Data structures that can be folded.
--
-- Minimal complete definition: 'foldMap' or 'foldr'.
--
-- For example, given a data type
--
-- > data Tree a = Empty | Leaf a | Node (Tree a) a (Tree a)
--
-- a suitable instance would be
--
-- > instance Foldable Tree where
-- > foldMap f Empty = mempty
-- > foldMap f (Leaf x) = f x
-- > foldMap f (Node l k r) = foldMap f l `mappend` f k `mappend` foldMap f r
--
-- This is suitable even for abstract types, as the monoid is assumed
-- to satisfy the monoid laws. Alternatively, one could define @foldr@:
--
-- > instance Foldable Tree where
-- > foldr f z Empty = z
-- > foldr f z (Leaf x) = f x z
-- > foldr f z (Node l k r) = foldr f (f k (foldr f z r)) l
--
class Foldable t where
-- | Combine the elements of a structure using a monoid.
fold :: Monoid m => t m -> m
fold = foldMap id
-- | Map each element of the structure to a monoid,
-- and combine the results.
foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> t a -> m
foldMap f = foldr (mappend . f) mempty
-- | Right-associative fold of a structure.
--
-- @'foldr' f z = 'Prelude.foldr' f z . 'toList'@
foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b
foldr f z t = appEndo (foldMap (Endo . f) t) z
-- | Right-associative fold of a structure,
-- but with strict application of the operator.
foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b
foldr' f z0 xs = foldl f' id xs z0
where f' k x z = k $! f x z
-- | Left-associative fold of a structure.
--
-- @'foldl' f z = 'Prelude.foldl' f z . 'toList'@
foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b
foldl f z t = appEndo (getDual (foldMap (Dual . Endo . flip f) t)) z
-- | Left-associative fold of a structure.
-- but with strict application of the operator.
--
-- @'foldl' f z = 'List.foldl'' f z . 'toList'@
foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b
foldl' f z0 xs = foldr f' id xs z0
where f' x k z = k $! f z x
-- | A variant of 'foldr' that has no base case,
-- and thus may only be applied to non-empty structures.
--
-- @'foldr1' f = 'Prelude.foldr1' f . 'toList'@
foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a
foldr1 f xs = fromMaybe (error "foldr1: empty structure")
(foldr mf Nothing xs)
where
mf x Nothing = Just x
mf x (Just y) = Just (f x y)
-- | A variant of 'foldl' that has no base case,
-- and thus may only be applied to non-empty structures.
--
-- @'foldl1' f = 'Prelude.foldl1' f . 'toList'@
foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a
foldl1 f xs = fromMaybe (error "foldl1: empty structure")
(foldl mf Nothing xs)
where
mf Nothing y = Just y
mf (Just x) y = Just (f x y)
{-# MINIMAL foldMap | foldr #-}
-- instances for Prelude types
instance Foldable Maybe where
foldr _ z Nothing = z
foldr f z (Just x) = f x z
foldl _ z Nothing = z
foldl f z (Just x) = f z x
instance Foldable [] where
foldr = Prelude.foldr
foldl = Prelude.foldl
foldl' = List.foldl'
foldr1 = Prelude.foldr1
foldl1 = Prelude.foldl1
instance Foldable (Either a) where
foldMap _ (Left _) = mempty
foldMap f (Right y) = f y
foldr _ z (Left _) = z
foldr f z (Right y) = f y z
instance Foldable ((,) a) where
foldMap f (_, y) = f y
foldr f z (_, y) = f y z
instance Ix i => Foldable (Array i) where
foldr f z = Prelude.foldr f z . elems
foldl f z = Prelude.foldl f z . elems
foldr1 f = Prelude.foldr1 f . elems
foldl1 f = Prelude.foldl1 f . elems
instance Foldable Proxy where
foldMap _ _ = mempty
{-# INLINE foldMap #-}
fold _ = mempty
{-# INLINE fold #-}
foldr _ z _ = z
{-# INLINE foldr #-}
foldl _ z _ = z
{-# INLINE foldl #-}
foldl1 _ _ = error "foldl1: Proxy"
{-# INLINE foldl1 #-}
foldr1 _ _ = error "foldr1: Proxy"
{-# INLINE foldr1 #-}
instance Foldable (Const m) where
foldMap _ _ = mempty
-- | Monadic fold over the elements of a structure,
-- associating to the right, i.e. from right to left.
foldrM :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => (a -> b -> m b) -> b -> t a -> m b
foldrM f z0 xs = foldl f' return xs z0
where f' k x z = f x z >>= k
-- | Monadic fold over the elements of a structure,
-- associating to the left, i.e. from left to right.
foldlM :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => (b -> a -> m b) -> b -> t a -> m b
foldlM f z0 xs = foldr f' return xs z0
where f' x k z = f z x >>= k
-- | Map each element of a structure to an action, evaluate
-- these actions from left to right, and ignore the results.
traverse_ :: (Foldable t, Applicative f) => (a -> f b) -> t a -> f ()
traverse_ f = foldr ((*>) . f) (pure ())
-- | 'for_' is 'traverse_' with its arguments flipped.
for_ :: (Foldable t, Applicative f) => t a -> (a -> f b) -> f ()
{-# INLINE for_ #-}
for_ = flip traverse_
-- | Map each element of a structure to a monadic action, evaluate
-- these actions from left to right, and ignore the results.
mapM_ :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m ()
mapM_ f = foldr ((>>) . f) (return ())
-- | 'forM_' is 'mapM_' with its arguments flipped.
forM_ :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => t a -> (a -> m b) -> m ()
{-# INLINE forM_ #-}
forM_ = flip mapM_
-- | Evaluate each action in the structure from left to right,
-- and ignore the results.
sequenceA_ :: (Foldable t, Applicative f) => t (f a) -> f ()
sequenceA_ = foldr (*>) (pure ())
-- | Evaluate each monadic action in the structure from left to right,
-- and ignore the results.
sequence_ :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => t (m a) -> m ()
sequence_ = foldr (>>) (return ())
-- | The sum of a collection of actions, generalizing 'concat'.
asum :: (Foldable t, Alternative f) => t (f a) -> f a
{-# INLINE asum #-}
asum = foldr (<|>) empty
-- | The sum of a collection of actions, generalizing 'concat'.
msum :: (Foldable t, MonadPlus m) => t (m a) -> m a
{-# INLINE msum #-}
msum = foldr mplus mzero
-- These use foldr rather than foldMap to avoid repeated concatenation.
-- | List of elements of a structure.
toList :: Foldable t => t a -> [a]
{-# INLINE toList #-}
toList t = build (\ c n -> foldr c n t)
-- | The concatenation of all the elements of a container of lists.
concat :: Foldable t => t [a] -> [a]
concat = fold
-- | Map a function over all the elements of a container and concatenate
-- the resulting lists.
concatMap :: Foldable t => (a -> [b]) -> t a -> [b]
concatMap = foldMap
-- | 'and' returns the conjunction of a container of Bools. For the
-- result to be 'True', the container must be finite; 'False', however,
-- results from a 'False' value finitely far from the left end.
and :: Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool
and = getAll . foldMap All
-- | 'or' returns the disjunction of a container of Bools. For the
-- result to be 'False', the container must be finite; 'True', however,
-- results from a 'True' value finitely far from the left end.
or :: Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool
or = getAny . foldMap Any
-- | Determines whether any element of the structure satisfies the predicate.
any :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool
any p = getAny . foldMap (Any . p)
-- | Determines whether all elements of the structure satisfy the predicate.
all :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool
all p = getAll . foldMap (All . p)
-- | The 'sum' function computes the sum of the numbers of a structure.
sum :: (Foldable t, Num a) => t a -> a
sum = getSum . foldMap Sum
-- | The 'product' function computes the product of the numbers of a structure.
product :: (Foldable t, Num a) => t a -> a
product = getProduct . foldMap Product
-- | The largest element of a non-empty structure.
maximum :: (Foldable t, Ord a) => t a -> a
maximum = foldr1 max
-- | The largest element of a non-empty structure with respect to the
-- given comparison function.
maximumBy :: Foldable t => (a -> a -> Ordering) -> t a -> a
maximumBy cmp = foldr1 max'
where max' x y = case cmp x y of
GT -> x
_ -> y
-- | The least element of a non-empty structure.
minimum :: (Foldable t, Ord a) => t a -> a
minimum = foldr1 min
-- | The least element of a non-empty structure with respect to the
-- given comparison function.
minimumBy :: Foldable t => (a -> a -> Ordering) -> t a -> a
minimumBy cmp = foldr1 min'
where min' x y = case cmp x y of
GT -> y
_ -> x
-- | Does the element occur in the structure?
elem :: (Foldable t, Eq a) => a -> t a -> Bool
elem = any . (==)
-- | 'notElem' is the negation of 'elem'.
notElem :: (Foldable t, Eq a) => a -> t a -> Bool
notElem x = not . elem x
-- | The 'find' function takes a predicate and a structure and returns
-- the leftmost element of the structure matching the predicate, or
-- 'Nothing' if there is no such element.
find :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Maybe a
find p = listToMaybe . concatMap (\ x -> if p x then [x] else [])